Spotted redshank

The spotted redshank (Tringa erythropus) is a wader (shorebird) in the large bird family Scolopacidae. The genus name Tringa is the New Latin name given to the green sandpiper by Aldrovandus in 1599 based on Ancient Greek trungas, a thrush-sized, white-rumped, tail-bobbing wading bird mentioned by Aristotle. The specific erythropus is from Ancient Greek eruthros, "red", and pous, "foot".[2]

It breeds across northern Scandinavia and northern Asia and migrates south to the Mediterranean, the southern British Isles, France, tropical Africa, and tropical Asia for the winter. It is an occasional vagrant to Australia and North America.

Spotted redshank
Tringa erythropus - Laem Pak Bia
Spotted redshank in non-breeding plumage
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Charadriiformes
Family: Scolopacidae
Genus: Tringa
Species:
T. erythropus
Binomial name
Tringa erythropus
(Pallas, 1764)

Taxonomy

The spotted redshank was described by German zoologist Peter Simon Pallas in 1764 and given the binomial name Scolopax erythropus.[3][4][5] It is a monotypic species, with no recognised subspecies.[6] Taxonomically, it forms a close-knit group with several other large Tringa species, with molecular sequencing showing it to be a sister clade to that containing the greater yellowlegs and the common greenshank.[7]

Description

This is a large wader (shorebird), measuring 29–31 cm (11–12 in) long,[nb 1] with a wingspan of 61–67 cm (24–26 in) and a weight ranging from 121 to 205 g (4.3 to 7.2 oz).[9] It is black in breeding plumage, and very pale in winter. It has a red legs and bill, and shows a white oval on the back in flight. Juveniles are grey-brown finely speckled white above, and have pale, finely barred underparts. Adults moult completely between July and October. In spring, the body plumage is moulted between March and May. Juveniles have a partial moult between August and February.[10] The call is a creaking whistle teu-it (somewhat similar to the call of a roseate tern), the alarm call a kyip-kyip-kyip.

Habitat and range

The spotted redshank breeds in the Arctic across much of Eurasia, from Lapland in the west to Chukotskaya in the east.[7]

Behaviour

Food and feeding

Like most waders, it feeds on small invertebrates.

Breeding

Spotted Redshank Breeding Plumage
Spotted redshank - breeding plumage

It nests on open boggy taiga, laying four eggs in a ground scrape. For breeding the bird moults to a black to dark grey with white spots. During breeding plumage the legs also turn a dark grey. See image alongside.

Conservation and threats

The spotted redshank is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA) applies.

Notes

  1. ^ By convention, length is measured from the tip of the bill to the tip of the tail on a dead bird (or skin) laid on its back.[8]

References

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2015). "Tringa erythropus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2015: e.T22693207A67217485. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T22693207A67217485.en. Retrieved 5 July 2016.
  2. ^ Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 150, 390. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
  3. ^ Peters, James Lee (1934). Check-list of Birds of the World. Volume 2. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. p. 264.
  4. ^ Sherborn, C. Davies (1905). "The new species of birds in Vroeg's catalogue, 1764". Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. 47: 332–341 [340 No.306]. Includes a transcript of the 1764 text.
  5. ^ Rookmaaker, L.C.; Pieters, F.F.J.M. (2000). "Birds in the sales catalogue of Adriaan Vroeg (1764) described by Pallas and Vosmaer". Contributions to Zoology. 69 (4): 271–277.
  6. ^ O'Brien, Crossley & Karlson 2006, p. 357
  7. ^ a b Parkin & Knox 2010, p. 173
  8. ^ Cramp 1977, p. 3
  9. ^ O'Brien, Crossley & Karlson 2006, p. 254
  10. ^ RSPB Handbook of British Birds (2014). UK ISBN 978-1-4729-0647-2.

Sources

External links

1835 in birding and ornithology

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The Beagle lands at the Galápagos Islands and Charles Darwin collects the finches which bear his name.

Carl Jakob Sundevall develops a phylogeny for the birds in Lärobok i zoologien (Handbook of Zoology). This is based on the muscles of the hip and leg.

Frédéric de Lafresnaye describes the magpie mannikin and the cactus wren in Revue et magasin de zoologie (founded by Félix Édouard Guérin-Méneville.

Death of Alexander Collie

Death of Carl Wilhelm Hahn

Alexander von Nordmann describes spotted redshank in Reise um die erde durch Nord-Asien und die beiden oceane in den jahren 1828, 1829 und 1830 ausgeführt

1835-1839 Philip Barker Webb, Sabin Berthelot and Alfred Moquin-Tandon begin L'Histoire Naturelle des Îles Canaries published in Paris

Charles Thorold Wood publishes The Ornithological Guide

Thomas Barwick Lloyd Baker publishes An Ornithological Index

Blindwells

Blindwells is a place in East Lothian, Scotland. Etymology "hidden" "springs"

A former open-cast coal mine north of Tranent on the north-east side of the A1, just east of the Prestonpans/Tranent junction, adjacent to the estates of the Earl of Wemyss and March. As of plans in 2010 it is intended that the Blindwells settlement will consist of around 1,600 houses, and is part of East Lothian's planned 4,800 house total. The settlement would include its own community centre, pre-school facility, primary and secondary schools and commercial aspects. Though the planned 1,600 houses implies a smaller development than the Scottish New Towns created in the sixties this could be expanded to accommodate another 2,500 to 3,000 houses in the future, for which a total of 130 hectares are earmarked.

Older maps also show a cluster of buildings at Riggonhead, on the bank to the south-east of the main pond, at NT416752, but all that remains there now are earth mounds which are frequently used by scrambler bikes.

A series of man-made earth embankments were constructed for the purpose of settlement tests, to demonstrate that the site is stable enough to be built on.

There has long been a pool on the northern part of the site and this has attracted some birds as it is currently one of the few standing open waters in East Lothian. Waterbirds regularly seen here include mute swan*, mallard*, common teal, wigeon, tufted duck, little grebe*, moorhen* and coot* (* confirmed breeding since 2008 ). Gadwall also bred in 2012 with two broods seen in 2014 and a further expansion since. Regular counts are undertaken for BTO Wetland Bird Survey (WeBS) monitoring. Other characteristic birds of the site include grey partridge*, common kestrel, common buzzard, stock dove, skylark*, common grasshopper warbler, sedge warbler*, tree sparrow, reed bunting* and yellowhammer*, with altogether 29 species confirmed to breed in the period 2008-2013, with 17 "probable" breeders and a further 9 "possible" breeders (using BTO Atlas classifications ). Scarcer species recorded include little egret, common shelduck, garganey, northern shoveler, greater scaup, smew (drake plus 3 redheads, Feb 2012), marsh harrier (occasional extended presence), hen harrier (18 November 2014), merlin, common quail, a total of 18 species of wading bird including little ringed plover, wood sandpiper, green sandpiper, spotted redshank, black-tailed godwit and bar-tailed godwit, also short-eared owl, barn owl, cuckoo, kingfisher, lesser whitethroat, garden warbler and water pipit (15 March 2015); long-eared owls bred on the perimeter of the site in 2017. There is rich insect fauna too with nine species of dragonfly and damselfly having been recorded including the rare Red-veined Darter (Sympetrum fonscolombii) (2nd record for Lothian) and Black Darter (Sympetrum danae), together with common breeding species Emerald Damselfly (Lestes sponsa), Azure Damselfly (Coenagrion puella), Common Blue Damselfly (Enallagma cyathigerum), Blue-tailed Damselfly (Ischnura elegans), and scarcer breeders Common Hawker (Aeshna juncea), Four-spotted Chaser(Libellula quadrimaculata) and Common Darter (Sympetrum striolatum). There is a colony of grayling and narrow-bordered five-spot burnet moth, which is currently on the edge of its UK range in this part of Scotland (photo, right).. The pond supported abundant amphibians, including smooth newt, attracting Grey Herons.

The main pond, a precious habitat for the above species, was completely eliminated by earthworks for the new settlement in the fourth week of August 2018, ending one of the best wildlife sites in the local area.

Carrick Roads

Carrick Roads (Cornish: Dowr Carrek, meaning "rock anchorage") is the estuary of the River Fal on the south coast of Cornwall in England, United Kingdom. It joins the English Channel at its southern end near Falmouth.

Common greenshank

The common greenshank (Tringa nebularia) is a wader in the large family Scolopacidae, the typical waders. The genus name Tringa is the New Latin name given to the green sandpiper by Aldrovandus in 1599 based on Ancient Greek trungas, a thrush-sized, white-rumped, tail-bobbing wading bird mentioned by Aristotle. The specific nebularia is from Latin nebula "mist". Like the Norwegian Skoddefoll, this refers to the greenshank's damp marshy habitat.

Common redshank

The common redshank or simply redshank (Tringa totanus) is a Eurasian wader in the large family Scolopacidae. The genus name Tringa is the New Latin name given to the green sandpiper by Aldrovandus in 1599 based on Ancient Greek trungas, a thrush-sized, white-rumped, tail-bobbing wading bird mentioned by Aristotle. The specific totanus is from Tótano, the Italian name for this bird.

Dibru-Saikhowa National Park

Dibru-Saikhowa (Pron: ˈdɪbru: ˌsaɪˈkəʊwə) National Park is a national park in Assam, India. It is located in Dibrugarh and Tinsukia districts and was designated a Biosphere Reserve in July 1997 with an area of 765 km2 (295 sq mi), including a core area of 340 km2 (130 sq mi) and a buffer zone of 425 km2 (164 sq mi).

It is located at about 12 km (7.5 mi) north of Tinsukia town at between 27°30' N to 27°45' N latitude and 95°10' E to 95°45'E longitude at an average elevation of 118 m (387 ft), ranging from 110 to 126 m (361 to 413 ft).

The park is bounded by the Brahmaputra and Lohit rivers in the north and Dibru river in the south. It mainly consists of moist mixed semi-evergreen forests, moist mixed deciduous forests, canebrakes and grasslands. It is the largest salix swamp forest in north-eastern India, with a tropical monsoon climate with a hot and wet summer and cool and usually dry winter. Annual rainfall ranges from 2300 mm to 3800 mm. It is a haven for many endangered species and rich in fish diversity.

Foryd Bay

Y Foryd, also known as Foryd Bay, is a tidal bay in Gwynedd, Wales. It is located at the south-western end of the Menai Strait, about two miles south-west of Caernarfon. Several rivers flow into the bay and there are large areas of mudflats and salt marsh. A shingle spit partly blocks the mouth of the bay. At the north-western end is Fort Belan, built during the 18th century.

The bay has been designated a Site of Special Scientific Interest and in 1994 it became a Local Nature Reserve because of its importance for wildlife. Many birds visit in winter and during migration including large numbers of wildfowl and waders such as wigeon which peak at over 3000 birds. Notable species include brent goose, jack snipe, spotted redshank and greenshank. terns roost at the mouth of the bay.

Greater yellowlegs

The greater yellowlegs (Tringa melanoleuca) is a large North American shorebird. The genus name Tringa is the New Latin name given to the green sandpiper by Aldrovandus in 1599 based on Ancient Greek trungas, a thrush-sized, white-rumped, tail-bobbing wading bird mentioned by Aristotle. The specific melanoleuca is from Ancient Greek melas, "black", and leukos, "white".The greater yellowlegs is similar in appearance to the smaller lesser yellowlegs. Its closest relative, however, is the greenshank, which together with the spotted redshank form a close-knit group. Among them, these three species show all the basic leg and foot colors found in the shanks, demonstrating that this character is paraphyletic. They are also the largest shanks apart from the willet, which is altogether more robustly built. The greater yellowlegs and the greenshank share a coarse, dark, and fairly crisp breast pattern as well as much black on the shoulders and back in breeding plumage.

Adults have long yellow legs and a long, thin, dark bill which has a slight upward curve and is longer than the head. The body is grey-brown on top and white underneath; the neck and breast are streaked with dark brown. The rump is white. It ranges in length from 29 to 40 cm (11 to 16 in) and in weight from 111 to 250 g (3.9 to 8.8 oz).

Their breeding habitat is bogs and marshes in the boreal forest region of Canada and Alaska. They nest on the ground, usually in well-hidden locations near water. The three to four eggs average 50 mm (2.0 in) in length and 33 mm (1.3 in) in breadth and weigh about 28 g (0.99 oz). The incubation period is 23 days. The young leave the nest within 24 hours of hatching and then leave the vicinity of the nest within two days.

They migrate to the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the United States and south to South America. They are very rare vagrants to western Europe.

These birds forage in shallow water, sometimes using their bills to stir up the water. They mainly eat insects and small fish, as well as crustaceans and marine worms. It often walks in sand or mud and leaves clear tracks; it can be possible to gather information about this species using its tracks.

The call is harsher than that of the lesser yellowlegs.

Large sandpipers were once popular game for bird hunters. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, many a fashionable restaurant featured gourmet meals with willet or curlew. Now shorebirds are protected, but only after many species were brought to the edge of extinction. The common names of large pipers often derive from the hunting era. Yellowlegs, for instance, are also called tattlers because these high-strung birds would be the first to raise a noisy alarm when shooters were spotted.

Lodmoor

Lodmoor is a Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI), RSPB reserve and country park in Dorset, England. The country park features a visitor centre, model railway and pitch and putt golf course. The SSSI has a wetland habitat with native birds that are rare in the UK and a range of migratory species.

Redshank

Redshank may refer to:

Redshank (soldier), 16th-century Scottish mercenaries

Roseate tern

The roseate tern (Sterna dougallii) is a tern in the family Laridae. The genus name Sterna is derived from Old English "stearn", "tern", and the specific dougallii refers to Scottish physician and collector Dr Peter McDougall (1777–1814). "Roseate" refers to the bird's pink breast in breeding plumage.

Sibley-Monroe checklist 7

The Sibley-Monroe checklist was a landmark document in the study of birds. It drew on extensive DNA-DNA hybridisation studies to reassess the relationships between modern birds.

Snettisham RSPB reserve

Snettisham RSPB reserve is a nature reserve in the care of the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, situated near Snettisham in the county of Norfolk, England, north of King's Lynn, and close to Sandringham. It faces The Wash, a large estuary. In autumn and winter, the big tides of the Wash pushes up hundreds of thousands of wading birds onto the Norfolk coast. The nature reserve's bird lagoons provide a safe habitat for them.

Snettisham is unique in a couple of ways. It is rare in Norfolk that it is a beach facing West. However the unique geological nature of Snettisham is what attracts hundreds of thousands of migratory and transitory birds during the winter and autumn periods. High tides can push huge numbers of waders closer to where people can observe them.

During the year the bird population and diversity of what can be seen here will vary greatly, but species regularly seen here include little ringed plover, oystercatcher, golden plover, knot, bar-tailed godwit, sanderling, curlew, spotted redshank, pink-footed geese and peregrine falcon.

Snettisham pits were dug out during World War II in order to provide shingle that was used to build concrete runways as the American Bombers were too heavy to land on grass. The pits stretch for over 2.5 km and are split equally between the RSPB reserve and privately owned beach properties, including the Snettisham Beach Sailing Club.

Evidence of the operation is still visible today as the concrete roads made to transport the shingle are still used today by the residents to access their property. Whilst the roads are no longer used in the reserve, pieces of them line most of the length of the pits. One of the most distinctive landmarks left from the operation are the ruins of the jetty used to load the shingle on to boats so it could be transported across the country.

Stanton's Pit

Stanton's Pit is an 8.05-hectare Local Nature Reserve situated between Little Bytham and Witham-on-the-Hill, villages in the South Kesteven district of Lincolnshire. It is owned and managed by Lincolnshire Wildlife Trust. The reserve mostly comprises a disused sand pit with adjacent grasslands which was donated by its former owner to the Lincolnshire Wildlife Trust so that it could be classified as a Local Nature Reserve. It has been designated as such on the basis of its ornithological interest, with 50 species of birds recorded visiting the site and 19 breeding, including little grebe, little ringed plover, sand martin, turtle dove and lesser whitethroat. Wading birds known to occupy the site in autumn include little stint, ruff and spotted redshank, greenshank, and common, curlew, green and wood sandpipers. Stanton's Pit is suspected to be situated on a migratory route from The Wash to Rutland Water. The site is bounded to the north by a minor road between Little Bytham and Witham-on-the-Hill, to the south and west by farmland and to the east by Bush Lees wood.

Stert Island

Stert Island is a low-lying uninhabited island in the Bristol Channel, off the coast of Somerset, England. It lies opposite Burnham-on-Sea, and is part of the Bridgwater Bay Nature Reserve.

Stert Island was formed in about 1798, when it broke off from the Steart Peninsula. The island is noted for its birds, including spotted redshank and whimbrel, which have a major night roost on the island.Each year a 2.4 km swim is organised from Burnham-on-Sea to the island.Administratively the island is in the civil parish of Otterhampton. Until 1885 it was in the parish of Stogursey, and from then until 1933 it was in the parish of Huntspill.For location, see map referenced (requires satellite view)

Sultanpur National Park

Sultanpur National Park (Hindi: सुल्तानपुर राष्ट्रीय वन्यजीव अभयारण्य) (formerly Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary) is located at Sultanpur village on Gurugram-Jhajhar highway , 15 km from Gurugram, Haryana and 50 km from Delhi in India.

Tamar–Tavy Estuary

The Tamar–Tavy Estuary is a Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) covering the tidal estuaries of the River Tamar and the River Tavy on the border between Cornwall and Devon in England, UK. Part of the Tamar estuary also forms the Tamar Estuary Nature Reserve, owned by the Cornwall Wildlife Trust. The site was designated in 1991 for its biodiversity and varying habitats that support a large number of wader and wildfowl species, as well as the special interest of its marine biology.

Tringa

Tringa is a genus of waders, containing the shanks and tattlers. The genus name Tringa is the New Latin name given to the green sandpiper by Aldrovandus in 1599 based on Ancient Greek trungas, a thrush-sized, white-rumped, tail-bobbing wading bird mentioned by Aristotle.They are mainly freshwater birds, often with brightly coloured legs as reflected in the English names of six species, as well as the specific names of two of these and the green sandpiper. They are typically associated with northern hemisphere temperate regions for breeding. Some of this group—notably the green sandpiper—nest in trees, using the old nests of other birds, usually thrushes.

The willet and the tattlers have been found to belong in Tringa; these genus changes were formally adopted by the American Ornithologists' Union in 2006.The present genus in the old, more limited sense was even further subdivided into Tringa proper and Totanus, either as subgenera or as full genera. The available DNA sequence data suggests however that neither of these is monophyletic and that the latter simply lumps together a number of more of less closely related apomorphic species. Therefore it seems unwarranted to recognize Totanus even as a subgenus for the time being.

WWT Slimbridge

WWT Slimbridge is a wetland wildlife reserve near Slimbridge in Gloucestershire, England. It is midway between Bristol and Gloucester on the eastern side of the estuary of the River Severn. The reserve, set up by the artist and naturalist Sir Peter Scott, opened in November 1946. Scott subsequently founded the Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust, which has since opened eight reserves around the country. Slimbridge comprises some 800 hectares (2,000 acres) of pasture, reed bed, lagoon and salt marsh. Many water birds live there all year round, and others are migrants on their ways to and from their summer breeding grounds. Other birds overwinter, including large numbers of white-fronted geese and increasing numbers of Bewick's swans.

Besides having the world's largest collection of captive wildfowl, Slimbridge takes part in research and is involved in projects and internationally run captive breeding programmes. It was there that Peter Scott developed a method of recognising individual birds through their characteristics, after realising that the coloured patterns on the beaks of Bewick's swans were unique. The public can visit the reserve throughout the year. Besides examining the collections, they can view birds from hides and observatories and take part in educational activities.

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