Spelling in Gwoyeu Romatzyh

The spelling of Gwoyeu Romatzyh (GR) can be divided into its treatment of initials, finals and tones. GR uses contrasting unvoiced/voiced pairs of consonants to represent aspirated and unaspirated initials in Chinese: for example b and p represent IPA [p] and [pʰ]. The letters j, ch and sh represent two different series of initials: the alveolo-palatal and the retroflex sounds. Although these spellings create no ambiguity in practice, readers more familiar with Pinyin should pay particular attention to them: GR ju, for example, corresponds to Pinyin zhu, not ju (which is spelled jiu in GR).

Many of the finals in GR are similar to those used in other romanizations. Distinctive features of GR include the use of iu for the close front rounded vowel spelled ü or simply u in Pinyin. Final -y represents certain allophones of i: GR shy and sy correspond to Pinyin shi and si respectively.

The most striking feature of GR is its treatment of tones. The first tone is represented by the basic form of each syllable, the spelling being modified according to precise but complex rules for the other three tones. For example the syllable spelled ai (first tone) becomes air, ae and ay in the other tones. A neutral (unstressed) tone can optionally be indicated by preceding it with a dot or full stop: for example perng.yeou "friend".

Rhotacization, a common feature of Mandarin (especially Beijing) Chinese, is marked in GR by the suffix -(e)l. Owing to the rather complex orthographical details, a given rhotacized form may correspond to more than one basic syllable: for example jiel may be either ji(n) + el ("today") or ji + el ("chick").

A number of frequently-occurring morphemes have abbreviated spellings in GR. The most common of these, followed by their Pinyin equivalents, are: -g (-ge), -j (-zhe), -m (-me), sh (shi) and -tz (-zi).

Basic forms

GR, like Pinyin, uses contrasting unvoiced/voiced pairs of consonants to represent aspirated and unaspirated sounds in Chinese. For example b and p represent IPA [p] and [pʰ] (p and p' in Wade-Giles). Another feature of GR surviving in Pinyin is the representation of words (usually of two syllables) as units: e.g. Gwoyeu rather than the Wade-Giles Kuo2-yü3.

The basic features of GR spelling are shown in the following tables of initials and finals, the latter referring to the basic T1 forms.[1] Many of the spelling features are the same as in Pinyin; differences are highlighted in the tables and discussed in detail after the second table. The rules of tonal spelling follow in a separate section.

In the tables Pinyin spellings are given only where they differ from GR, in which case they appear in (parentheses). The tables also give the pronunciation in [brackets].

Initials

Labial Alveolar Retroflex Alveolo-palatal Velar
Nasal m [m]
n [n]
Plosive unaspirated b [p]
d [t]
g [k]
aspirated p [pʰ]
t [tʰ]
k [kʰ]
Affricate unaspirated tz [ts]
ㄗ (z)
j [ʈʂ]
ㄓ (zh)
ji [tɕ]
aspirated ts [tsʰ]
ㄘ (c)
ch [ʈʂʰ]
chi [tɕʰ]
ㄑ (q)
Fricative f [f]
s [s]
sh [ʂ]
shi [ɕ]
ㄒ (x)
h [x]
Liquid l [l]
r [ɻ~ʐ]
Key
GR differs from Pinyin
alveolo-palatal consonants
retroflex consonants

Finals

Coda
/i/ /u/ /n/ /ŋ/ /ɻ/
Medial -y [ɨ]
U+312D.svg (-i)
e [ɤ]
a [a]
ei [ei]
ai [ai]
ou [ou]
au [au]
ㄠ (ao)
en [ən]
an [an]
ong [ʊŋ]
ㄨㄥ
eng [əŋ]
ang [aŋ]
el [aɚ]
ㄦ (er)
/j/ i [i]
ie [je]
ㄧㄝ
ia [ja]
ㄧㄚ
iai [jai]
ㄧㄞ
iou [jou]
ㄧㄡ (iu)
iau [jau]
ㄧㄠ (iao)
in [in]
ㄧㄣ
ian [jɛn]
ㄧㄢ
iong [jʊŋ]
ㄩㄥ
ing [iŋ]
ㄧㄥ
iang [jaŋ]
ㄧㄤ
/w/ u [u]
uo/o [wo]
ㄨㄛ
ua [wa]
ㄨㄚ
uei [wei]
ㄨㄟ (ui)
uai [wai]
ㄨㄞ
uen [wən]
ㄨㄣ (un)
uan [wan]
ㄨㄢ
ueng [wəŋ]
ㄨㄥ
uang [waŋ]
ㄨㄤ
/ɥ/ iu [y]
ㄩ (ü)
iue [ɥe]
ㄩㄝ (üe)
iun [yn]
ㄩㄣ (ün)
iuan [ɥɛn]
ㄩㄢ (üan)
Key
GR differs from Pinyin

Spelling

GR basic (T1) spellings are compared to the spelling conventions of Pinyin in the table below. A separate table, after the tonal rules, compares spellings using all four tones.

Alveolar and retroflex series

The letter j and the digraphs ch and sh represent two different series of sounds. When followed by i they correspond to the alveolo-palatal sounds (Pinyin j, q, and x); otherwise they correspond to the retroflex sounds (Pinyin zh, ch, and sh). In practice this feature creates no ambiguity, because the two series of consonants are in complementary distribution. Nevertheless it does make the correspondence between GR and Pinyin spellings difficult to follow. In some cases they agree (chu is the same syllable in both systems); but in other cases they differ—sometimes confusingly so (for example, GR ju, jiu and jiou correspond to Pinyin zhu, ju and jiu respectively).

This potential for confusion can be seen graphically in the table of initials, where the bold letters j, ch and sh cut across the highlighted division between alveolo-palatal and retroflex.

Other differences from Pinyin

GR also differs from Pinyin in its transcription of vowels and semivowels:

  • GR uses iu for the close front rounded vowel (IPA y) spelled ü or in many cases simply u in Pinyin. (The contracted Pinyin iu is written iou in GR.)
  • Final -y represents the [ɨ] allophone of i: GR shy and sy correspond to Pinyin shi and si respectively.
  • No basic forms in GR begin with w- or y-: Pinyin ying and wu are written ing and u in GR (but only in T1).

Other important GR spellings which differ from Pinyin include:

  • GR writes au for Pinyin ao (but see the rule for T3).
  • el corresponds to Pinyin er (-r being reserved to indicate T2). The most important use of -(e)l is as a rhotacization suffix.
  • GR uses ts for Pinyin c and tz for Pinyin z.
  • -uen and -uei correspond to the contracted Pinyin forms -un and -ui.
  • GR also has three letters for dialectal sounds: v (万 in extended Zhuyin), ng (兀), and gn (广).

As in Pinyin, an apostrophe is used to clarify syllable divisions. Pin'in, the GR spelling of the word "Pinyin", is itself a good example: the apostrophe shows that the compound is made up of pin + in rather than pi + nin.

Pinyin comparison: basic forms

The following list summarizes the differences between GR and Pinyin spelling. The list is in GR alphabetical order (click the button next to the heading to change to Pinyin order).

GR Pinyin
au ao
ch(i) q
el er
iau iao
iou iu
iu u (qu), ü
iue ue (que), üe
iuan uan (quan)
iun un (qun)
j(a,e,u,y) zh
sh(i) x
ts c
tz z
uei ui
uen un (chun)
y (final) i (zhi, ci, shi)

Tonal rules

Note: In this section the word "tone" is abbreviated as "T": thus T1 stands for Tone 1, or first tone, etc.

Wherever possible GR indicates tones 2, 3 and 4 by respelling the basic T1 form of the syllable, replacing a vowel with another having a similar sound (i with y, for example, or u with w). But this concise procedure cannot be applied in every case, since the syllable may not contain a suitable vowel for modification. In such cases a letter (r or h) is added or inserted instead. The precise rule to be followed in any specific case is determined by the rules given below.[2]

A colour-coded rule of thumb is given below for each tone: the same colours are used below in a list of provinces. Each rule of thumb is then amplified by a comprehensive set of rules for that tone. These codes are used in the rules:

  • V = a vowel
  • NV = a non-vowel (either a consonant or zero in the case of an initial vowel)
  • ⇏ = "but avoid forming [the specified combination]"

Pinyin equivalents are given in brackets after each set of examples. To illustrate the GR tonal rules in practice, a table comparing Pinyin and GR spellings of some Chinese provinces follows the detailed rules.

Tone 1: basic form

  • Initial sonorants (l-/m-/n-/r-): insert -h- as second letter. rheng, mha (rēng, mā)
  • Otherwise use the basic form.

Tone 2: i/u → y/w; or add -r

  • Initial sonorants: use basic form. reng, ma (réng, má)
  • NVi → NVy ( + -i if final). chyng, chyan, yng, yan, pyi (qíng, qián, yíng, yán, pí)
  • NVu → NVw ( + -u if final). chwan, wang, hwo, chwu (chuán, wáng, huó, chú)
  • Otherwise add r to vowel or diphthong. charng, bair (cháng, bái)

Tone 3: i/u → e/o; or double vowel

  • Vi or iV → Ve or eV (⇏ee). chean, bae, sheau (qiǎn, bǎi, xiǎo), but not gee
  • Vu or uV → Vo or oV (⇏oo). doan, dao, shoei (duǎn, dǎo, shuǐ), but not hoo
  • When both i and u can be found, only the first one changes, i.e. jeau, goai, sheu (jiǎo, guǎi, xǔ), not jeao, goae, sheo
  • For basic forms starting with i-/u-, change the starting i-/u- to e-/o- and add initial y-/w-. yean, woo, yeu (yǎn, wǒ, yǔ)
  • Otherwise double the (main)[3] vowel. chiing, daa, geei, huoo, goou (qǐng, dǎ, gěi, huǒ, gǒu)

Tone 4: change/double final letter; or add -h

  • Vi → Vy. day, suey (dài, suì)
  • Vu → Vw (⇏iw). daw, gow (dào, gòu), but not chiw
  • -n-nn. duann (duàn)
  • -l-ll. ell (èr)
  • -ng-nq. binq (bìng)
  • Otherwise add h. dah, chiuh, dih (dà, qù, dì)
  • For basic forms starting with i-/u-, replace initial i-/u- with y-/w-, in addition to the necessary tonal change. yaw, wuh (yào, wù)

Neutral tone (轻声 Chingsheng / qīngshēng)

A dot (usually written as a period or full stop) may be placed before neutral tone (unstressed) syllables, which appear in their original tonal spelling: perng.yeou, dih.fang (péngyou, dìfang). Y.R. Chao used this device in the first eight chapters of the Mandarin Primer, restricting it thereafter to new words on their first appearance. In A Grammar of Spoken Chinese he introduced a subscript circle (o) to indicate an optional neutral tone, as in bujyodaw, "don't know" (Pinyin pronunciation bùzhīdào or bùzhīdao).

It is important to note that any GR syllables beginning u- or i- must be T1: in T2, T3 and T4 these syllables all begin with w- or y- respectively. An example in all four tones is the following: ing, yng, yiing, yinq (Pinyin ying).

Rime Table

The term Rime, as used by linguists, is similar to rhyme. See Rime table.

Rimes in Gwoyeu Romatzyh
IPA Tone 1 Tone 2 Tone 3 Tone 4 IPA Tone 1 Tone 2 Tone 3 Tone 4 IPA Tone 1 Tone 2 Tone 3 Tone 4 IPA Tone 1 Tone 2 Tone 3 Tone 4
[ɨ] -y -yr -yy -yh [i] i yi ii
(yii)
ih
(yih)
[u] u wu uu
(wuu)
uh
(wuh)
[y] iu yu eu
(yeu)
iuh
(yuh)
[a] a ar aa ah [ja] ia ya ea
(yea)
iah
(yah)
[wa] ua wa oa
(woa)
uah
(wah)
[ai] ai air ae ay [jai] iai yai eai
(yeai)
iay
(yay)
[wai] uai wai oai
(woai)
uay
(way)
[au] au aur ao aw [jau] iau yau eau
(yeau)
iaw
(yaw)
[an] an arn aan ann [jɛn] ian yan ean
(yean)
iann
(yann)
[wan] uan wan oan
(woan)
uann
(wann)
[ɥɛn] iuan yuan euan
(yeuan)
iuann
(yuann)
[aŋ] ang arng aang anq [jaŋ] iang yang eang
(yeang)
ianq
(yanq)
[waŋ] uang wang oang
(woang)
uanq
(wanq)
[ɤ] e er ee eh [je] ie ye iee
(yee)
ieh
(yeh)
[wo] uo wo uoo
(woo)
uoh
(woh)
[ɥe] iue yue eue
(yeue)
iueh
(yueh)
[ei] ei eir eei ey [wei] uei wei oei
(woei)
uey
(wey)
[ou] ou our oou ow [jou] iou you eou
(yeou)
iow
(yow)
[ən] en ern een enn [in] in yn iin
(yiin)
inn
(yinn)
[wən] uen wen oen
(woen)
uenn
(wenn)
[yn] iun yun eun
(yeun)
iunn
(yunn)
[əŋ] eng erng eeng enq [iŋ] ing yng iing
(yiing)
inq
(yinq)
[ʊŋ]
[wəŋ]
ong
(ueng)
orng
(weng)
oong
(woeng)
onq
(wenq)
[jʊŋ] iong yong eong
(yeong)
ionq
(yonq)
[aɚ] el erl eel ell

Pinyin comparison: all tones

This table illustrates the GR tonal rules in use by listing some Chinese provinces in both GR and Pinyin (to switch to Pinyin alphabetical order, click the button next to the heading).[4] The tonal spelling markers or "clues" are highlighted using the same colour-coding scheme as above. Note that T1 is the default tone: hence Shinjiang (Xīnjiāng), for example, is spelled using the basic form of both syllables.

GR Pinyin
Chinghae Qīnghǎi
Fwujiann Fújiàn
Goangdong Guǎngdōng
Herbeei Héběi
Hwunan Húnán
Jehjiang Zhèjiāng
Neymengguu Nèiménggǔ
Shaanshi Shǎnxī
Shanshi Shānxī
Shinjiang Xīnjiāng
Shitzanq Xīzàng
Syhchuan Sìchuān
GR tone key
Tone 1 (basic form: unmarked) Tone 2 Tone 3 Tone 4

Rhotacization

Erhua (兒化), or the rhotacized or retroflex[5] ending, is indicated in GR by -el rather than -r, which is already used as a T2 marker. The appropriate tonal modification is then applied to the rhotacized form: for example shell (shìr) and ideal (yìdiǎnr).[6]

Most other romanization systems preserve the underlying form, but GR transcribes the surface form as pronounced. These are the main principles followed when a syllable is rhotacized in GR:[7]

  1. -el replaces final -y
  2. -l replaces final -i (in -ai and -ei) and -n, but -in becomes -iel
  3. -el is added to -i and -iu
  4. -l is added to all other finals, but -ing acquires an additional -e- to become -iengl.

As a consequence the one-to-one correspondence between GR and Pinyin is broken, since one GR rhotacized form may correspond to several Pinyin forms.[8] For example:

  • jiel corresponds to both jīr and jīnr (both pronounced [t͡ɕjɚ˥]).
  • jial corresponds to both jiār and jiānr (both pronounced [t͡ɕjaɚ̯˥]).

Tone sandhi

The most important manifestation of tone sandhi in Mandarin is the change of a T3 syllable to T2 when followed by another T3 syllable (T3 + T3 → T2 + T3). GR does not reflect this change in the spelling: the word for "fruit" is written shoeiguoo, even though the pronunciation is closer to shweiguoo.[9] Four common words with more complicated tone sandhi (also ignored in the spelling) are mentioned below under Exceptions.

Abbreviations

A number of frequently-occurring morphemes have abbreviated spellings in GR.[10] The commonest of these, followed by their Pinyin equivalents, are:

  • -g (-ge)
  • -j (-zhe)
  • -m (-me)
occurs in sherm (shénme), jemm/tzemm (zhème) and tzeem (zěnme)
  • sh (shi)
also in compounds such as jiowsh (jiùshi), dannsh (dànshi), etc.
  • -tz (-zi)

Reduplication

In its original form GR used the two "spare" letters of the alphabet, v and x, to indicate reduplication. This mimicked the method by which the Chinese script indicates repeated characters with an iteration mark (々). In GR the letter x indicates that the preceding syllable is repeated (shieh.x = shieh.shieh, "thank you"), vx being used when the preceding two syllables are repeated (haoshuo vx! = haoshuo haoshuo! "you're too kind!").[11]

This concise but completely unphonetic, and hence unintuitive, device appears in Chao's Mandarin Primer and all W. Simon's texts (including his Chinese-English Dictionary). Eventually, however, it was silently discarded even by its inventor: in Chao's Grammar as well as his Sayable Chinese all reduplicated syllables are written out in full in their GR transcription.

Exceptions

The following words and characters do not follow the rules of GR:

  • The name Romatzyh (which strictly speaking should be "Luomaatzyh") follows international usage (Roma).
  • The characters 一 ("one"), 七 ("seven"), 八 ("eight"), and 不 ("no/not") are always written i, chi, ba, and bu, respectively, regardless of the tone in which they are pronounced. In other words changes due to tone sandhi are not reflected in GR.

Notes

  1. ^ See Chao(1948):19-24 and Chao(1968a):20-25 for tables and fuller discussion.
  2. ^ The rules are given, though in a different form, in Chao (1948): 28-30 (synopsis p 336) and Chao (1968a): 29-30 (synopsis p 847). See also Table IX in Simon,W.(1947):lviii.
  3. ^ In diphthongs the main vowel is the vowel bearing the tone mark in Pinyin.
  4. ^ For a complete list of provinces in GR, characters and "map spelling", see Simon,W.(1947): Table XV(1),c.
  5. ^ This is Chao's terminology: see Chao(1968a):46.
  6. ^ The temptation to read these examples as the English words shell and ideal must be resisted.
  7. ^ For a detailed discussion of the spelling of these endings in GR, see Chao(1968a): 46-52 and Table IX in Simon,W.(1947): lix.
  8. ^ Table IX in Simon,W.(1947):lix gives a useful list of the possible plain forms corresponding to each rhotacized form.
  9. ^ In the first eight chapters of Chao(1948) such syllables are printed in italics as a reminder to students (e.g. "shoeiguoo").
  10. ^ These and other abbreviations are listed in Chao(1968a):xxx.
  11. ^ These symbols are introduced unobtrusively in endnotes to Lessons 2 and 4 on pp 131 and 146 of Chao(1948)—the explanation of vx being further hidden in a parenthesis.

References

  • Chao, Yuen Ren (1948). Mandarin Primer: an Intensive Course in Spoken Chinese. Harvard University Press.
  • Chao, Yuen Ren (1968a). A Grammar of Spoken Chinese. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-00219-9.
  • Simon, Walter (1947). A Beginners' [sic] Chinese-English Dictionary. Lund Humphries & Co. Ltd.
Gwoyeu Romatzyh

Gwoyeu Romatzyh (pinyin: Guóyǔ Luómǎzì, literally "National Language Romanization"), abbreviated GR, is a system for writing Mandarin Chinese in the Latin alphabet. The system was conceived by Yuen Ren Chao and developed by a group of linguists including Chao and Lin Yutang from 1925 to 1926. Chao himself later published influential works in linguistics using GR. In addition a small number of other textbooks and dictionaries in GR were published in Hong Kong and overseas from 1942 to 2000.

GR is the better known of the two romanization systems which indicate the four tones of Mandarin by varying the spelling of syllables ("tonal spelling"). These tones are as fundamental to the Chinese language as vowels are to English; their presence lets speakers discriminate between otherwise identical syllables and words. Other systems indicate the tones with either diacritics (for example Pinyin: āi, ái, ǎi and ài) or numbers (Wade–Giles: ai1, ai2, etc.). GR spells the four tones of the same vowel, ai, air, ae and ay. These spellings, which follow specific rules, indicate the tones while retaining the pronunciation of the syllable ai.

Chao claimed that, because GR embeds the tone of each syllable in its spelling, it may help students to master Chinese tones. One study of GR, however, comparing students' ability to dictate a romanized text in GR versus pinyin, found that the use of GR resulted in slightly lower accuracy in tonal production. GR uses a complicated system of tonal spelling that obscures the basic relationship between spelling and tone; for example, the difference between tones 1 and 2 is variously indicated as mha vs. ma, ching vs. chyng, chang vs. charng, etc. Although tonal spelling has been adopted as part of the normal romanization of a number of Asian languages (e.g. Hmong), all such systems indicate different tones in a simple and consistent fashion by adding letters to the end of a syllable (e.g. in Hmong, -b indicates high tone, -s indicates low tone, -j indicates high-falling tone, etc.).

In 1928 China adopted GR as the nation's official romanization system. GR was used to indicate pronunciations in dictionaries of the National (Mandarin-based) Language. Its proponents hoped one day to establish it as a writing system for a reformed Chinese script. But despite support from a small number of trained linguists in China and overseas, GR met with public indifference and even hostility due to its complexity. Another obstacle preventing its widespread adoption was its narrow basis on the Beijing dialect, in a period lacking a strong centralized government to enforce its use. Eventually GR lost ground to Pinyin and other later romanization systems. However, its influence is still evident, as several of the principles introduced by its creators have been used in romanization systems that followed it. Its pattern of tone spelling was retained in the standard spelling of the Chinese province of Shaanxi (shǎnxī, 陝西), which cannot be distinguished from Shanxi (shānxī, 山西) when written in pinyin without diacritics.

Simplified Wade

Simplified Wade, abbreviated SW, is a modification of the Wade–Giles romanization system for writing Standard Mandarin Chinese. It was devised by the Swedish linguist Olov Bertil Anderson (1920–1993), who first published the system in 1969. Simplified Wade uses tonal spelling: in other words it modifies the letters in a syllable in order to indicate tone differences. It is one of only two Mandarin romanization systems that indicate tones in such a way (the other being Gwoyeu Romatzyh). All other systems use diacritics or numbers to indicate tone.

Yau (surname)

Yau is a surname. It is a non-pinyin romanisation of multiple Chinese surnames, based on different varieties of Chinese, as well as a surname in other cultures.

Among respondents to the 2000 United States Census, Yau was the 394th-most common surname among Asian Pacific Americans, and 10,881th-most common overall, with 2,686 bearers (93.9% of whom identified as Asian/Pacific Islander).

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