Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.[1] Springer also hosts a number of scientific databases, including SpringerLink, and SpringerImages. Book publications include major reference works, textbooks, monographs and book series; more than 168,000 titles are available as e-books in 24 subject collections.[2] Springer has major offices in Berlin, Heidelberg, Dordrecht, and New York City.

On 15 January 2015, Holtzbrinck Publishing Group / Nature Publishing Group and Springer Science+Business Media announced a merger.[3] The transaction was concluded in May 2015 and a new joint venture company, Springer Nature, was formed, with Holtzbrinck having the majority 53% share and BC Partners retaining 47% interest in the company.[4]

Springer Science+Business Media
Founded10 May 1842 (as Springer-Verlag)
FounderJulius Springer
Country of originGermany
Headquarters locationBerlin/Heidelberg, Germany
Nonfiction topicsScience, technology, medicine, business, transport and architecture
Owner(s)Springer Nature
Official websitewww.springer.com


Julius Springer founded Springer-Verlag in Berlin in 1842 and his son Ferdinand Springer grew it from a small firm of 4 employees into Germany's second largest academic publisher with 65 staff in just 30 years.[5][6] In 1964, Springer expanded its business internationally, opening an office in New York City. Offices in Tokyo, Paris, Milan, Hong Kong, and Delhi soon followed.

The academic publishing company BertelsmannSpringer was formed after Bertelsmann bought a majority stake in Springer-Verlag in 1999.[5][7] The British investment groups Cinven and Candover bought BertelsmannSpringer from Bertelsmann in 2003.[7] They merged the company in 2004 with the Dutch publisher Kluwer Academic Publishers which they bought from Wolters Kluwer in 2002,[8] to form Springer Science+Business Media.

Springer acquired the open-access publisher BioMed Central in October 2008 for an undisclosed amount.

In 2009, Cinven and Candover sold Springer to two private equity firms, EQT Partners and Government of Singapore Investment Corporation.

The closing of the sale was confirmed in February 2010 after the competition authorities in the USA and in Europe approved the transfer.

In 2011, Springer acquired Pharma Marketing and Publishing Services (MPS) from Wolters Kluwer.[9][10]

In 2013, the London-based private equity firm BC Partners acquired a majority stake in Springer from EQT and GIC for $4.4 billion.[11]

In 2014, it was revealed that sixteen papers in Springer journals had been computer-generated using SCIgen. Springer subsequently removed all the papers from these journals. IEEE had also done the same thing by removing more than 100 fake papers from its conference proceedings.[12]

In 2015, Springer retracted 64 papers it had published after it was found that they had gone through a fraudulent peer review process.[13]

Electronic products

Springer provides its electronic book and journal content on its SpringerLink site, which launched in 1996.

SpringerImages was launched in 2008 and offers a collection of currently 1.8 million images spanning science, technology, and medicine.

SpringerMaterials was launched in 2009 and is a platform for accessing the Landolt-Börnstein database of research and information on materials and their properties.

AuthorMapper is a free online tool for visualizing scientific research that enables document discovery based on author locations and geographic maps. The tool helps users explore patterns in scientific research, identify literature trends, discover collaborative relationships, and locate experts in several scientific/medical fields.

Springer Protocols contained a collection of laboratory protocols, recipes that provide step-by-step instructions for conducting experiments. The site was deactivated in 2018, with the content being available in SpringerLink instead.

Open access

For some of its journals, Springer does not require its authors to transfer their copyrights, and allows them to decide whether their articles are published under an open-access licence or in the traditional restricted licence model.[14] While open-access publishing typically requires the author to pay a fee for copyright retention, this fee is sometimes covered by a third party. For example, a national institution in Poland allows authors to publish in open-access journals without incurring any personal cost - but using public funds.[15] Springer is a member of the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association.

Selected imprints


Selected publications

See also


  1. ^ "648808Z Profile & Executives - Springer Science+Business Media GmbH - Bloomberg". bloomberg.com. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
  2. ^ "Search Results (within Book)". SpringerLink. Springer. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
  3. ^ "Holtzbrinck Publishing Group and BC Partners Announce Agreement to Merge Majority of MacMillan Science and Education with Springer Science+Business Media", 15 January 2015.
  4. ^ Caroline Carpenter (May 6, 2015). "Completed merger forms 'Springer Nature'". The Bookseller. Retrieved July 8, 2015.
  5. ^ a b "History". Springer Science+Business Media.
  6. ^ "Chronology". Springer Science+Business Media.
  7. ^ a b Poynder, Richard. "BertelsmannSpringer is Sold to Private Equity Firms". Information Today. May 27, 2003.
  8. ^ "Kluwer Academic Publishers Sold to Venture Capitalists". Infotoday.com. Retrieved 2014-08-15.
  9. ^ "Springer to acquire Pharma Marketing and Publishing Services from Wolters Kluwer" (Press release). Springer. 9 November 2011. Retrieved 23 June 2018.
  10. ^ DiStefano, Joseph N. (September 17, 2013). "Medical publisher to close Ambler office, move workers". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A14. Retrieved June 23, 2018 – via Newspapers.com (Publisher Extra).
  11. ^ Heiskanen, Ville (2013-06-19). "BC Partners to Buy Springer Science for $4.4 Billion". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2014-08-15.
  12. ^ Noorden, Richard Van (24 February 2014). "Publishers withdraw more than 120 gibberish papers". Nature News. doi:10.1038/nature.2014.14763. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
  13. ^ Kaplan, Sarah (August 18, 2015). "Major publisher retracts 64 scientific papers in fake peer review outbreak". Washington Post. Retrieved 24 August 2015.
  14. ^ "Springer Open Choice". Springer.com. Retrieved 2014-08-15.
  15. ^ "Springer Open Choice for Polish Institutions". Springer.com. Retrieved 2014-08-15.
  16. ^ Brochu, Nicole (24 December 2012). "Injection shown to reverse stroke, brain injuries". Health. Albuquerque Journal. Albuquerque, New Mexico. p. C4. Retrieved 23 June 2018 – via Newspapers.com (Publisher Extra). ...an article produced by Adis' parent company, Springer Science+Business Media.
  17. ^ Springer Praxis Books. Springer Science+Business Media. Retrieved May 1, 2015.
  18. ^ "Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery - Springer". link.springer.com. Retrieved 2018-08-17.

External links

Acta Mathematica

Acta Mathematica is a peer-reviewed open-access scientific journal covering research in all fields of mathematics.

According to Cédric Villani, this journal is "considered by many to be the most prestigious of all mathematical research journals".


Algorithmica is a monthly peer reviewed, scientific journal, published by Springer Science+Business Media focused on research and application of computer science algorithms. The editor in chief is Ming-Yang Kao. Subject coverage includes sorting, searching, data structures, computational geometry, and linear programming, VLSI, distributed computing, parallel processing, computer aided design, robotics, graphics, data base design, and software tools.

Animal Cognition

Animal Cognition is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Springer Science+Business Media. It covers research in ethology, behavioral ecology, animal behavior, cognitive sciences, and all aspects of human and animal cognition. According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2017 impact factor of 2.805.

Archives of Sexual Behavior

The Archives of Sexual Behavior is a peer-reviewed academic journal in sexology. It is the official publication of the International Academy of Sex Research.


Birkhäuser is a former Swiss publisher founded in 1879 by Emil Birkhäuser. It was acquired by Springer Science+Business Media in 1985. Today it is an imprint used by two companies in unrelated fields:

Springer continues to publish science (particularly: history of science, geosciences, computer science) and mathematics books and journals under the Birkhäuser imprint (with a leaf logo) sometimes called Birkhäuser Science.

Birkhäuser Verlag—an architecture and design publishing company was (re)created in 2010 when Springer sold its design and architecture segment to ACTAR. The resulting Spanish-Swiss company was then called ActarBirkhäuser. After a bankruptcy, in 2012 Birkhäuser Verlag was sold again, this time to De Gruyter.Additionally, the Reinach-based printer Birkhäuser+GBC operates independently of the above, being now owned by Basler Zeitung.

Contemporary Family Therapy

Contemporary Family Therapy is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering research on family therapy, focusing on recent applied practice and developments in theory and research that is published quarterly by Springer Science+Business Media. The editor-in-chief is D. Russell Crane (Brigham Young University). The journal pays particular attention to how socio-economic background, family value systems, religion, and ethnicity factors may affect family dynamics and treatment. It was established in 1986.


Discrete in science is the opposite of continuous: something that is separate; distinct; individual.

Discrete may refer to:

Discrete particle or quantum in physics, for example in quantum theory

Discrete device, an electronic component with just one circuit element, either passive or active, other than an integrated circuit

Discrete group, a group with the discrete topology

Discrete category, category whose only arrows are identity arrows

Discrete mathematics, the study of structures without continuity

Discrete optimization, a branch of optimization in applied mathematics and computer science

Discrete probability distribution, a random variable that can be counted

Discrete signal, a time series consisting of a sequence of quantities

Discrete space, a simple example of a topological space

Discrete spline interpolation, the discrete analog of ordinary spline interpolation

Discrete time, non-continuous time, which results in discrete-time samples

Discrete pitch, a pitch with a steady frequency, rather than an indiscrete gliding, glissando or portamento, pitch

Economic Botany

Economic Botany is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that covers all aspects of economic botany. The editor-in-chief is Robert A. Voeks (California State University, Fullerton). The journal was established in 1947 and is published by Springer Science+Business Media and the New York Botanical Garden Press on behalf of the Society for Economic Botany.


Hydrobiologia: The International Journal of Aquatic Sciences is a scientific journal specialising in hydrobiology, including limnology and oceanography, systematics of aquatic organisms and aquatic ecology.

Inventiones Mathematicae

Inventiones Mathematicae is a mathematical journal published monthly by Springer Science+Business Media. It was established in 1966 and is regarded as one of the most prestigious mathematics journals in the world. As of 2016, the managing editors are Helmut Hofer (Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton) and Jean-Benoît Bost (University of Paris-Sud).

Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

The Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders is a peer-reviewed medical journal focusing on all aspects of autism spectrum disorders and related developmental disabilities. It was established in 1971 under the name Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia and is published by Springer Science+Business Media. The editor-in-chief is Fred R. Volkmar (Yale University School of Medicine).

Journal of Ornithology

The Journal of Ornithology (formerly Journal für Ornithologie) is a scientific journal published by Springer Science+Business Media on behalf of the Deutsche Ornithologen-Gesellschaft. It was founded by Jean Cabanis in 1853, becoming the official journal of the Deutsche Ornithologen-Gesellschaft in 1854.

The first issue was produced in January 1853 and Cabanis noted that although there were specialist journals in entomology and conchology that there was nothing to deal with ornithology in Germany. Among the first essays published in the journal was an essay by Reichenbach on the concept of species.According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2012 impact factor of 1.632.

Lecture Notes in Computer Science

Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) is a series of computer science books published by Springer Science+Business Media (formerly Springer-Verlag) since 1973.

Plant and Soil

Plant and Soil is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on the relationships between plants and soil, such as relationships and interactions of plants with minerals, water and microbes, the anatomy and morphology of roots, soil biology and ecology, etc. It is published by Springer Science+Business Media on behalf of the Royal Netherlands Society of Agricultural Science (Koninklijke Landbouwkundige Vereniging). The editor-in-chief is Hans Lambers (The University of Western Australia). According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2015 impact factor of 2.969.

Springer Nature

Springer Nature is an academic publishing company created by the May 2015 merger of Springer Science+Business Media and Holtzbrinck Publishing Group's Nature Publishing Group, Palgrave Macmillan, and Macmillan Education. The company reported revenues of €1.64 billion in 2017.

Stochastic process

In probability theory and related fields, a stochastic or random process is a mathematical object usually defined as a collection of random variables. Historically, the random variables were associated with or indexed by a set of numbers, usually viewed as points in time, giving the interpretation of a stochastic process representing numerical values of some system randomly changing over time, such as the growth of a bacterial population, an electrical current fluctuating due to thermal noise, or the movement of a gas molecule. Stochastic processes are widely used as mathematical models of systems and phenomena that appear to vary in a random manner. They have applications in many disciplines including sciences such as biology, chemistry, ecology, neuroscience, and physics as well as technology and engineering fields such as image processing, signal processing, information theory, computer science, cryptography and telecommunications. Furthermore, seemingly random changes in financial markets have motivated the extensive use of stochastic processes in finance.Applications and the study of phenomena have in turn inspired the proposal of new stochastic processes. Examples of such stochastic processes include the Wiener process or Brownian motion process, used by Louis Bachelier to study price changes on the Paris Bourse, and the Poisson process, used by A. K. Erlang to study the number of phone calls occurring in a certain period of time. These two stochastic processes are considered the most important and central in the theory of stochastic processes, and were discovered repeatedly and independently, both before and after Bachelier and Erlang, in different settings and countries.The term random function is also used to refer to a stochastic or random process, because a stochastic process can also be interpreted as a random element in a function space. The terms stochastic process and random process are used interchangeably, often with no specific mathematical space for the set that indexes the random variables. But often these two terms are used when the random variables are indexed by the integers or an interval of the real line. If the random variables are indexed by the Cartesian plane or some higher-dimensional Euclidean space, then the collection of random variables is usually called a random field instead. The values of a stochastic process are not always numbers and can be vectors or other mathematical objects.Based on their mathematical properties, stochastic processes can be divided into various categories, which include random walks, martingales, Markov processes, Lévy processes, Gaussian processes, random fields, renewal processes, and branching processes. The study of stochastic processes uses mathematical knowledge and techniques from probability, calculus, linear algebra, set theory, and topology as well as branches of mathematical analysis such as real analysis, measure theory, Fourier analysis, and functional analysis. The theory of stochastic processes is considered to be an important contribution to mathematics and it continues to be an active topic of research for both theoretical reasons and applications.

The Mathematical Intelligencer

The Mathematical Intelligencer is a mathematical journal published by Springer Verlag that aims at a conversational and scholarly tone, rather than the technical and specialist tone more common among academic journals. It was started by mathematicians Bruce Chandler and Harold Edwards Jr. and first appeared in 1979. Marjorie Senechal is currently the editor-in-chief.

The Science of Nature

The Science of Nature, formerly Naturwissenschaften, is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Springer Science+Business Media covering all aspects of the natural sciences relating to questions of biological significance. It was founded in 1913 and intended as a German-language equivalent of the English-language journal Nature, at a time when German was still a dominant language of the natural sciences. The journal is now published in English.

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