Sponge grounds, also known as sponge aggregations, are intertidal to deep-sea habitats formed by large accumulations of sponges (glass sponges and/or demosponges), often dominated by a few massive species. Sponge grounds were already reported more than 150 years ago, but the habitat was first fully recognized, studied and described in detail around the Faroe Islands during the inter-Nordic BIOFAR 1 programme 1987–90. These were called Ostur (meaning "cheese" and referring to the appearance of the sponges) by the local fishermen and this name has to some extent entered the scientific literature. Sponge grounds were later found elsewhere in the Northeast Atlantic and in the Northwest Atlantic, as well as near Antarctica. They are now known from many other places worldwide and recognized as key marine habitats.
By studying spicules in sediments cores taken from sponge grounds on the slopes of the Flemish Cap and Grand Bank (off Newfoundland, Canada), scientists managed to detect the presence of sponges in the past. The oldest record for Geodiidae sponges in this region was found in a long core collected in the slope of the Grand Bank, where typical sterraster spicules were found in the top of a submarine landslide deposit older than 25 000 BP. Continuous presence of sponges was recorded on the southeastern region of the Flemish Cap as far as 130 000 BP. It seems the distribution range of the Geodiidae in this area significantly expended after the deglaciation.
^ abcdeHogg; Tendal; Conway; Pomponi; van Soest; Krautter; and Roberts (2010). Deep-sea sponge grounds: Reservoirs of Biodiversity. UNEP-WCMC Biodiversity. 32. Cambridge, UK: UNEP-WCMC. ISBN 978-92-807-3081-4.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
^Klitgaard, Anne; Tendal, Ole Secher; Westerberg, H. (1997). Mass occurrences of large sized sponges (Porifera) in Faroe Island (NE-Atlantic) shelf and slope areas: characteristics, distribution and possible causes. University of Southampton. pp. 129–142.
^Klitgaard, A. B.; Tendal, O. S. (2004-04-01). "Distribution and species composition of mass occurrences of large-sized sponges in the northeast Atlantic". Progress in Oceanography. 61 (1): 57–98. doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2004.06.002.
^Murillo, Francisco Javier; Muñoz, Pablo Durán; Cristobo, Javier; Ríos, Pilar; González, Concepción; Kenchington, Ellen; Serrano, Alberto (2012-11-01). "Deep-sea sponge grounds of the Flemish Cap, Flemish Pass and the Grand Banks of Newfoundland (Northwest Atlantic Ocean): Distribution and species composition". Marine Biology Research. 8 (9): 842–854. doi:10.1080/17451000.2012.682583. ISSN1745-1000.
^Maldonado, Manuel; Aguilar, Ricardo; Bannister, Raymond J.; Bell, James J.; Conway, Kim W.; Dayton, Paul K.; Díaz, Cristina; Gutt, Julian; Kelly, Michelle (2015-01-01). Rossi, Sergio; Bramanti, Lorenzo; Gori, Andrea; Valle, Covadonga Orejas Saco del (eds.). Sponge Grounds as Key Marine Habitats: A Synthetic Review of Types, Structure, Functional Roles, and Conservation Concerns. Springer International Publishing. pp. 1–39. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-17001-5_24-1. hdl:10261/171671. ISBN 9783319170015.
This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.