Sportpalast speech

The Sportpalast speech (German: Sportpalastrede) or total war speech was a speech delivered by German Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels at the Berlin Sportpalast to a large but carefully selected audience on 18 February 1943 calling for a total war, as the tide of World War II was turning against Nazi Germany and its Axis allies.

It is considered the most famous of Joseph Goebbels's speeches.[1] The speech was the first public admission by the Nazi leadership that Germany faced serious dangers. Goebbels exhorted the German people to continue the war even though it would be long and difficult because—as he asserted—both Germany's survival and the survival of a non-Bolshevist Europe were at stake.

Bundesarchiv Bild 183-J05235, Berlin, Großkundgebung im Sportpalast
Nazi rally on 18 February 1943 at the Berlin Sportpalast; the sign says "Totaler Krieg – Kürzester Krieg" ("Total War – Shortest War").

Background

Following the earlier key Axis defeat three months earlier at the Second Battle of El Alamein in northwestern coastal Egypt, the primary "turning point" of World War II in Europe occurred on 2 February 1943 as the Battle of Stalingrad ended with the surrender of Field Marshal Friedrich Paulus and the German 6th Army to the Soviets.[2] At the Casablanca Conference in January, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill had demanded Germany's unconditional surrender,[3] and the Soviets, spurred by their victory, were beginning to retake territory, including Kursk (8 February), Rostov (14 February), and Kharkiv (16 February). In North Africa, the Afrika Korps under Field Marshal Erwin Rommel was being brought close to defeat, when German supply ships sailing to Tripoli were sunk by the Allies during January. The Western Desert Campaign had ended with the British victory at El Alamein in November 1942, and the Axis were in Tunisia between two Allied forces—one advancing from Algeria, the other from Libya. The fortunes of Germany's Axis allies were turning as well. In the Pacific, the Americans had just completed their months-long reconquest of Guadalcanal after their victories against Japanese forces at Midway and the Coral Sea.

Adolf Hitler responded with the first measures that would lead to the all-out mobilization of Germany. Prior to the speech, the government closed restaurants, clubs, bars, theatres, and luxury stores throughout the country so that the civilian population could contribute more to the war.[4]

Setting and audience

The setting of the speech in the Sportpalast placed the audience behind and under a big banner bearing the all-capitals words "TOTALER KRIEG – KÜRZESTER KRIEG" ("total war – shortest war") along with Nazi banners and Nazi swastikas, as seen in pictures and film of the event.

Although Goebbels claimed that the audience included people from "all classes and occupations" (including "soldiers, doctors, scientists, artists, engineers and architects, teachers, white collars"), the propagandist had carefully selected his listeners to react with appropriate fanaticism. Goebbels said to Albert Speer that it was the best-trained audience one could find in Germany. However, the enthusiastic and unified crowd response recorded in the written version is, at times, not fully supported by the recording.[1]

Details

Goebbels reiterated three themes in the speech:[5]

  1. If the Wehrmacht was not in a position to counter the danger from the Eastern front, the German Reich would fall to Bolshevism and the rest of Europe shortly afterwards.[5]
  2. The Wehrmacht, the German people and the Axis Powers alone had the strength to save Europe from this threat.[5]
  3. Danger was at hand, and Germany had to act quickly and decisively.[5]

In the speech Goebbels explained at great length the threat posed by International Jewry: "The goal of Bolshevism is Jewish world revolution. They want to bring chaos to the Reich and Europe, using the resulting hopelessness and desperation to establish their international, Bolshevist-concealed capitalist tyranny." Rejecting the protests of enemy nations against the Reich's Jewish policies, he stated, to deafening chants from the audience, that Germany "intends to take the most radical measures, if necessary, in good time."[1]

While Goebbels referred to Soviet mobilization nationwide as "devilish", he explained that "we cannot overcome the Bolshevist danger unless we use equivalent, though not identical, methods [in a] total war". He then justified the austerity measures enacted, explaining them as temporary measures.[1]

Historically, the speech is important in that it marks the first admission by the Party leadership that they were facing problems, and launched the mobilization campaign that, arguably, prolonged the war, under the slogan: "And storm, break loose!" (Und Sturm, brich los!). Goebbels claimed that no German was thinking of any compromise and instead that "the entire nation is only thinking about a hard war".[1]

Goebbels attempted to counter reports in the Allied press that German civilians had lost faith in victory by asking the audience a number of questions at the end, such as:

Do you believe with the Führer and us in the final total victory of the German people? Are you and the German people willing to work, if the Führer orders, 10, 12 and if necessary 14 hours a day and to give everything for victory? Do you want total war? If necessary, do you want a war more total and radical than anything that we can even imagine today?[1]

The recorded oral version of the speech differed in some ways from the written record. Especially significant is that in the oral (vs. written) record of the speech, Goebbels actually begins to mention the "extermination" of the Jews, rather than the less harsh terms used in the written version to describe the "solution", but catches himself in the middle of the word.[1]

Quotes

Original German English translation
Deutschland jedenfalls hat nicht die Absicht, sich dieser jüdischen Bedrohung zu beugen, sondern vielmehr die, ihr rechtzeitig, wenn nötig unter vollkommen und radikalster Ausr... -schaltung [Ausrottung / Ausschaltung] des Judentums entgegenzutreten. "Germany, in any case, has no intention of bowing to this Jewish threat, but rather one of confronting it in due time, if need be in terms of complete and most radical erad... suppression [lit. "cutoff"] of Judaism."
[…] […]
Ich frage euch: Wollt ihr den totalen Krieg? Wollt ihr ihn, wenn nötig, totaler und radikaler, als wir ihn uns heute überhaupt erst vorstellen können? "I ask you: Do you want total war? If necessary, do you want a war more total and radical than anything that we can even yet imagine?"
[…] […]
Nun, Volk, steh auf und Sturm brich los! "Now, people, rise up, and let the storm break loose!"

The last line originated in the poem Männer und Buben (Men and Boys) by Carl Theodor Körner during the Napoleonic Wars. Körner's words had been quoted by Adolf Hitler in his 1920 speech "What We Want" delivered at Munich's Hofbräuhaus, but also by Goebbels himself in older speeches, including his 6 July 1932 campaign speech before the Nazis took power in Germany.[1]

Reception

Millions of Germans listened to Goebbels on the radio as he delivered this speech about the "misfortune of the past weeks" and an "unvarnished picture of the situation". By amassing such popular enthusiasm, Goebbels wanted to convince Hitler into giving him greater powers in running the war economy.[1] Hitler, however, was not yet ready to bring the economy to a total war footing over the objections of his ministers.[6] On 23 July 1944, Goebbels was finally appointed Reich Plenipotentiary for Total War, responsible for maximising the manpower for the Wehrmacht and the armaments industry at the expense of sectors of the economy not essential to the war effort.[7]

The speech also lead to the spread of a late-war whisper joke, popular in Western Germany, especially the Ruhr:

Lieber Tommy fliege weiter,
wir sind alle Bergarbeiter.
Fliege weiter nach Berlin,
da ham’ se alle Ja geschrien.

Dear Tommy, fly further
we're all mine-workers here.
Fly further to Berlin
there they've all screamed Yes.[8]

References

Citations

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Bytwerk, Randall (1998). "Goebbels' 1943 Speech on Total War". German Propaganda Archive. Calvin College. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016.
  2. ^ P.M.H. Bell, Twelve Turning Points of the Second World War, Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 2011, pp. 95, 108.
  3. ^ "The Avalon Project: The Casablanca Conference: 1943". Yale Law School. Archived from the original on 16 July 2013. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
  4. ^ Kalshoven, Hedda (15 June 2014). Between Two Homelands: Letters across the Borders of Nazi Germany. University of Illinois Press. p. 185. ISBN 9780252096174. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
  5. ^ a b c d Balfour, Michael (1979). Propaganda in War 1939–1945: Organisation, Policies and Publics in Britain and Germany. Routledge & Kegan Paul. p. 322. ISBN 0-7100-0193-2.
  6. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 577.
  7. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 643.
  8. ^ Gamm 1993.

Bibliography

  • Longerich, Peter (2015). Goebbels: A Biography. New York: Random House. ISBN 978-1400067510.
  • Gamm, Hans-Jochen (1993) [1963]. Der Flüsterwitz im Dritten Reich [Whispering Jokes in the Third Reich] (PDF) (in German). Munich, Zurich: Piper. ISBN 3-492-11417-2.

External links

1943

1943 (MCMXLIII)

was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1943rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 943rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 43rd year of the 20th century, and the 4th year of the 1940s decade.

Battle of Stalingrad

The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943) was the largest confrontation of World War II, in which Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in Southern Russia.

Marked by fierce close quarters combat and direct assaults on civilians in air raids, it was the largest (nearly 2.2 million personnel) and bloodiest (1.8–2 million killed, wounded or captured) battle in the history of warfare. After their defeat at Stalingrad, the German High Command had to withdraw vast military forces from the Western Front to replace their losses.The German offensive to capture Stalingrad began in August 1942, using the 6th Army and elements of the 4th Panzer Army. The attack was supported by intensive Luftwaffe bombing that reduced much of the city to rubble. The fighting degenerated into house-to-house fighting; both sides poured reinforcements into the city. By mid-November 1942, the Germans had pushed the Soviet defenders back at great cost into narrow zones along the west bank of the Volga River.

On 19 November 1942, the Red Army launched Operation Uranus, a two-pronged attack targeting the weaker Romanian and Hungarian armies protecting the German 6th Army's flanks. The Axis forces on the flanks were overrun and the 6th Army was cut off and surrounded in the Stalingrad area. Adolf Hitler ordered that the army stay in Stalingrad and make no attempt to break out; instead, attempts were made to supply the army by air and to break the encirclement from the outside. Heavy fighting continued for another two months. By the beginning of February 1943, the Axis forces in Stalingrad had exhausted their ammunition and food. The remaining units of the 6th Army surrendered. The battle lasted five months, one week and three days.

Confessing Church

The Confessing Church (German: Bekennende Kirche) was a movement within German Protestantism during Nazi Germany that arose in opposition to government-sponsored efforts to unify all Protestant churches into a single pro-Nazi Protestant Reich Church.

Consequences of the attack on Pearl Harbor

The results of the attack on Pearl Harbor were many and significant.

February 18

February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 316 days remain until the end of the year (317 in leap years).

Index of World War II articles (S)

S-1 Uranium Committee

S-50

S-mine

S-Phone

S. A. Ayer

S. J. Warmington

S.L.A. Marshall

S.S. Doomtrooper

S.S. Pink Star

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Saar Offensive

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Saburō Kurusu

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Sachsenburg (concentration camp)

Sachsenhausen concentration camp

Sackville Pelham, 5th Earl of Yarborough

Sacramento Mather Airport

Sacred Band (World War II)

Sadae Inoue

Sadako and the Thousand Paper Cranes

Sadako Kurihara

Sadako Sasaki

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Sadayoshi Yamada

Sadeq Hedayat

Safeguarding Military Information

Saga (singer)

Saga of the Franklin

Sahara (1943 American film)

Sahtu

Said bin Taimur

Sailor of the King

Saint-Étienne-du-Mont

Saint-Ambroise (Paris Métro)

Saint-Augustin (Paris Métro)

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Saint-Denis - Université (Paris Métro)

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Scuttling of the French fleet in Toulon

Sd.Kfz. 10

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Sd.Kfz. 250

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Sea of Azov coastal advance

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Second Encirclement Campaign

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Secret Agent (1947 film)

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Selective Training and Service Act of 1940

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Self-portrait with a friend (Raphael)

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Seven anti-Partisan offensives

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Sexual enslavement by Nazi Germany in World War II

Seymour Benzer

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Sfarmă-Piatră

SG-43 Goryunov

SGH War Memorial

Sgt. Fury and his Howling Commandos

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Sh'erit ha-Pletah

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Shadow of Suribachi: Raising the Flags on Iwo Jima

Shadows of Memory

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Shag Crawford

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Shakespeare and Company (bookstore)

Shakhbut Bin Sultan Al Nahyan

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Shang Zhen

Shangdang Campaign

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Shantou-class gunboat

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Sheffield Blitz

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Shell Shock

Shelling of Mainila

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Shenyang Military Region

Sher-e-Hind

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Sher Shah (VC)

Sheriff Andy Taylor

Sherman Firefly

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Sherwood Schwartz

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Shetland bus

Shevah Weiss

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Shikata ga nai

Shikishima-class battleship

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Shlomo Carlebach (rabbi)

Shmuel Alexandrov

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Sho Ito

Shoah (film)

Shoah Foundation

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Shoes on the Danube Promenade

Shohatsu-class landing craft

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SHORAN

Shoreham Aircraft Museum

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Shuangduiji Campaign

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Sibiu Literary Circle

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Siemens and Halske T52

Sieradz National Defence Brigade

Sig Rune

SIGABA

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Siggie Nordstrom

Sigismund-Helmut von Dawans

Sigismund Payne Best

Sigmaringen

Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Rascher

Sigmund Sobolewski

Signe Johansson-Engdahl

Sigrid Hunke

Sigrid Schultz

Sikorski-Mayski Agreement

Sikorsky Memorial Airport

Silas Rhodes

Silbervogel

Silent Hunter 4: Wolves of the Pacific

Silent Hunter II

Silent Hunter III

Silent Hunter

Silent Raiders

Silent Running: My Years on a World War II Attack Submarine

Silent Service (video game)

Silent Service II

Silesian Offensives

Silver Star

Silverplate

Silvestre de Sacy

Silvestre S. Herrera

Silvio Cator

Simcha Rotem

Simcha Zorin

Simeon Saxe-Coburg-Gotha

Šimun Katalinić

Simion Stoilow

Simmon Latutin

Simo Dubajić

Simo Häyhä

Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr.

Simon Dubnow

Simon Emil Koedel

Simon François Ravenet

Simon Fraser, 15th Lord Lovat

Simon Kitson

Simon Sabiani

Simon Sheppard (far-right activist)

Simon Srebnik

Simon Vouet

Simon Wiesenthal

Simon Wilton Phipps

Simon Zimny

Simone and Cino Del Duca Foundation

Simone Del Duca

Simone Signoret

Simone Veil

Simone Weil

Simplon (Paris Métro)

Sin (Marvel Comics)

Sinan Hasani

Since You Went Away

Sinclair Ross

Sink the Bismarck!

Sinking of Prince of Wales and Repulse

Sino-German cooperation (1911–1941)

Sino-Japanese relations (1931-1937)

Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945)

Siping Campaign

Sippenhaft

Sir Alfred Rawlinson, 3rd Baronet

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Sir Edmund Bacon, 13th Baronet

Sir Edmund Paston-Bedingfeld, 9th Baronet

Sir George Dick-Lauder, 12th Baronet

Sir Godfrey Nicholson, 1st Baronet

Sir Guy Campbell, 5th Baronet

Sir Henry Aubrey-Fletcher, 6th Baronet

Sir Hugh Barrett-Lennard, 6th Baronet

Sir Ivar Colquhoun, 8th Baronet

Sir James Hutchison, 1st Baronet

Sir John Arbuthnot, 1st Baronet

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Sir John Gilmour, 3rd Baronet

Sir John Smyth, 1st Baronet

Sir Louis Spears, 1st Baronet

Sir Martin Lindsay, 1st Baronet

Sir Max Aitken, 2nd Baronet

Sir Peter Proby, 2nd Baronet

Sir Richard Wallace, 1st Baronet

Sir Robert Cary, 1st Baronet

Sir Ronald Ross, 2nd Baronet

Sir Rupert Clarke, 3rd Baronet

Sir Standish O'Grady Roche, 4th Baronet

Sir Stephen Bull, 2nd Baronet

Sir William Gladstone, 7th Baronet

Sir William Mount, 2nd Baronet

Sir Winston Churchill High School

Sir Winston Churchill Secondary School (Vancouver)

Siracourt

Sisak children's concentration camp

Sisters in Resistance

Site A/Plot M Disposal Site

Situation Hopeless ... But Not Serious

Situation Hopeless... But Not Serious

Sixteenth Air Force

Sixteenth Army (Japan)

Sixth anti-Partisan offensive

Sixth United States Army Group

Sixth United States Army

SJ radar

Skink anti-aircraft tank

Skip bombing

Skitch Henderson

Skoda 100 mm Model 16/19

Skoda 100 mm Model 1916

Skoda 105 mm Model 1939

Skoda 150 mm Model 1918

Skoda 37 mm A7

Skoda 37 mm Model 1934

Skoda 37 mm Model 1937

Skoda 75 mm Model 15

Skoda 75 mm Model 1928

Skoda 75 mm Model 1936

Skoda 75 mm Model 1939

Skoda K-series

Skokie (film)

Skorpa, Møre og Romsdal

Skorpa prisoner of war camp

Skåne Line

Slaughterhouse-Five (film)

Slaughterhouse-Five

Slavko Šlander

Slavko Kvaternik

Slavko Stanzer

Sliač Airport

Slim Aarons

Sloan Doak

Sloan Wilson

Slobodan Jovanović

Slovak-Hungarian War

Slovak Insurgent Air Force

Slovak invasion of Poland

Slovak National Uprising

Slovak Republic (1939–1945)

Slovene Home Guard

Slovenská pospolitosť - Národná strana

Slutsk Affair

Small Box Girder

Small Scale Raiding Force

Smatchet

SMERSH

Smilo Freiherr von Lüttwitz

Smith & Wesson M&P

Smith Gun

SMK tank

Smoky (dog)

Smyth Report

SN machine gun

SNCF Class Z 20500

Sniper's Badge

Sniper! (board game)

SNOS

Snow White's Scary Adventures

So Proudly We Hail!

SO3C Seamew

Soap made from human corpses

Sobhuza II of Swaziland

Sobibór extermination camp

Social Outsiders in Nazi Germany

Social Pact

Society of Red Tape Cutters

Sociétaires of the Comédie-Française

SOE F Section networks

SOE F Section timeline

Soemu Toyoda

Sofiane Feghouli

Soldau concentration camp

Soldier of Orange

Soldier, what did you see?

Soldiers at War

Soldiers: Heroes of World War II

Solférino (Paris Métro)

Solko van den Bergh

Solomon Blatt, Jr.

Solomon Islands campaign

Solomon Islands Labour Corps

Solothurn S-18/1000

Solovyovo, Priozersky District, Leningrad Oblast

Solveig Dommartin

Some Punkins

Somerset Arthur Maxwell

SOMUA MCG

Somua S35

Sonderaktion 1005

Sonderaktion Krakau

Sonderkommando Elbe

Sonderkommando

Sonderkraftfahrzeug

Sonderweg

Song of Russia

Song Xilian

Song Zheyuan

Songs of the Third Reich

Sonja Morgenstern

Sonja Mugoša

Sonkrai

Sonnenstein castle

Sonny Bupp

Sonya Butt

Sonya Olschanezky

Soobrazitelny-class destroyer

Sook Ching massacre

Soong Mei-ling

Sophie's Choice (film)

Sophie Gengembre Anderson

Sophie Scholl

Sophie Zawistowski

Sophoklis Venizelos

Sorbonne

Sorley MacLean

Sotirios Versis

Sotnia

Souleymane Bamba

Soup Nazi

South-East Asian theatre of World War II

South-East Asian Theatre of World War II

South Alberta Regiment

South Atlantic air ferry route in World War II

South Atlantic Station

South by Java Head

South East Asia Command

South Manchuria Railway

South Pacific Combat Air Transport Command

South Pacific Scouts

South Quay Estate

South Sea Fleet

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South Seas Force

South West Pacific Area (command)

South West Pacific Area

South West Pacific theatre of World War II

Southampton Blitz

Southeast Area Fleet

Southern California Logistics Airport

Southern Expeditionary Army Group

Southern Front (Soviet Union)

Southern Jiangsu Campaign

Southern Rhodesia in World War II

Southwest Area Fleet

Southwestern Front (Soviet Union)

Souviens-toi du jour

Soviet-Japanese Border Wars

Soviet-Polish Non-Aggression Pact

Soviet Air Forces Order of Battle 1 May 1945

Soviet armored fighting vehicle production during World War II

Soviet battleship Sovetskaya Ukraina

Soviet cruiser Kirov

Soviet cruiser Krasnyi Krym

Soviet cruiser Maxim Gorky

Soviet deportations from Bessarabia

Soviet deportations from Estonia

Soviet destruction battalion 1941

Soviet gunboat Krasnoye Znamya

Soviet helmets during World War II

Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina

Soviet occupation of Hungary

Soviet occupation of Latvia in 1940

Soviet occupation of Romania

Soviet occupation zone

Soviet order of battle for invasion of Poland in 1939

Soviet partisan brigade 1941-1944

Soviet partisan detachment 1941-1944

Soviet partisan group 1941-1944

Soviet partisan regiment 1941-1944

Soviet partisan united formation 1941-1944

Soviet partisans in Poland

Soviet partisans

Soviet propaganda during World War II

Soviet repressions of Polish citizens (1939-1946)

Soviet S-class submarine

Soviet special camps

Soviet submarine L-3

Soviet tank production during World War II

Soviet Tankmen's Song

Soviet Union

Soviet VHF transceiver A7

Soviet Volunteer Group

Soviet war crimes

Soviet women in the Great Patriotic War

Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact

Sovremenny-class destroyer

Space Mountain (Disneyland, Paris)

Space Mountain: Mission 2

Space Nazis

Spain in World War II

Spallation Neutron Source

Spandau Prison

Spanish Cross

Sparrow Force

SPARS

Spartacus Educational

Spear of Destiny (video game)

Spearhead (novel)

Special Bureau for India

Special Courts

Special Engineering Detachment

Special Intelligence Service

Special Interrogation Group

Special Operations Executive

Special Repair Service

Specifications for World War II infantry weapons

Speculation about Mona Lisa

Speer und Er

Spica-class torpedo boat

Spike Milligan

Spirit of the Winter War

Spiru Haret

Spiv

Splendeurs et misères des courtisanes

Spook Louder

Sportpalast speech

Spring 1945 offensive in Italy

Springbok Club

Springer (tank)

Spyforce

Squad Leader Scenarios

Squad Leader

Squander Bug

Square Montholon

Squid (weapon)

SR West Country and Battle of Britain Classes

Srbe na vrbe!

Srbosjek (knife)

Sreten Žujović

Srul Bronshtein

SS-Begleitkommando des Führers

SS-Dienstalterslisten

SS-Ehrenring

SS-GB

SS-Hauptamt

SS-Leitheft

SS-Standarte Kurt Eggers

SS-Sturmbrigade Dirlewanger

SS-Totenkopfverbände

SS-Verfügungstruppe

SS-Wirtschafts-Verwaltungshauptamt

SS A. B. Hammond

SS A. Frank Lever

SS A. J. Cermak

SS A. Mitchell Palmer

SS Abner Doubleday

SS Abraham Clark

SS Admiral Nakhimov

SS Adolph Woermann

SS Aenos (1910)

SS Aenos (1944)

SS Albert M. Boe

SS Alexander Macomb

SS Amelia Earhart

SS American Victory

SS Amerigo Vespucci

SS and Police Leader

SS Andrew Furuseth

SS Annie Oakley

SS Antenor (1924)

SS Assyrian (1914)

SS Athenia

SS Audacious (1913)

SS Beatus

SS Benjamin Harrison

SS Bessemer Victory

SS Blairspey

SS blood group tattoo

SS Booker T. Washington

SS Brigade Westfalen

SS British Premier

SS Caribou

SS Castilian

SS Ceramic (1912)

SS Charles Bulfinch

SS Charles H. Cugle

SS Charles H. Herty

SS Chivalry

SS City of Benares

SS City of Cairo

SS City of Flint (1919)

SS City of Johannesburg

SS City of Nagpur

SS City of Paris (1922)

SS City of Pretoria

SS City of Venice

SS Clan Alpine

SS Clan Campbell (1937)

SS Clan Chisholm

SS Clan Forbes

SS Clan Fraser

SS Clan Macwhirter

SS Clara Barton

SS Clearton

SS Commissaire Ramel

SS Corinthic (1924)

SS Daniel Webster

SS David E. Hughes

SS Davidson Victory

SS Deutschland (1923)

SS Donau (1929)

SS Duchess of York

SS Eaglescliffe Hall

SS Emidio

SS Empire Brigade

SS Empire Elgar

SS Empire Miniver

SS English Trader

SS Fanad Head

SS Fiscus

SS Flynderborg (1930)

SS Führungshauptamt

SS Fort La Monte

SS Fort Lee

SS General von Steuben

SS George Calvert (MC Hull 29)

SS George E. Badger

SS George Washington Carver

SS Geronimo

SS Gouverneur Morris

SS Gustaf E. Reuter

SS Harriet Tubman

SS Hat Creek

SS Heimwehr Danzig

SS Henry Bacon

SS Henry R. Schoolcraft

SS James B. Stephens

SS James Longstreet

SS Jeremiah O'Brien

SS John Barry

SS John Harvey

SS John Stagg

SS John W. Brown

SS Khedive Ismail

SS Kościuszko

SS Kurtuluş

SS Lane Victory

SS Leopoldville (1929)

SS Long Service Award

SS Malakand (1919)

SS Marine Electric

SS Maritime Victory

SS marschiert

SS Martin Behrman

SS Martti Ragnar (1934)

SS Mayagüez

SS Meriwether Lewis

SS MIT Victory

SS Montfort Stokes

SS Mount Ida

SS Nitta Maru

SS Noronic

SS Ohio

SS Oliver Ellsworth

SS Patrick Henry

SS Paul Hamilton

SS Peleus

SS Pierre L'Enfant

SS Politician

SS Potrero del Llano

SS President Coolidge

SS Rajputana

SS Ranchi

SS Red Oak Victory

SS Richard K. Call

SS Richard Montgomery

SS River Afton

SS Robert E. Peary

SS Robert M. T. Hunter

SS Robin Moor

SS Russell A. Alger

SS Sacketts Harbor

SS Samarkand

SS Samuel Huntington

SS Santa Teresa

SS Sauternes

SS Scoresby

SS Soesterberg

SS Somersby

SS St. Louis

SS Stanford White

SS Stephen Hopkins

SS Storaa

SS Suevic

SS Thistlegorm

SS Thomas T. Tucker

SS Thorøy

SS Tiberton

SS Timothy Bloodworth

SS Timothy Pickering

SS Tjisalak

SS U.S.O.

SS uniform

SS Uriah M. Rose

SS Vega (1913)

SS Volo

SS Volunteer Grenadier Brigade Landstorm Nederland

SS William A. Graham

SS William and Mary Victory

SS Winona

SS Yarmouth Castle

SS Yawata Maru

SS Zachary Taylor

Sándor Büchler

Sándor Lumniczer

Sándor Prokopp

Sára Salkaházi

St-Gervais-et-St-Protais Church

St-Michel - Notre-Dame (Paris RER)

St Augustine Watling Street

St Martin's Church, Bladon

St Mildred, Bread Street

St Swithin, London Stone

St. George (Raphael)

St. John Graham Young

St. John the Baptist (Leonardo)

St. Michael (Raphael)

St. Michael Vanquishing Satan (Raphael)

St. Nazaire Raid

St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport

St. Sebastian (Mantegna)

St. Victor's Abbey, Paris

Stab-in-the-back legend

Stab (Luftwaffe designation)

Stabilizing Automatic Bomb Sight

Stabschef (SA)

Stabsführer

Stabsscharführer

Stade de France

Stade de la Beaujoire

Stade de Paris

Stade des Alpes

Stade Français Paris (football)

Stade Français Paris in cup finals

Stade Français

Stade Jean-Bouin

Stade Lesdiguières

Stade Olympique Yves-du-Manoir

Stade Pierre de Coubertin

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Staf De Clercq

Staffelführer

Staffelkapitän

Stahlhelm

Stalag 133

Stalag 17

Stalag fiction

Stalag II-A

Stalag II-B

Stalag II-D

Stalag III-A

Stalag III-C

Stalag IV-A

Stalag IV-B

Stalag IV-E

Stalag IV-G

Stalag IX-B

Stalag IX-C

Stalag Luft 7

Stalag Luft I

Stalag Luft III

Stalag Luft IV

Stalag Luft VI

Stalag V-A

Stalag VI-B

Stalag VI-C

Stalag VI-K

Stalag VII-A

Stalag VIII-A

Stalag VIII-B

Stalag VIII-C

Stalag VIII-D

Stalag VIII-E

Stalag VIII-F

Stalag X-B

Stalag XI-A

Stalag XI-B

Stalag XI-C

Stalag XIII-C

Stalag XIII-D

Stalag XVIII-A

Stalag XVIII-D

Stalag XX-A

Stalag XX-B

Stalag XXI-D

Stalag

Stalin's Missed Chance

Stalin's speech on August 19, 1939

Stalin Line

Stalingrad (2005 video game)

Stalingrad (book)

Stalingrad (1989 film)

Stalingrad (1993 film)

Stalingrad (2013 film)

Stalingrad (Paris Métro)

Stalingrad (wargame)

Stan Cullis

Stan Frankel

Stan Free

Stan Lopata

Stan Musial

Stan Rowley

Stan Spence

Stand Up for Justice: The Ralph Lazo Story

Standard Beaverette

Standartenführer

Stanisław Broniewski

Stanisław Bułak-Bałachowicz

Stanisław Dobosiewicz

Stanisław Grodzicki

Stanisław Grzesiuk

Stanisław Grzmot-Skotnicki

Stanisław Jankowski

Stanisław Kętrzyński

Stanisław Kasznica

Stanisław Leśniewski

Stanisław Maczek

Stanisław Mikołajczyk

Stanisław Mrozowski

Stanisław Patek

Stanisław Ruziewicz

Stanisław Ryniak

Stanisław Sedlaczek

Stanisław Skalski

Stanisław Skarżyński

Stanisław Staszewski

Stanisław Swianiewicz

Stanisław Taczak

Stanisław Urban

Stanisław Zaremba (mathematician)

Stanislas de Boufflers

Stanislas Dehaene

Stanislas Julien

Stanislav Zimprich

Stanislaw Ulam

Stanley A. Prokop

Stanley Bender

Stanley Burton Centre for Holocaust Studies

Stanley Dunham

Stanley Forman Reed

Stanley G. Benner

Stanley Hollis

Stanley Internment Camp

Stanley James Woodbridge

Stanley K. Hathaway

Stanley Matthews

Stanley R. Christianson

Stanley Rogers Resor

Stanley Savige

Stanley Warren

Stanley Waters

Star Bonifacio Echeverria, S.A.

Star of the Grand Cross of the Iron Cross

Star Tours

Stara Gradiška concentration camp

Starfish site

Starry Night Over the Rhone

Stars (film)

Stasys Lozoraitis

State of Burma

State racism

Statute on Jews

Stawka większa niż życie

Steel Panthers (series)

Steen Rømer Larsen

Steeve Joseph-Reinette

Stefan de Walden

Stefan Filipkiewicz

Stefan Frankowski

Stefan Heym

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Stefan Jaracz

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Stefan Korboński

Stefan Lichański

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Stefan Strzemieński

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Stefan Wolpe

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Stefan Zweig

Stefanie Zweig

Stefanos Sarafis

Stella Isaacs, Marchioness of Reading

Stella Kübler

Sten Mellgren

Sten Pettersson

Sten submachine gun

Stendhal University

Stendhal

Stepan Bandera

Stepan Kretov

Stephan Sinding

Stephanie von Hohenlohe

Stephen Ambrose

Stephen Bungay

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Stephen Dodgson

Stephen Fleck

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Stephen M. Young

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Stephen Roskill

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Stephen Worobetz

Steppe Front

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Stevan Dedijer

Stevan Sekereš

Steve Gohouri

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Steve Reeves

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Steven Derounian

Steven T. Katz

Stevo Žigon

Stew Bowers

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Stewart Menzies

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Steyr-Münichholz subcamp

StG44

StG45

Sticky bomb

Stien Kaiser

Stinson Municipal Airport

Stitch Encounter

Stjepan Filipović

Stockton Metropolitan Airport

Stolpersteine in the district of Braunau am Inn

Stolpersteine

Storm Across Europe

Storm Over Arnhem

Storm Over the Pacific

Storm Warning (Higgins novel)

Storming of the Bastille

Storybook Land Canal Boats

Stoyan Stoyanov

Straža na Drini

Strafbattalion

Straight Flush (B-29)

Strange Cargo (B-29)

Strasbourg - Saint-Denis (Paris Métro)

Strategic bombing during World War II

Strategic Bombing Survey (Atomic attacks)

Strategic Bombing Survey (Pacific War)

Strategic Bombing Survey

Strategic Command: European Theater

Strategic operations of the Red Army in World War II

Strawberry Fields (film)

StrayDog: Kerberos Panzer Cops

Street Names of Paris, 1er arrondissement

Strength Through Joy

Stridsvagn m/41

Strikers 1945 Plus

Strom Thurmond

Structure of the Imperial Japanese forces in the South Pacific Mandate

Structure of the Japanese Army in Mengjiang

Struma disaster

Stuart Greeves

Stuart Price

Stuart Russell (politician)

Stuart S. Stryker

Stuart Symington

Stuart tank

Studebaker US6

Studio Tram Tour: Behind the Magic

Sturer Emil

Sturmabteilung

Sturmbannführer

Sturmführer

Sturmgeschütz III

Sturmgeschütz IV

Sturmgeschütz

Sturmhauptführer

Sturmmann

Sturmpistole

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Sturmtiger

Sturzkampfgeschwader 2

Stuttgart Municipal Airport

Stutthof concentration camp

Stutthof Trial

Stéphane Allagnon

Stéphane Dalmat

Stéphane Gillet

Stéphane Glas

Stéphane Grappelli

Stéphane Mahé

Stéphane Mallarmé

Stéphane Pichot

Stéphane Pédron

Stéphane Sednaoui

Stéphane Ziani

Stéphanie Cohen-Aloro

Stéphen Drouin

SU-100

SU-100Y Self-Propelled Gun

SU-101 and SU-102 self-propelled guns

SU-122

SU-14

SU-152

SU-76

SU-85

Su Bingwen

Su Yu

Sub-district II of Żoliborz (of Armia Krajowa)

Sub-district III of Wola (of Armia Krajowa)

Sub-district IV of Ochota (of Armia Krajowa)

Sub-district VI of Praga (of Armia Krajowa)

Sub-district VII of Warsaw suburbs (of Armia Krajowa)

Subhas Brigade

Subhas Chandra Bose

Subject of the state

Submarine aircraft carrier

Submarine chaser

Submarine Command

Submarine pen

Submarines of the People's Liberation Army Navy

Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar

Subsequent Nuremberg Trials

Sudden Strike

Sudetendeutsches Freikorps

Sudetenland Medal

Sudetenland

Sue Ryder

Sue S. Dauser

Suffren-class cruiser

Sugamo Prison

Sugar Ray Robinson

Suggestion Box

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Suite française (Irène Némirovsky)

Suiyuan Campaign (1936)

Sukhoi Su-6

Sullivan brothers

Sully - Morland (Paris Métro)

Sully Prudhomme

Sulo Kolkka

Suma-class cruiser

Sumiteru Taniguchi

SUMKA

Summer Offensive of 1947 in Northeast China

Summi Pontificatus

Sumner Redstone

Sumter-class attack transport

Sun Chu

Sun Chuanfang

Sun Dianying

Sun Du

Sun Li-jen

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Sun Weiru

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Sunset at Chaophraya (1996 film)

Sunset at Chaophraya (2013 film)

Sunset/Sunside

Sunshine (1999 film)

Suomi M/31

Super-Soldier

Super Type A Cruiser

Super Yamato-class battleship

Superman (Earth-Two)

Supermarine Attacker

Supermarine Seafang

Supermarine Seafire

Supermarine Spiteful

Supermarine Swift

SuperPatriot

Superpower

Supervising Women Workers

Supreme Allied Commander

Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers

Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force

Supreme Order of Caucasians

Surcouf (N N 3)

Surrender of Japan

Survivors' Talmud

Susan Solomon

Susan Travers

Suwa Shrine (Nagasaki)

Suzanne Cory

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Suzanne Schiffman

Suzanne Spaak

Suzy Chaffee

Sven Friberg

Sven Lindqvist (footballer)

Sven Rydell

Sverre Bergh

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Sverre Granlund

Sverre Hansen

Sverre Helgesen

Sverre Petterssen

Sverre Riisnæs

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Svetomir Đukić

Svetozar Vujković

Svetozar Vukmanović-Tempo

Svolochi

SVT-40

Svyaschennaya Voyna

Swamp Ghost

Swarm (comics)

Swastika Laundry

Swastika Night

Swastika origin theories

Swastika, Ontario

Swastika

Swatow Operation

Sweden and the Winter War

Sweden during World War II

Swedish Coastal Artillery

Swedish extradition of Baltic soldiers

Swedish iron ore (WWII)

Swedish iron ore during World War II

Swedish neutrality

Swedish Resistance Movement

Swedish Volunteer Corps (Winter War)

Swift training rifle

Swing Kids (film)

Swing Kids

Switzerland during the World Wars

Swooner Crooner

The Swoose

Sword Beach

Sword in the Desert

Sy Bartlett

Sybil Bauer

Sybil Sassoon

Syd Anderson

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Sydir Kovpak

Sydney Atkinson

Sydney Brenner

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Sydspissen concentration camp

Sylvain Armand

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Sylwester Braun

Syria-Lebanon Campaign

Szare Szeregi

Szilárd petition

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Szpęgawski Forest

Sébastien Denis

Sébastien Izambard

Ségur (Paris Métro)

Sèvres - Babylone (Paris Métro)

Sèvres - Lecourbe (Paris Métro)

Joseph Goebbels

Paul Joseph Goebbels (German: [ˈpaʊ̯l ˈjoːzɛf ˈɡœbl̩s] (listen); 29 October 1897 – 1 May 1945) was a German Nazi politician and Reich Minister of Propaganda of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. He was one of Adolf Hitler's closest and most devoted associates, and was known for his skills in public speaking and his deeply virulent antisemitism, which was evident in his publicly voiced views. He advocated progressively harsher discrimination, including the extermination of the Jews in the Holocaust.

Goebbels, who aspired to be an author, obtained a Doctor of Philosophy degree from the University of Heidelberg in 1921. He joined the Nazi Party in 1924, and worked with Gregor Strasser in their northern branch. He was appointed Gauleiter (district leader) for Berlin in 1926, where he began to take an interest in the use of propaganda to promote the party and its programme. After the Nazi's seizure of power in 1933, Goebbels' Propaganda Ministry quickly gained and exerted control over the news media, arts, and information in Germany. He was particularly adept at using the relatively new media of radio and film for propaganda purposes. Topics for party propaganda included antisemitism, attacks on the Christian churches, and (after the start of the Second World War) attempting to shape morale.

In 1943, Goebbels began to pressure Hitler to introduce measures that would produce total war, including closing businesses not essential to the war effort, conscripting women into the labour force, and enlisting men in previously exempt occupations into the Wehrmacht. Hitler finally appointed him as Reich Plenipotentiary for Total War on 23 July 1944, whereby Goebbels undertook largely unsuccessful measures to increase the number of people available for armaments manufacure and the Wehrmacht.

As the war drew to a close and Nazi Germany faced defeat, Magda Goebbels and the Goebbels children joined him in Berlin. They moved into the underground Vorbunker, part of Hitler's underground bunker complex, on 22 April 1945. Hitler committed suicide on 30 April. In accordance with Hitler's will, Goebbels succeeded him as Chancellor of Germany; he served one day in this post. The following day, Goebbels and his wife committed suicide, after poisoning their six children with cyanide.

Outline of public relations

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to public relations:

Public relations practice of managing the spread of information between an individual or an organization (such as a business, government agency, or a nonprofit organization) and the public.

Posen speeches

The Posen speeches were two speeches made by Heinrich Himmler, the head of the SS of Nazi Germany, on 4 and 6 October 1943 in the town hall of Posen (Poznań), in German-occupied Poland. The recordings are the first known documents in which a high-ranking German member of the Nazi government spoke of the ongoing extermination of the Jews in extermination camps. They demonstrate that the German government wanted, planned and carried out the Holocaust.

Reich Plenipotentiary for Total War

The Reich Plenipotentiary for the Total War Effort (Reichbevollmächtigter für den totalen Kriegseinsatz) was a position created by Adolf Hitler, the Führer ("leader") of Nazi Germany, on 23 July 1944 for Joseph Goebbels, who was also at the time the regime's Propaganda Minister. The purpose of the new office was to rally the German people behind an effort to achieve "total war", in which all civilian resources and all aspects of civilian infrastructure are subordinated to the needs of the military and the war effort. The idea to create the new office, and to appoint Goebbels to it, had come from Goebbels himself. Hitler had acceded to it because of the rapid deterioration of the German military position in the war in the East against the Soviet Union; he had finally been convinced that only a total war effort could counter what Hitler felt was the constant undermining of his military strategies by his generals.As Plenipotentiary, Goebbels was empowered to issue directives to all civilians and all parts of the civilian sector, as well as to the heads of even the highest agencies of the Reich, although in practical terms, his power was restricted by the complexities of the Nazi power structure. Goebbels and his staff endeavored to bring about a "structural transformation in the entire state apparatus."

Stennes Revolt

The Stennes Revolt was a revolt within the Nazi Party in 1930-1931 led by Walter Stennes (1895–1983), the Berlin commandant of the Sturmabteilung (SA), the Nazi's "brownshirt" storm troops. The revolt arose from internal tensions and conflicts within the Nazi Party of Germany, particularly between the party organization headquartered in Munich and Adolf Hitler on the one hand, and the SA and its leadership on the other hand. There is some evidence that Stennes may have been paid by the government of German chancellor Heinrich Brüning, with the intention of causing conflict within the Nazi movement.

Themes in Nazi propaganda

The propaganda of the National Socialist German Workers' Party regime that governed Germany from 1933 to 1945 promoted Nazi ideology by demonizing the enemies of the Nazi Party, notably Jews and communists, but also capitalists and intellectuals. It promoted the values asserted by the Nazis, including heroic death, Führerprinzip (leader principle), Volksgemeinschaft (people's community), Blut und Boden (blood and soil) and pride in the Germanic Herrenvolk (master race). Propaganda was also used to maintain the cult of personality around Nazi leader Adolf Hitler, and to promote campaigns for eugenics and the annexation of German-speaking areas. After the outbreak of World War II, Nazi propaganda vilified Germany's enemies, notably the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States, and in 1943 exhorted the population to total war.

Timeline of Berlin

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Berlin, Germany.

Total war

Total war is warfare that includes any and all civilian-associated resources and infrastructure as legitimate military targets, mobilizes all of the resources of society to fight the war, and gives priority to warfare over non-combatant needs. The Oxford Living Dictionaries defines "total war" as "A war that is unrestricted in terms of the weapons used, the territory or combatants involved, or the objectives pursued, especially one in which the laws of war are disregarded."In the mid-19th century, scholars identified "total war" as a separate class of warfare. In a total war, to an extent inapplicable in less total conflicts, the differentiation between combatants and non-combatants diminishes, sometimes even vanishing entirely, due to the capacity of opposing sides to consider nearly every human resource, even that of non-combatants, to be a part of the war effort.Actions that may characterize the post-19th century concept of total war include:

Strategic bombing, as during World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War (Operations Rolling Thunder and Linebacker II)

Blockade and sieging of population centers, as with the Allied blockade of Germany and the Siege of Leningrad during the First and Second World Wars

Scorched earth policy, as with the March to the Sea during the American Civil War and the Japanese "Three Alls Policy" during the Second Sino-Japanese War

Commerce raiding, tonnage war, and unrestricted submarine warfare, as with privateering, the German U-Boat campaigns of the First and Second World Wars, and the United States submarine campaign against Japan during World War II

Collective punishment, pacification operations, and reprisals against populations deemed hostile, as with the execution and deportation of suspected Communards following the fall of the 1871 Paris Commune or the German reprisal policy targeting resistance movements, insurgents, and Untermenschen such as in France (e.g. Maillé massacre) and Poland during World War II

The use of civilians and prisoners of war as forced labor for military operations, as with Japan and Germany's massive use of forced laborers of other nations during World War II (see Slavery in Japan and Forced labor under German rule during World War II)

Giving no quarter (i.e. take no prisoners), as with Hitler's Commando Order during World War II.

Walter Stennes

Walter Franz Maria Stennes (12 April 1895 – 19 May 1983) was a leader of the Sturmabteilung (SA, stormtroopers, or "brownshirts") of the Nazi Party in Berlin and the surrounding area. In August 1930 he led the Stennes Revolt against Adolf Hitler, the leader of the party, and Hitler's appointed regional head of the party in the Berlin area, Joseph Goebbels. The dispute was over Hitler's policies and practices in the use of the SA, and the underlying purpose of the paramilitary organization. Hitler quelled the revolt peacefully, but after a second rebellion in March-April 1931, the SA was purged and Stennes was expelled from the party.

White Rose

The White Rose (German: die Weiße Rose) was a non-violent, intellectual resistance group in the Third Reich led by a group of students and a professor at the University of Munich. The group conducted an anonymous leaflet and graffiti campaign that called for active opposition to the Nazi party regime. Their activities started in Munich on 27 June 1942, and ended with the arrest of the core group by the Gestapo on 18 February 1943. They, as well as other members and supporters of the group who carried on distributing the pamphlets, faced show trials by the Nazi People's Court (Volksgerichtshof), and many of them were sentenced to death or imprisonment.

The group wrote, printed and initially distributed their pamphlets in the greater Munich region. Later on, secret carriers brought copies to other cities, mostly in the southern parts of Germany. In total, the White Rose authored six leaflets, which were multiplied and spread, in a total of about 15,000 copies. They denounced the Nazi regime's crimes and oppression, and called for resistance. In their second leaflet, they openly denounced the persecution and mass murder of the Jews. By the time of their arrest, the members of the White Rose were just about to establish contacts with other German resistance groups like the Kreisau Circle or the Schulze-Boysen/Harnack group of the Red Orchestra. Today, the White Rose is well-known both within Germany and worldwide.

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