Spiritist Codification (or Spiritist Pentateuch) is the customary name given by spiritists to the set of books codified by Allan Kardec. The books are a compilation of questions made by Allan Kardec and answers allegedly dictated by Spirits, between the years 1857 and 1868. The series contains the fundamental details of the Spiritism movement.
The collection of the first five books, written and published by French teacher, educator and Spiritism codificator Allan Kardec, are called "The Five Fundamental Works of Spiritism". These books contain several explanations of the Spiritism Doctrine, as well as religious teachings and essays on the spirit world, mediumship, miracles, paranormal and supernatural phenomena.
Two other books were published to complement the teachings of Allan Kardec: Qu'est-Ce Le Spiritisme? ("What is Spiritism?") in 1859 and Oeuvres Posthumes ("Posthumous Works") in 1890.
First published in 1857, this book explains the fundamentals of the Spiritist Doctrine concerning the nature of Spirits, their manifestations, and how they relate to men, moral laws, and the present and future life and destiny of humankind. The book is both an introduction to the other works and a summary of them, which, in their turn, can each be seen as an unfolding of one of the issues it covers.
First published in 1861 with a subtitle of "Guide des Médiums et des Évocateurs", this book deals with the teachings of the Spirits on the various kinds of manifestations, the means of communication with the invisible world, the development of mediumship, the difficulties and embarrassments that one can face during Spiritist practice;
First published in 1865, this book examines "La Justice Divine Selon le Spiritisme". It compares doctrines and explains the passage from the physical life to the life of the spirit, to a future penalty or reward, angels and devils and eternal damnation. Many examples are given of the condition of the soul before and after physical death.
First published in 1868 with the subtitle "Les Miracles et les Preditions Selon le Spiritisme", this book examines theories about Earth's emergence and evolution and scriptural texts on the matter.
Allan Kardec (French: [kaʁdɛk]) is the pen name of the French educator, translator and author Hippolyte Léon Denizard Rivail ([ʁivɑj]; 3 October 1804 – 31 March 1869). He is the author of the five books known as the Spiritist Codification, and is the founder of Spiritism.Ghost
In folklore, a ghost (sometimes known as an apparition, haunt, phantom, poltergeist, shade, specter or spectre, spirit, spook, and wraith) is the soul or spirit of a dead person or animal that can appear to the living. In ghostlore, descriptions of ghosts vary widely from an invisible presence to translucent or barely visible wispy shapes, to realistic, lifelike visions. The deliberate attempt to contact the spirit of a deceased person is known as necromancy, or in spiritism as a séance.
The belief in the existence of an afterlife, as well as manifestations of the spirits of the dead, is widespread, dating back to animism or ancestor worship in pre-literate cultures. Certain religious practices—funeral rites, exorcisms, and some practices of spiritualism and ritual magic—are specifically designed to rest the spirits of the dead. Ghosts are generally described as solitary, human-like essences, though stories of ghostly armies and the ghosts of animals rather than humans have also been recounted. They are believed to haunt particular locations, objects, or people they were associated with in life. According to a 2009 study by the Pew Research Center, 18% of Americans say they have seen a ghost.The overwhelming consensus of science is that ghosts do not exist. Their existence is impossible to falsify, and ghost hunting has been classified as pseudoscience. Despite centuries of investigation, there is no scientific evidence that any location is inhabited by spirits of the dead.Mediumship
Mediumship is the practice of purportedly mediating communication between spirits of the dead and living human beings. Practitioners are known as "mediums." There are different types of mediumship, including spirit channeling and ouija.
Humans have been fascinated with contacting the dead since the beginning of human existence. Cave paintings by indigenous Australians date back 28,000 years, some depicting skulls, bones, spirits and the afterlife. Other cave paintings in Indonesia date back a further 10,000 years.
Mediumship gained popularity during the nineteenth century, when ouija boards were used by the upper classes as a source of entertainment. Investigations during this period revealed widespread fraud—with some practitioners employing techniques used by stage magicians—and the practice began to lose credibility. Fraud is still rife in the medium/psychic industry, with cases of deception and trickery being discovered to this day.Scientific researchers have attempted to ascertain the validity of claims of mediumship. An experiment undertaken by the British Psychological Society led to the conclusion that the test subjects demonstrated no mediumistic ability.Several different variants of mediumship exist; arguably the best-known forms involve a spirit purportedly taking control of a medium's voice and using it to relay a message, or where the medium simply "hears" the message and passes it on. Other forms involve materializations of the spirit or the presence of a voice, and telekinetic activity.
The practice is associated with several religious-belief systems such as Vodun, Spiritualism, Spiritism, Candomblé, Voodoo, Umbanda and some New Age groups.Spiritism
Spiritism is a spiritualistic philosophy and religion codified in the 19th century by the French educator Hippolyte Léon Denizard Rivail, under the pen name Allan Kardec; it proposed the study of "the nature, origin, and destiny of spirits, and their relation with the corporeal world".Spiritism soon spread to other countries, having today 35 countries represented in the International Spiritist Council.Spiritism postulates that humans are essentially immortal spirits that temporarily inhabit physical bodies for several necessary incarnations to attain moral and intellectual improvement. It also asserts that spirits, through passive or active mediumship, may have beneficent or malevolent influence on the physical world.The term first appeared in Kardec's book, The Spirits Book, which sought to distinguish Spiritism from spiritualism.Spiritism has influenced a social movement of healing centers, charity institutions and hospitals involving millions of people in dozens of countries, with the greatest number of adherents in Brazil.
Spiritism was also very influential in the new Vietnamese religion called Cao Đài or Caodaism, born in 1926 after three spirit mediums received messages that identified Allan Kardec as a prophet of a new universal religion.The Book on Mediums
The Book on Mediums or Mediums and Evokers' Handbook (a.k.a. The Mediums' Book —Le Livre des Médiums, in French), is a book by Allan Kardec published in 1861, second of the five Fundamental Works of Spiritism — the spiritualist philosophy Kardec had been publishing — being the tome in which the experimental and investigative features of the doctrine were presented, explained and taught.The Spirits Book
The Spirits Book (Le Livre des Esprits in original French) is part of the Spiritist Codification, and is regarded as one of the five fundamental works of Spiritism. It was published by the French educator Allan Kardec on April 18, 1857. It was the first and remains the most important spiritist book, because it addresses in first hand all questions developed subsequently by Allan Kardec.
The book is structured as a collection of questions regarding the origin of the spirits, the purpose of the life, the order of the universe, evil and good and the afterlife. Its answers, according to Kardec, were given to him by a group of spirits who identified themselves as "The Spirit of Truth", with whom he communicated in several Spiritist sessions during the 1850s. Kardec, who considered himself an "organizer" rather than an author, grouped the questions and their answers by theme, occasionally including lengthier digressions the spirits had dictated to him on specific subjects, some signed by philosophers such as Augustine of Hippo and Thomas Aquinas and writers including Voltaire.