A spice is a seed, fruit, root, bark, or other plant substance primarily used for flavoring, coloring or preserving food. Spices are distinguished from herbs, which are the leaves, flowers, or stems of plants used for flavoring or as a garnish. Many spices have antimicrobial properties. This may explain why spices are more commonly used in warmer climates, which have more infectious diseases, and why the use of spices is prominent in meat, which is particularly susceptible to spoiling. Spices are sometimes used in medicine, religious rituals, cosmetics or perfume production.
The spice trade developed throughout the Indian subcontinent and Middle East by at earliest 2000 BCE with cinnamon and black pepper, and in East Asia with herbs and pepper. The Egyptians used herbs for mummification and their demand for exotic spices and herbs helped stimulate world trade. The word spice comes from the Old French word espice, which became epice, and which came from the Latin root spec, the noun referring to "appearance, sort, kind": species has the same root. By 1000 BCE, medical systems based upon herbs could be found in China, Korea, and India. Early uses were connected with magic, medicine, religion, tradition, and preservation.
The earliest written records of spices come from ancient Egyptian, Chinese, and Indian cultures. The Ebers Papyrus from Early Egyptians that dates from 1550 B.C.E. describes some eight hundred different medicinal remedies and numerous medicinal procedures.
Indonesian merchants traveled around China, India, the Middle East, and the east coast of Africa. Arab merchants facilitated the routes through the Middle East and India. This resulted in the Egyptian port city of Alexandria being the main trading center for spices. The most important discovery prior to the European spice trade were the monsoon winds (40 CE). Sailing from Eastern spice cultivators to Western European consumers gradually replaced the land-locked spice routes once facilitated by the Middle East Arab caravans.
Spices were among the most demanded and expensive products available in Europe in the Middle Ages, the most common being black pepper, cinnamon (and the cheaper alternative cassia), cumin, nutmeg, ginger and cloves. Given medieval medicine's main theory of humorism, spices and herbs were indispensable to balance "humors" in food, a daily basis for good health at a time of recurrent pandemics. In addition to being desired by those using medieval medicine, the European elite also craved spices in the Middle Ages. An example of the European aristocracy's demand for spice comes from the King of Aragon, who invested substantial resources into bringing back spices to Spain in the 12th century. He was specifically looking for spices to put in wine, and was not alone among European monarchs at the time to have such a desire for spice.
Spices were all imported from plantations in Asia and Africa, which made them expensive. From the 8th until the 15th century, the Republic of Venice had the monopoly on spice trade with the Middle East, and along with it the neighboring Italian maritime republics and city-states. The trade made the region rich. It has been estimated that around 1,000 tons of pepper and 1,000 tons of the other common spices were imported into Western Europe each year during the Late Middle Ages. The value of these goods was the equivalent of a yearly supply of grain for 1.5 million people. The most exclusive was saffron, used as much for its vivid yellow-red color as for its flavor. Spices that have now fallen into obscurity in European cuisine include grains of paradise, a relative of cardamom which mostly replaced pepper in late medieval north French cooking, long pepper, mace, spikenard, galangal and cubeb.
Spain and Portugal were interested in seeking new routes to trade in spices and other valuable products from Asia. The control of trade routes and the spice-producing regions were the main reasons that Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama sailed to India in 1499. When Gama discovered the pepper market in India, he was able to secure peppers for a much cheaper price than the ones demanded by Venice. At around the same time, Christopher Columbus returned from the New World. He described to investors new spices available there.
The military prowess of Afonso de Albuquerque (1453–1515) allowed the Portuguese to take control of the sea routes to India. In 1506, he took the island of Socotra in the mouth of the Red Sea and, in 1507, Ormuz in the Persian Gulf. Since becoming the viceroy of the Indies, he took Goa in India in 1510, and Malacca on the Malay peninsula in 1511. The Portuguese could now trade directly with Siam, China, and the Maluku Islands.
With the discovery of the New World came new spices, including allspice, chili peppers, vanilla, and chocolate. This development kept the spice trade, with America as a late comer with its new seasonings, profitable well into the 19th century.
A spice may be available in several forms: fresh, whole dried, or pre-ground dried. Generally, spices are dried. Spices may be ground into a powder for convenience. A whole dried spice has the longest shelf life, so it can be purchased and stored in larger amounts, making it cheaper on a per-serving basis. A fresh spice, such as ginger, is usually more flavorful than its dried form, but fresh spices are more expensive and have a much shorter shelf life. Some spices are not always available either fresh or whole, for example turmeric, and often must be purchased in ground form. Small seeds, such as fennel and mustard seeds, are often used both whole and in powder form.
To grind a whole spice, the classic tool is mortar and pestle. Less labor-intensive tools are more common now: a microplane or fine grater can be used to grind small amounts; a coffee grinder[note 2] is useful for larger amounts. A frequently used spice such as black pepper may merit storage in its own hand grinder or mill.
The flavor of a spice is derived in part from compounds (volatile oils) that oxidize or evaporate when exposed to air. Grinding a spice greatly increases its surface area and so increases the rates of oxidation and evaporation. Thus, flavor is maximized by storing a spice whole and grinding when needed. The shelf life of a whole dry spice is roughly two years; of a ground spice roughly six months. The "flavor life" of a ground spice can be much shorter.[note 3] Ground spices are better stored away from light.[note 4]
Some flavor elements in spices are soluble in water; many are soluble in oil or fat. As a general rule, the flavors from a spice take time to infuse into the food so spices are added early in preparation. This contrasts to herbs which are usually added late in preparation.
A study by the Food and Drug Administration of shipments of spices to the United States during fiscal years 2007-2009 showed about 7% of the shipments were contaminated by Salmonella bacteria, some of it antibiotic-resistant. As most spices are cooked before being served salmonella contamination often has no effect, but some spices, particularly pepper, are often eaten raw and present at table for convenient use. Shipments from Mexico and India, a major producer, were the most frequently contaminated. However, with newly developed radiation sterilization methods, the risk of Salmonella contamination is now lower.
Because they tend to have strong flavors and are used in small quantities, spices tend to add few calories to food, even though many spices, especially those made from seeds, contain high portions of fat, protein, and carbohydrate by weight. However, when used in larger quantity, spices can also contribute a substantial amount of minerals and other micronutrients, including iron, magnesium, calcium, and many others, to the diet. For example, a teaspoon of paprika contains about 1133 IU of Vitamin A, which is over 20% of the recommended daily allowance specified by the US FDA.
Most herbs and spices have substantial antioxidant activity, owing primarily to phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, which influence nutrition through many pathways, including affecting the absorption of other nutrients. One study found cumin and fresh ginger to be highest in antioxidant activity. These antioxidants can also act as natural preservatives, preventing or slowing the spoilage of food, leading to a higher nutritional content in stored food.
India contributes 75% of global spice production.
|Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organization|
The Indian Institute of Spices Research in Kozhikode, Kerala, is devoted exclusively to conducting research for ten spice crops: black pepper, cardamom, cinnamon, clove, garcinia, ginger, nutmeg, paprika, turmeric, and vanilla.
Shipments of imported spices offered for entry to the United States were sampled during the fiscal years 2007–2009. The mean shipment prevalence for Salmonella was 0.066 (95% CI 0.057–0.076)
...Garlic, onion, allspice and oregano, for example, were found to be the best all-around bacteria killers (they kill everything)
...The study is the first in the United States that looks at the effect of common spices on E. coli O157:H7. Previous studies have concluded spices kill other foodborne pathogens. 'In the first part of our study, we tested 23 spices against E. coli O157:H7 in the laboratory', Fung said. 'We found that several spices are good at killing this strain of E. coli.'
Cardamom (), sometimes cardamon or cardamum, is a spice made from the seeds of several plants in the genera Elettaria and Amomum in the family Zingiberaceae. Both genera are native to the Indian subcontinent and Indonesia. They are recognized by their small seed pods: triangular in cross-section and spindle-shaped, with a thin, papery outer shell and small, black seeds; Elettaria pods are light green and smaller, while Amomum pods are larger and dark brown.
Species used for cardamom are native throughout tropical and subtropical Asia. The first references to cardamom are found in Sumer, and in the Ayurvedic literatures of India. Nowadays, it is also cultivated in some other countries, such as Guatemala, Malaysia and Tanzania. The German coffee planter Oscar Majus Kloeffer introduced Indian cardamom (kerala) to cultivation in Guatemala before World War I; by 2000, that country had become the biggest producer and exporter of cardamom in the world, followed by India.Cardamom is the world's third-most expensive spice, surpassed in price per weight only by vanilla and saffron.Cayenne pepper
The cayenne pepper is a type of Capsicum annuum. It is usually a moderately hot chili pepper used to flavor dishes. Cayenne peppers are a group of tapering, 10 to 25 cm long, generally skinny, mostly red-colored peppers, often with a curved tip and somewhat rippled skin, which hang from the bush as opposed to growing upright. Most varieties are generally rated at 30,000 to 50,000 Scoville units.The fruits are generally dried and ground to make the powdered spice of the same name, although cayenne powder may be a blend of different types of peppers, quite often not containing cayenne peppers, and may or may not contain the seeds.Cayenne is used in cooking spicy dishes either as a powder or in its whole form. It is also used as a herbal supplement.Cinnamon
Cinnamon ( SIN-ə-mən) is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus Cinnamomum. Cinnamon is used mainly as an aromatic condiment and flavouring additive in a wide variety of cuisines, sweet and savoury dishes, breakfast cereals, snackfoods, tea and traditional foods. The aroma and flavour of cinnamon derive from its essential oil and principal component, cinnamaldehyde, as well as numerous other constituents, including eugenol.
The term "cinnamon" also is used to describe its mid-brown colour. Cinnamon is the name for several species of trees and the commercial spice products that some of them produce. All are members of the genus Cinnamomum in the family Lauraceae. Only a few Cinnamomum species are grown commercially for spice. Cinnamomum verum is sometimes considered to be "true cinnamon", but most cinnamon in international commerce is derived from related species, also referred to as "cassia". In 2016, Indonesia and China produced 75% of the world's supply of cinnamon.Coriander
Coriander (; Coriandrum sativum), also known as Chinese parsley, the stems and leaves of which are usually called cilantro () in North America, is an annual herb in the family Apiaceae. All parts of the plant are edible, but the fresh leaves and the dried seeds (as a spice) are the parts most traditionally used in cooking.
Most people perceive the taste of coriander leaves as a tart, lemon/lime taste, but a smaller group of about 4–14% of people tested think the leaves taste like bath soap, as linked to a gene which detects aldehyde chemicals present in both.Emma Bunton
Emma Lee Bunton (born 21 January 1976) is an English singer, songwriter, actress, and radio and television presenter. She is a member of the girl group the Spice Girls formed in the 1990s, and in which Bunton was nicknamed Baby Spice. In 2013, she began as a radio presenter on the Heart Breakfast Show in London with Jamie Theakston and presenting her own show on Sunday evenings. She left the breakfast show in 2018.
Bunton's debut solo album, A Girl Like Me, was released in April 2001 by Virgin Records. The album debuted and peaked at number four on the UK Albums Chart. It was certified gold by the British Phonographic Industry for sales in excess of 100,000 copies, ultimately becoming the 147th best-selling album in the UK for 2001. The album spawned the UK and New Zealand number-one single "What Took You So Long?", as well as the top five singles "What I Am" and "Take My Breath Away" and the top 20 single "We're Not Gonna Sleep Tonight".
Bunton's second studio album, Free Me, was released in February 2004 through 19 Entertainment. Four singles were taken from it: "Free Me", "Maybe", "I'll Be There" and "Crickets Sing for Anamaria". The album was also released in the United States, and some of the singles impacting upon the US dance charts.
After the release of her third studio album, Life in Mono, Bunton reunited with the Spice Girls in 2007 for an international tour and greatest hits album. From 2003 to 2012 Bunton had a recurring role on the BBC comedy series Absolutely Fabulous. She performed at the 2012 Summer Olympics closing ceremony on 12 August 2012 with The Spice Girls. This would be the last time that the band would perform as a quintet. Since 2018, Bunton has reunited as the Spice Girls with Geri Halliwell, Melanie C and Mel B.
Bunton's television appearances include being a judge on the ITV celebrity skating show Dancing on Ice (2010–2011) and entertainment series Your Face Sounds Familiar (2013). In addition, she voices the character Muhimu in the UK version of the episode “The Mbali Fields Migration” of Disney Junior's series The Lion Guard.Bunton released her first single in 12 years, "Baby Please Don't Stop" in February 2019, in preparation for her fourth studio album My Happy Place.Five-spice powder
Five-spice powder or Wuxiang powder is a spice mixture of five or more spices used predominantly in Chinese and Taiwanese cuisine and also used less commonly in other Asian and Arabic cuisines.
Five-spice powder can be used in cocktails.Geri Halliwell
Geraldine Estelle Horner (née Halliwell; born 6 August 1972) is an English singer, songwriter, author, actress, fashion designer, model, and television personality.
Halliwell came to international prominence in the 1990s as Ginger Spice, a member of the successful girl group the Spice Girls, the best-selling girl group of all time with over 85 million records sold, of which more than 75 million copies sold with the quintet lineup with Halliwell. In 1998, Halliwell left the Spice Girls to pursue a solo career but later returned to the group when they reunited in 2007. Halliwell reportedly amassed a $40 million fortune during her last two years in the group.In 1999, Halliwell launched her solo career and released her debut album Schizophonic, which spawned three number ones at the UK Singles Chart, "Mi Chico Latino", "Lift Me Up", and "Bag It Up", while the lead single "Look at Me" peaked at number two. In 2001, Halliwell released her second album Scream If You Wanna Go Faster; the first single, "It's Raining Men", was also used on the Bridget Jones's Diary film soundtrack, peaked at number one in the UK and went on to become the biggest hit of her career. She released her third studio album Passion in 2005. Halliwell has been nominated for four Brit Awards (in 2000 and 2002).
After a few years of relative obscurity, in April 2010, Halliwell announced that she had started working on new music. In April 2013, the Nine Network announced that she would become the fourth judge on Australia's Got Talent. On 12 September 2013, it was announced that Halliwell would return to the music industry in Australia with the release of her first solo single in nearly eight years, "Half of Me". Since 1996, Halliwell has sold more than 90 million records, of which 15 million were as a solo artist (5 million albums and 10 million singles), and a further 75 million during her tenure with the Spice Girls.ISO/IEC 15504
ISO/IEC 15504 Information technology – Process assessment, also termed Software Process Improvement and Capability Determination (SPICE), is a set of technical standards documents for the computer software development process and related business management functions. It is one of the joint International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards, which was developed by the ISO and IEC joint subcommittee, ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 7.ISO/IEC 15504 was initially derived from process lifecycle standard ISO/IEC 12207 and from maturity models like Bootstrap, Trillium and the Capability Maturity Model (CMM).
ISO/IEC 15504 has been revised by: ISO/IEC 33001:2015 Information technology – Process assessment – Concepts and terminology as of March, 2015 and is no longer available at ISO.Maluku Islands
The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas () are an archipelago in eastern Indonesia. Tectonically they are located on the Halmahera Plate within the Molucca Sea Collision Zone. Geographically they are located east of Sulawesi, west of New Guinea, and north and east of Timor.
The islands were known as the Spice Islands due to the nutmeg, mace and cloves that were originally exclusively found there, the presence of which sparked colonial interest from Europe in the sixteenth century.The Maluku Islands formed a single province from Indonesian independence until 1999, when it was split into two provinces. A new province, North Maluku, incorporates the area between Morotai and Sula, with the arc of islands from Buru and Seram to Wetar remaining within the existing Maluku Province. North Maluku is predominantly Muslim, and its capital is Sofifi on Halmahera island. Maluku province has a larger Christian population, and its capital is Ambon. Though originally Melanesian, many island populations, especially in the Banda Islands, were massacred in the seventeenth century during the spice wars. A second influx of immigrants primarily from Java began in the early twentieth century under the Dutch and continues in the Indonesian era.
Between 1999 and 2002, conflict between Muslims and Christians killed thousands and displaced half a million people.Mel B
Melanie Janine Brown (born 29 May 1975), professionally known as Mel B, is an English singer, actress, television personality, and author. Brown rose to prominence in the 1990s as a member of the girl group Spice Girls, in which she was nicknamed Scary Spice. With over 85 million records sold worldwide, the group became the best-selling female group of all time.
During the group's hiatus, Brown released her debut solo album Hot. The album's lead single, "I Want You Back" charted at number one on the UK Singles Chart, and was included on the soundtrack for the 1998 film Why Do Fools Fall in Love. Other singles from the album such as "Tell Me" and "Feels So Good" both charted within the top 10 in the UK. After signing with the independent label Amber Café, she released her second solo album L.A. State of Mind, which spawned the release of one single "Today". Brown released "For Once in My Life" in 2013, her first single in eight years.
Brown has since made appearances on television. In 2007, she participated on the fifth season of the American dance competition series Dancing with the Stars, finishing in second place with her professional partner Maksim Chmerkovskiy. Between 2011 and 2016, she served as a guest and main judge on the Australian and British versions of The X Factor. She also co-presented the Australian version of Dancing with the Stars for one season in 2012. From 2013 until 2019, Brown served a judge on the NBC reality show America's Got Talent and America's Got Talent: The Champions. She served as a coach and mentor on The Voice Kids Australia in 2014. Since 2016, she has also presented the British edition of Lip Sync Battle, alongside rapper Professor Green.Melange (fictional drug)
Melange (), often referred to as simply "the spice", is the name of the fictional drug central to the Dune series of science fiction novels by Frank Herbert, and derivative works.
In the series, the most essential and valuable commodity in the universe is melange, a drug that gives the user a longer life span, greater vitality, and heightened awareness; it can also unlock prescience in some humans, depending upon the dosage and the consumer's physiology. This prescience-enhancing property makes safe and accurate interstellar travel possible. Melange comes with a steep price, however: it is addictive, and withdrawal is fatal. Harvesting melange is also hazardous in the extreme, as its only known source is the harsh desert planet Arrakis, and melange deposits are guarded by giant sandworms.Melanie C
Melanie Jayne Chisholm (born 12 January 1974), professionally known as Melanie C or Mel C, is an English singer, songwriter, entrepreneur, actress and television personality. She is one of the five members of the Spice Girls, in which she was nicknamed Sporty Spice.
Since 1996, Chisholm has sold more than 105 million records, including 85 million copies with the group, and 20 million solo albums, singles and collaborations, and has earned over 325 worldwide certifications (included numerous diamonds), including 40 silver, gold and platinum certifications as a solo artist.
Having co-written 11 UK Number 1s, more than any other female artist in chart history, she remains the only female performer to top the charts as a solo artist, as part of a duo, quartet and quintet. With 12 UK Number 1 singles, including the charity single as part of The Justice Collective, she is the second female artist – and the first British female artist – with most singles at number 1 in the United Kingdom, and with a total of 14 songs that have received the number 1 in Britain (including the double A-sides), Chisholm is the female artist with most songs at number 1 in the UK ranking history. Her work has earned her several awards and nominations, including a Guinness Book mention, three World Music Awards, five Brit Awards from 10 nominations, three American Music Awards, four Billboard Music Awards from six nomination, eight Billboard special awards, three MTV Europe Music Awards from seven nominations, one MTV Video Music Awards from two nomination, ten ASCAP awards, one Juno Award from two nominations, and four nominations nomination at the Echo Awards.Chisholm began her solo career in late 1998 by singing with Canadian rock singer Bryan Adams on the worldwide hit "When You're Gone". Her solo debut album Northern Star was released in 1999, reaching number 1 in Sweden and number 4 on the UK Albums Chart. It was certified internationally with seven platinum and three gold certifications, including triple-Platinum by the British Phonographic Industry, selling over 4 million copies worldwide, and becoming the best selling solo album of any Spice Girls member. It produced four top 5s and a top 20 single, two of which reached the number 1 spot in the UK. The album was certified multi-platinum worldwide.Chisholm's second album, Reason, was released in March 2003 and sold more than 500,000 copies. The album reached number 5 in the UK where it was certified Gold, and produced one top 10, one top 20 and a double A sided top 30 single. In 2004, Chisholm parted from Virgin and founded her own record company, Red Girl Records. Beautiful Intentions, her third album, was released in April 2005. It reached number 24 in the UK, number 15 in Germany and spent 9 weeks at number 1 in Portugal. The album was certified Gold by the BVMI and the IFPI Switzerland and Platinum by the AFP, selling over 1.5 million copies worldwide, and produced three singles, one of which charted at number 10 in the UK, and one peak at number 1, going platinum in Germany. Her fourth studio album, This Time, was released in April 2007 and reached 57 on the UK Albums Chart, becoming her first top 10 album in Switzerland where was certified Gold. Of the five singles released from the album, the first three went to number 1 in Portugal, one charted at number 1 in some parts of Europe, and one become a top 30 in the UK and a top 10 in some European charts. The BBC reviewed the album as "competent" but unlikely to attract new listeners. In December, Chisholm reunited with the Spice Girls to release a greatest hits album supported by a world tour. She released her fifth solo album, The Sea, on 2 September 2011, and her first EP The Night on 13 May 2012. They were followed by sixth studio album Stages (2012) and seventh album, Version of Me (2016).Nutmeg
Nutmeg is the seed or ground spice of several species of the genus Myristica. Myristica fragrans (fragrant nutmeg or true nutmeg) is a dark-leaved evergreen tree cultivated for two spices derived from its fruit: nutmeg, from its seed, and mace, from the seed covering. It is also a commercial source of an essential oil and nutmeg butter. The California nutmeg, Torreya californica, has a seed of similar appearance, but is not closely related to Myristica fragans, and is not used as a spice. If consumed in amounts exceeding its typical use as a spice, nutmeg powder may produce allergic reactions, cause contact dermatitis, or have psychoactive effects. Although used in traditional medicine for treating various disorders, nutmeg has no known medicinal value.Spice Girls
The Spice Girls are an English pop girl group formed in 1994. The group comprised Melanie Brown ("Scary Spice"), Melanie Chisholm ("Sporty Spice"), Emma Bunton ("Baby Spice"), Geri Halliwell ("Ginger Spice"), and Victoria Beckham ("Posh Spice"). They were signed to Virgin Records and released their debut single "Wannabe" in 1996, which hit number one in 37 countries and established their global success. Their debut album Spice sold more than 31 million copies worldwide, becoming the best-selling album by a female group in history. Their follow-up album, Spiceworld sold over 20 million copies worldwide. The Spice Girls have sold 85 million records worldwide, making them the best-selling female group of all time, one of the best-selling pop groups of all time, and the biggest British pop success since The Beatles. Among the highest profile acts in 1990s British popular culture, Time called them "arguably the most recognizable face" of Cool Britannia, the mid-1990s celebration of youth culture in the UK.Measures of their success include international record sales, a 2007–2008 reunion tour, merchandising, iconic symbolism such as Halliwell's Union Jack dress representing "girl power", and a film, Spice World. The group became one of the most successful marketing engines ever, earning up to $75 million per year, with their global gross income estimated at $500–800 million by May 1998. Under the guidance of their mentor and manager Simon Fuller, the Spice Girls embraced merchandising and became a regular feature of the British and global press. In 1996, Top of the Pops magazine gave each member of the group aliases, which were adopted by the group and media. According to Rolling Stone journalist and biographer David Sinclair, "Scary, Baby, Ginger, Posh, and Sporty were the most widely recognised group of individuals since John, Paul, George, and Ringo". With the "girl power" label, the Spice Girls were popular cultural icons of the 1990s. They are cited as part of the 'second wave' 1990s British Invasion of the US.Spice trade
The spice trade
refers to the trade between historical civilizations in Asia, Northeast Africa and Europe. Spices such as cinnamon, cassia, cardamom, ginger, pepper, and turmeric were known and used in antiquity for commerce in the Eastern World. These spices found their way into the Middle East before the beginning of the Christian era, where the true sources of these spices were withheld by the traders and associated with fantastic tales. Early writings and stone age carvings of neolithic age obtained indicates that India's southwest coastal port Muziris, in Kerala, had established itself as a major spice trade centre from as early as 3000 BC, which marked the beginning of the spice trade. Kerala, referred to as the land of spices or as the "Spice Garden of India", was the place traders and explorers wanted to reach, including Christopher Columbus, Vasco da Gama, and others.The Greco-Roman world followed by trading along the Incense route and the Roman-India routes. During the first millennium, the sea routes to Sri Lanka (the Roman – Taprobane) and India were controlled by the Ethiopians who became the maritime trading power of the Red Sea and the Indians. The Kingdom of Axum (c. 5th-century BC–AD 11th century) had pioneered the Red Sea route before the 1st century AD. By mid-7th century AD after the rise of Islam, Arab traders started dominating the maritime routes.
Arab traders eventually took over conveying goods via the Levant and Venetian merchants to Europe until the rise of the Ottoman Turks cut the route again by 1453. Overland routes helped the spice trade initially, but maritime trade routes led to tremendous growth in commercial activities. During the high and late medieval periods Muslim traders dominated maritime spice trading routes throughout the Indian Ocean, tapping source regions in East Asia and shipping spices from trading emporiums in India westward to the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea, from which overland routes led to Europe.
The trade was changed by the European Age of Discovery, during which the spice trade, particularly in black pepper, became an influential activity for European traders. The Cape Route from Europe to the Indian Ocean via the Cape of Good Hope was pioneered by the Portuguese explorer navigator Vasco da Gama in 1498, resulting in new maritime routes for trade.This trade, which drove the world economy from the end of the Middle Ages well into the modern times, ushered in an age of European domination in the East. Channels, such as the Bay of Bengal, served as bridges for cultural and commercial exchanges between diverse cultures as nations struggled to gain control of the trade along the many spice routes. European dominance was slow to develop. The Portuguese trade routes were mainly restricted and limited by the use of ancient routes, ports, and nations that were difficult to dominate. The Dutch were later able to bypass many of these problems by pioneering a direct ocean route from the Cape of Good Hope to the Sunda Strait in Indonesia.Sumac
Sumac (), also spelled sumach and sumaq, is any one of about 35 species of flowering plants in the genus Rhus and related genera, in the family Anacardiaceae. Sumac grows in subtropical and temperate regions throughout the world, especially in East Asia, Africa, and North America.Synthetic cannabinoids
Synthetic cannabinoids are a class of molecules that bind to cannabinoid receptors in the body (the same receptors to which THC and CBD attach, which are cannabinoids in cannabis plants). They are designer drugs that are commonly sprayed onto plant matter and are usually smoked, although since 2016 they have also been consumed in a concentrated liquid form in the US and UK. They have been marketed as herbal incense, or “herbal smoking blends” and sold under common names like K2, Spice, and Synthetic Marijuana. They are often labeled “not for human consumption” for liability defense.When the herbal blends went on sale in the early 2000s, it was thought that they achieved psychoactive effects from a mixture of natural herbs. Laboratory analysis in 2008 showed instead that many contained synthetic cannabinoids. Since 2016 synthetic cannabinoids are the most common new psychoactive substances to be reported. From 2008 to 2014, 142 synthetic cannabinoids were reported to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA). A large and complex variety of synthetic cannabinoids are designed in an attempt to avoid legal restrictions on cannabis, making synthetic cannabinoids designer drugs.Most synthetic cannabinoids are agonists of the cannabinoid receptors. They have been designed to be similar to THC, the natural cannabinoid with the strongest binding affinity to the CB1 receptor, which is linked to the psychoactive effects or "high" of marijuana. These synthetic analogs often have greater binding affinity and greater potency to the CB1 receptors. There are several synthetic cannabinoid families (e.g. CP-xxx, WIN-xxx, JWH-xxx, UR-xxx, and PB-xx) classified based on the base structure.Reported user negative effects include palpitations, paranoia, intense anxiety, nausea, vomiting, confusion, poor coordination, and seizures. There have also been reports of a strong compulsion to re-dose, withdrawal symptoms, and persistent cravings. There have been several deaths linked to synthetic cannabinoids. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found that the number of deaths from synthetic cannabinoid use tripled between 2014 and 2015.In 2018 the United States Food and Drug Administration warned of significant health risks from synthetic cannabinoid products that contain the rat poison brodifacoum, which is added because it is thought to extend the duration of the drugs' effects. Severe illnesses and death have resulted from this contamination.Victoria Beckham
Victoria Caroline Beckham (née Adams; born 17 April 1974) is an English businesswoman, fashion designer and former singer. In the late 1990s, Beckham rose to fame with the all-female pop group Spice Girls, and was dubbed Posh Spice by the July 1996 issue of the British music magazine Top of the Pops. After the Spice Girls split, she was signed to Virgin Records and Telstar Records and had four UK Top 10 singles. Her first release, "Out of Your Mind", reached number 2 in the UK Singles Chart.
Beckham has participated in five official documentaries and reality shows about her, including Victoria's Secrets, Being Victoria Beckham, The Real Beckhams, Victoria Beckham - A Mile In Their Shoes and Victoria Beckham: Coming to America. She has since made a cameo appearance in an episode of Ugly Betty, and been a guest judge on Project Runway, Germany's Next Topmodel, and American Idol.
In the past decade, Beckham has become an internationally recognised style icon and fashion designer. Following high-profile collaborations with other brands, she launched an eponymous label in 2008, and a lower-priced (diffusion) label in 2011. The Victoria Beckham label was named designer brand of the year in the UK in 2011; in 2012 the brand was assessed as the star performer in the Beckham family's business interests. Writing in the Daily Telegraph in 2011, Belinda White noted that the transition from WAG to fashion designer had been more successful than most had predicted, saying: "She has gathered a significant celebrity following and won over the scathing fashion pack who now clamour for a ticket to her bi-annual show at New York Fashion Week." She is married to David Beckham, and they have four children. As of September 2015, the couple's joint wealth is estimated at £508 million.Za'atar
Za'atar (Arabic: زَعْتَر, IPA: [ˈzaʕtar]) is a generic name for a family of related Middle Eastern herbs from the genera Origanum (oregano), Calamintha (basil thyme), Thymus (typically Thymus vulgaris, i.e., thyme), and Satureja (savory). The name za'atar alone most properly applies to Origanum syriacum, considered in biblical scholarship to be the hyssop (Hebrew: אזוב [eˈzov]) of the Hebrew Bible. It is also the name for a condiment made from dried hyssop leaves, mixed with sesame seeds, dried sumac, and often salt, as well as other spices. Used in Levantine cuisine, both the herb and spice mixture are popular throughout the Middle East.
Culinary herbs and spices
|Edible plants / roots|
|Sap / Gum / etc.|