Speech-language pathology

Speech-Language Pathology is a field of expertise practiced by a clinician known as a speech-language pathologist (SLP)[1] or a speech therapist. SLP is considered a "related health profession" or "allied health profession" along with audiology, behavior analysis, optometry, occupational therapy, clinical psychology, physical therapy, and others.

SLPs specialize in the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of communication disorders (speech disorders and language disorders), cognitive-communication disorders, voice disorders, and swallowing disorders. SLPs also play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of autism spectrum disorder (often in a team with pediatricians and psychologists).

A common misconception is that speech-language pathology is restricted treatment of articulation disorders (e.g. helping English speaking individuals enunciate the traditionally difficult "r") and/or the treatment of individuals who stutter. In fact, speech-language pathology is concerned with a broad scope of speech, language, swallowing, and voice issues involved in communication,[2] some of which include:

  • Word-finding and other semantic issues, either as a result of a specific language impairment (SLI) such as a language delay or as a secondary characteristic of a more general issue such as dementia.
  • Social communication difficulties involving how people communicate or interact with others (pragmatics).
  • Language impairments, including difficulties creating sentences that are grammatical (syntax) and modifying word meaning (morphology).
  • Literacy impairments (reading and writing) related to the letter-to-sound relationship (phonics), the word-to-meaning relationship (semantics), and understanding the ideas presented in a text (reading comprehension).
  • Voice difficulties, such as a raspy voice, a voice that is too soft, or other voice difficulties that negatively impact a person's social or professional performance.
  • Cognitive impairments (e.g., attention, memory, executive function) to the extent that they interfere with communication.

The components of speech production include:

The components of language include:

  • Phonology (manipulating sound according to the rules of a language);
  • Morphology (understanding components of words and how they can modify meaning);
  • Syntax (constructing sentences according to the grammatical rules of a target language);
  • Semantics (interpreting signs or symbols of communication such as words or signs to construct meaning);
  • Pragmatics (social aspects of communication).[3]

Primary pediatric speech and language disorders include: receptive and expressive language disorders, speech sound disorders, childhood apraxia of speech (CAS), stuttering, and language-based learning disabilities.[4] Speech pathologist not only work with adolescents with speech and language impediments, but also those that are elderly.[5]

Swallowing disorders include difficulties in any system of the swallowing process (i.e. oral, pharyngeal, esophageal), as well as functional dysphagia and feeding disorders. Swallowing disorders can occur at any age and can stem from multiple causes.[6]

Speech-Language Pathology
MeSHD013066

The profession

Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) provide a wide range of services, mainly on an individual basis, but also as support for individuals, families, support groups, and providing information for the general public. SLPs work to prevent, assess, diagnose, and treat speech, language, social communication, cognitive-communication, and swallowing disorders in children and adults.[7] Speech services begin with initial screening for communication and swallowing disorders and continue with assessment and diagnosis, consultation for the provision of advice regarding management, intervention, and treatment, and providing counseling and other follow up services for these disorders. Services are provided in the following areas:

  • cognitive aspects of communication (e.g., attention, memory, problem-solving, executive functions).
  • speech (phonation, articulation, fluency, resonance, and voice including aeromechanical components of respiration);
  • language (phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatic/social aspects of communication) including comprehension and expression in oral, written, graphic, and manual modalities; language processing; preliteracy and language-based literacy skills, phonological awareness.
  • augmentative and alternative communication, for individuals with severe language and communication impairments.
  • swallowing or other upper aerodigestive functions such as infant feeding and aeromechanical events (evaluation of esophageal function is for the purpose of referral to medical professionals);
  • voice (hoarseness (dysphonia), poor vocal volume (hypophonia), abnormal (e.g. rough, breathy, strained) vocal quality. Research demonstrates voice therapy to be especially helpful with certain patient populations; individuals with Parkinson's Disease often develop voice issues as a result of their disease.[8]
  • sensory awareness related to communication, swallowing, or other upper aerodigestive functions.

Speech, language, and swallowing disorders result from a variety of causes, such as a stroke,[9] brain injury,[10] hearing loss,[11] developmental delay,[12] a cleft palate,[13] cerebral palsy,[14] or emotional issues.[15]

Multi-discipline collaboration

SLPs collaborate with other health care professionals, often working as part of a multidisciplinary team. They can provide information and referrals to audiologists, physicians, neonatal specialists [16], dentists, nurses, nurse practitioners, occupational therapists, dietitians, educators, behavior consultants (applied behavior analysis), hospital chaplains/spiritual carers [17] [18] and parents as dictated by the individual client's needs. For example, the treatment for patients with cleft lip and palate, often requires multidisciplinary collaboration. Speech-language pathologists can be very beneficial to help resolve speech problems associated with cleft lip and palate. Research has indicated that children who receive early language intervention are less likely to develop compensatory error patterns later in life, although speech therapy outcomes are usually better when surgical treatment is performed earlier.[19] Another area of collaboration relates to auditory processing disorders,[20] where SLPs can collaborate in assessments and provide intervention where there is evidence of speech, language, and/or other cognitive-communication disorders. Palliative care is another health care area that often involves multi-disciplinary collaboration involving speech-language pathologists. La Trobe University Palliative Care Unit (PCU) [21] (Melbourne, Australia) has been a strong advocate for speech-language pathologists being included within both paediatric [22] and adult palliative care [23] multidisciplinary teams. Currently the PCU is conducting an international modified delphi study to provide 'Recommendations for Speech-Language Pathologist in Paediatric Palliative Care Teams' (abbrev. RESP3CT).[24] The international role of SLPs is also being considered with regard to SLPs being "Global Citizens" through nine capabilities, (i) global acquaintance, (iii) global awareness, (iv) global openness and participation, (v) valuing diversity, (vi) social justice, (vii) felt responsibility, (viii) environmental sustainability and (ix) participating in inter-group helping.[25] Research exploring the multi-discipline collaboration involving SLPs and other allied health professions with regard to global citizenship is currently being conducted .[25] .

Working environments

SLPs work in a variety of clinical and educational settings. SLPs work in public and private hospitals, skilled nursing facilities (SNFs), long-term acute care (LTAC) facilities, hospice,[26] and home healthcare. SLPs may also work as part of the support structure in the education system, working in both public and private schools, colleges, and universities.[27] Some SLPs also work in community health, providing services at prisons and young offenders' institutions or providing expert testimony in applicable court cases.[28]

Following the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association's (ASHA's) 2005 approval of the delivery of speech/language services via video conference or telepractice, SLPs in the United States have begun to use this service model.[29]

Research

SLPs conduct research related to communication sciences and disorders, swallowing disorders, or other upper aerodigestive functions.

Education and training

United States

In the United States, speech-language pathology is a Master's entry-level professional degree field. Clinicians must hold a master's degree in Communicative Disorders/Speech-Language Pathology (e.g. M.A., M.S., or M.Ed.) that is from a university that holds regional accreditation and from a communication sciences and disorders program that is accredited by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA), the profession's national governing body as well as individual state's governing board. Programs that offer the M.Ed. degree are often housed within a university's College of education, but offer the same education and training as programs with a M.A. or M.S. degree. Beyond the master's degree, some SLPs may choose to earn a clinical doctorate in Speech-Language Pathology (e.g. CScD or SLPD), or a doctoral degree that has a research and/or professional focus (e.g., Ph.D., or Ed.D.). All degrees must be from a university that holds regional accreditation, but only the master's degree is accredited by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA).

All clinicians are required to complete 400 clinical hours (25 observation hours often completed during the undergraduate degree and 375 hours of graduate Clinical Practicum).[30] They must pass multiple comprehensive exams also called Knowledge and Skills Acquisition (KASA) exams.

After all the above requirements have been met during the SLP's path to earning the graduate degree, SLPs must state licensure and national certification by:

  • Passing the National Speech-Language Pathology board exam (Praxis).
  • Successfully complete a clinical fellowship year (CFY) as a clinical fellow (CF) under the mentorship of a fully licensed mentor clinician. The CFY is no less than 36 weeks of full-time experience, totaling a minimum of 1260 hours. During the CFY, the CF cannot earn CFY hours unless they work more than 5 hours in a week and cannot earn any CFY hours beyond 35 hours in a week.[31]
  • Receive American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) Certificate of Clinical Competence (CCC) and full state licensure to practice, following successful completion of clinical fellowship year(CFY).
  • States are responsible for licensure of clinicians and other professionals and, as far as the new SLP, these requirements are often similar to that of the CFY. Following the state licensure procedures and national certification requirements are usually done simultaneously.

Maintaining licensure through continuing education:

  • To maintain licensure, SLPs are required to participate in periodic earning of Continuing Educational Units (CEU).

Continuing education and training obligations:

  • Educate, supervise, and mentor future SLPs.[32]
  • Participate in continuing education.
  • Educate and provide in-service training to families, caregivers, and other professionals.
  • Train, supervise, and manage speech-language pathology assistants (SLPA) and other support personnel.
  • Educating and counseling individuals, families, co-workers, educators, and other persons in the community regarding acceptance, adaptation, and decisions about communication and swallowing.[33]

Professional suffix:

  • Credentials of a clinical fellow typically read as: MA, MS, or M.Ed, CF-SLP (e.g., Jane Doe, MA, CF-SLP).
  • Credentials of a fully licensed SLP commonly read as: MA, MS, or M.Ed, CCC-SLP (e.g., Jane Doe, MA, CCC-SLP), indicating a practitioner's graduate degree and successful completion of the fellowship year/board exams to obtain the "three Cs" the Certification of Clinical Competence, in speech-language pathology.

Salary information

Salaries of SLPs depend on a variety of factors including educational background, work experience, and location. The ASHA 2016 Schools Survey revealed that SLPs received a median academic year salary of 62,000, which is a 2% increase from the latest Schools Survey done in 2014.[34] Additionally, ASHA released results for the 2015 SLP Health Care Survey which placed the median salary for SLPs working within the health care industry at $75,000.[35] However, salaries can range from $47,000–116,000.[36] In Australia, the basic salary that a Graduate SLP would earn is estimated at $59,500 Australian dollars rising to $120,000 for Private SLP.[37]

Methods of assessment

For many parents, the decision of whether or not to enroll students into school-based speech therapy or privately practiced therapy is challenging. Speech Pathologists work as part of a team alongside teachers, counselors, social workers and parents when in a school setting.[38] Because school-based speech therapy is run under state guidelines and funds, the process of assessment and qualification is more strict. To qualify for in-school speech therapy, students must meet the state's criteria on language testing and speech standardization. Due to such requirements, some students may not be assessed in an efficient time frame or their needs may be undermined by criteria. For a private clinic, students are more likely to qualify for therapy because it is a paid service with more availability.

Clients and patients

Speech-language pathologists work with clients and patients who may present with a wide range of issues.

Infants and children

United States

In the US, some children are eligible to receive speech therapy services, including assessment and lessons through the public school system. If not, private therapy is readily available through personal lessons with a qualified Speech-Language Pathologist or the growing field of telepractice.[44] Teleconferencing tools such as Skype are being used more commonly as a means to access remote locations in private therapy practice, such as in the geographically diverse south island of New Zealand.[45] More at-home or combination treatments have become readily available to address specific types of articulation disorders. The use of mobile applications in speech therapy is also growing as an avenue to bring treatment into the home.

United Kingdom

In the UK, children are entitled to an assessment by local NHS Speech and Language Therapy teams, usually after referral by health visitors or education settings, but parents are also entitled to request an assessment directly.[46] If treatment is appropriate, an educational plan will be drawn up. Speech therapists often play a role in multi-disciplinary teams where a child has speech delay or disorder as part of a wider health condition. The Children's Commissioner for England reported in June 2019 that there was a postcode lottery. £291.65 a year per head was spent on services in some areas, while the budget in some areas was £30.94 or less. in 2018 193,971 children in English primary schools were on the special educational needs register needing speech therapy services.[47]

Children and adults

Adults

See also

References

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Further reading

External links

American Speech–Language–Hearing Association

The American Speech–Language–Hearing Association (ASHA) is a professional association for speech–language pathologists, audiologists, and speech, language, and hearing scientists in the United States and internationally. It has more than 197,856 members and affiliates.

The mission of the American Speech–Language–Hearing Association is to promote the interests of and provide the highest quality services for professionals in audiology, speech–language pathology, and speech and hearing science, and to advocate for people with communication disabilities.

The association's national office is located at 2200 Research Boulevard, Rockville, Maryland. The organization also has an office on Capitol Hill.

Arlene Pietranton is currently serving as the association's executive director.

Book of the Month Club

The Book of the Month Club (founded 1926) is a United States subscription-based e-commerce service that offers a selection of five new hardcover books each month to its members. Books are selected and endorsed by a panel of judges, and members choose which book they would like to receive, similar to how the club originally operated when it began in 1926. Members can also discuss the books with fellow members in an online forum.In late 2015, in concert with the club's 90th year, the club announced a relaunch into its current iteration. Within two years, the club had grown its membership to more than 100,000 members, primarily millennial women, and the club's presence on social media grew to over 300,000 Instagram followers. Approximately 75% of the club's titles are by up-and-coming authors, and 80% of titles are fiction. The club has also worked with a series of celebrity guest judges who bring broader awareness to new titles, and continues producing its own versions of books that feature special endpapers and casings. In 2016, the club launched a Book of the Year award. In 2017, the club debuted its first ever television advertisement called "Monthly".The club has a tradition of focusing on debut and emerging writers, and is known for having helped launch the careers of some of the most acclaimed authors in American literary history. In 1926 (its first year in operation), the Club featured Ernest Hemingway's The Sun Also Rises. In 1936 (its tenth year), the Club selected Gone with the Wind by unknown author Margaret Mitchell. Today, the book remains the second favorite of American readers (after the Bible). Mitchell wrote: "I wanted to thank [Book of the Month] from the bottom of my heart for selecting my book. It was quite the most exciting and unexpected thing that ever happened to me." In 1951 (its 25th year), the club distributed its 100 millionth book and selected J.D. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye, which became both the most-censored and the most-taught book in America. In 1978, the Club selected By the Rivers of Babylon, the first book by Nelson DeMille, who later wrote: "I will be forever grateful to Book of the Month for ensuring that my first book, By the Rivers of Babylon, was not my last. When the Club selected Babylon in 1978, it reached hundreds of thousands of additional readers and became an instant best-seller."

Canadian Journal of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology

The Canadian Journal of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology (CJSLPA) / Revue canadienne d'orthophonie et d'audiologie (RCOA) is a peer-reviewed, online journal of clinical practice for audiologists, speech-language pathologists and researchers. It is published by Speech-Language & Audiology Canada.

CJSLPA is an open access journal, which means that all articles are available on the internet to all users immediately upon publication. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose. CJSLPA does not charge publication or processing fees.

The purpose of CJSLPA is to disseminate current knowledge pertaining to hearing, balance and vestibular function, feeding/swallowing, speech, language and social communication across the lifespan. Furthermore, CJSLPA is not restricted to a particular age or diagnostic group.

The journal was established in 1973 as Human Communication and renamed to Journal of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology in 1990, before obtaining its current title in 2007.

Clinician

A clinician is a health care professional that works as a primary care giver of a patient in a hospital, skilled nursing facility, clinic, or patient's home. A clinician diagnoses and treats patients. For example, physicians, nurse practitioners, clinical pharmacist and physician assistants are clinicians; a speech-language pathologist (SLP) is a clinician, a speech-language pathology assistant (SLPA) is not. Clinicians take comprehensive exams to be licensed and some complete graduate degrees (master's or doctorates) in their field of expertise. Although a clinician must follow evidence-based best-practices and other professional codes of conduct set by laws and professional governing bodies, a clinician can choose to practice without another's supervision.

The main function of a clinician is to manage a sick person in order to cure the effects of their illness.A clinician is one whose prime function is to manage a sick person with the purpose of alleviating the total effect of his illness. The multifocal character of the impact of illness upon the patient and his family is stressed. Clinical evidence is the material with which the physician works, and a meticulous history and physical examination are paramount. The availability of more specific forms of therapy requires a clinician to be more of a scientist and, at the same time, more expert in clinical methods. Ability to listen and to talk, so that valid clinical evidence is gathered, anxieties are dissipated, and understanding and motivation are instilled, are the clinicians' greatest assets.

Fluency

Fluency (also called volubility and eloquency) is the property of a person or of a system that delivers information quickly and with expertise.

Guam Memorial Hospital

Guam Memorial Hospital is located in Tamuning, Guam and is the public civilian hospital serving the island of Guam. The hospital has 158 licensed acute care beds, plus 40 beds at its off-site, long-term care Skilled Nursing Facility.

The hospital offers adult and pediatric medical services. These include 24-hour emergency services; medical telemetry and progressive care; obstetrics, labor and delivery; nursery; catheterization lab (periodically with visiting cardiologists); orthopedic services; in-patient and out-patient surgery; intensive care (neonatal, pediatric and adult); skilled nursing care; laboratory and blood bank services; radiology, angiography, nuclear medicine and CT scan diagnostic services; pharmacy; respiratory care; renal dialysis; physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech language pathology, cardiac rehabilitation and recreational therapy; dietetic services, patient education and social services; and pastoral care services.

International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology

The International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal that covers any area of child or adult communication or dysphagia and issues related to etiology, assessment, diagnosis, intervention, or theoretical frameworks. A scientific forum is included in many issues, where a topic is debated by invited experts. The journal is edited by Sharynne McLeod (Charles Sturt University) and has been published since 1999.

Judith Kuster

Judith Maginnis Kuster, aka Judith A. Kuster, is a certified speech-language pathologist and Professor Emerita from Minnesota State University, Mankato where she taught in the Department of Speech, Hearing and Rehabilitation Services for 25 years. She holds an MS in speech-language pathology from the University of Wisconsin, Madison and an MS in counseling from Minnesota State University, Mankato. She is an ASHA FELLOW and a Board Recognized Specialist in Fluency BRSF-R.

Kuster created and maintains the Stuttering Home Page, a guide and resources for professionals, adults and children about the treatment of stuttering, cluttering, and other communication disorders. She has been invited to give presentations about resources for the treatment of communications disorders North America, Europe, China, and Korea

Kuster organized and chaired ISAD Conference from 1998-2012. ISAD is held on a yearly basis, for the three weeks before International Stuttering Awareness Day, every year. International Stuttering Awareness Day is October 22. This conference is free and available world-wide, connecting professionals (Speech-language pathologists and researchers) with consumers (people who stutter and their families). She also organized an International Cluttering Association online conference ( in 2010.

She has published many articles focused on speech-language pathology for the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, Advance for Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists, the Journal of School Health, the Journal of Medical Speech-Language Pathology, The Clinical Connection, Speaking Out, and other journals.

Kuster lives in New Ulm, Minnesota with her husband Thomas Kuster.

List of university speech-language pathology departments

Algeria:

University of Algiers[1]

Brazil:

College of Medical Sciences of Santa Casa de São Paulo

Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo

University of São Paulo

Federal University of São Paulo

State University of São Paulo

United States:

Abilene Christian University[2]

Adelphi University

Alabama A&M University

Appalachian State University

Arizona State University[3]

Arkansas State University

Armstrong State University

Auburn University

Ball State University[4]

Baylor University

Bloomsburg University of Pennsylvania

Boston University

Bowling Green State University

Brigham Young University[5]

Brooklyn College

Buffalo State College

California State University, Chico

California State University, East Bay[6]

California State University, Fresno

California State University, Fullerton

California State University, Long Beach

California State University, Los Angeles

California State University, Northridge

California State University, Sacramento[7]

California State University, San Marcos

California University of Pennsylvania

Calvin College

Case Western Reserve University

Central Michigan University

Chapman University

Clarion University of Pennsylvania

Cleveland State University

College of St. Rose

The College of Wooster

Duquesne University

East Carolina University

East Stroudsburg University

East Tennessee State University

Eastern Illinois University

Eastern Kentucky University

Eastern Michigan University

Eastern New Mexico University

Eastern Washington University[8]

Edinboro University of Pennsylvania[9]

Emerson College

Florida Atlantic University

Florida International University

Florida State University[10]

Fontbonne University

Fort Hays State University

Fredonia

Gallaudet University

Geneseo

George Washington University

Georgia State University

Governors State University[11]

Hampton University

Harding University

Hofstra University

Howard University

Hunter College

Idaho State University

Illinois State University[12]

Indiana State University

Indiana University-Bloomington[13]

Indiana University of Pennsylvania

Ithaca College

Jackson State University

James Madison University

Kansas State University

Kean University

Kent State University

Lamar University

La Salle University

Lehman College

LIU Brooklyn

LIU Post

Loma Linda University

Longwood University

Louisiana State University

LSU Health Sciences Center Shreveport

Louisiana State University Medical Center

Louisiana Tech University

Loyola University Maryland

Marshall University

Marquette University

Marywood University

Massachusetts General Hospital Institute of Health Professionals[14]

Mercy College

Miami University

Michigan State University

Minnesota State University, Mankato

Minot State University

Misericordia University

Mississippi University for Women

Missouri State University

Molloy College

Montclair State University

Moorhead State University

Murray State University

Nazareth College of Rochester

New Mexico State University

New Paltz

New York Medical College

New York University

North Carolina Central University

Northeastern University

Northeastern State University

Northern Arizona University

Northern Illinois University

Northwestern University[15]

Nova Southeastern University

Old Dominion University

Ohio State University

Ohio University

Oklahoma State University

Our Lady of the Lake University

Pennsylvania State University[16]

Plattsburgh

Portland State University[17]

Purdue University[18]

Queens College

Radford University

Rockhurst University[19]

Rush University[20]

St. Ambrose University

St. Cloud State University[21]

St. John's University

St. Louis University

Saint Xavier University[22]

San Diego State University[23]

San Francisco State University

San Jose State University

Seton Hall University

South Carolina State University

Southeastern Louisiana University

Southeast Missouri State University[24]

Southern Connecticut State University

Southern Illinois University–Edwardsville

Southern Illinois University–Carbondale

Southern University and A&M College

Stephen F. Austin State University

Stockton University

Syracuse University

Teachers College, Columbia University

Temple University

Tennessee State University

Texas A&M University at Kingsville

Texas Christian University

Texas State University

Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center[25]

Texas Woman's University

Touro College

Towson University

Truman State University

Universidad del Turabo

University of Akron

The University of Alabama[26]

University of Arizona[27]

University of Arkansas–Fayetteville

University of Arkansas–Little Rock

University at Buffalo

University of Cincinnati

University of Central Arkansas

University of Central Florida

University of Central Missouri

University of Central Oklahoma

University of Colorado[28]

University of Connecticut

University of the District of Columbia

University of Georgia

University of Florida

University of Hawaii–Manoa

University of Houston

University of Iowa[29]

University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign[30]

University of Kansas[31]

University of Kentucky

University of Louisiana at Lafayette[32]

University of Louisiana–Monroe

University of Louisville

University of Maine

University of Massachusetts–Amherst

University of Maryland–College Park

University of Memphis

University of Minnesota[33]

University of Minnesota Duluth[34]

University of Mississippi

University of Missouri

University of Montana

University of Montevallo

University of Nebraska–Kearney

University of Nebraska–Lincoln

University of Nebraska–Omaha

University of Nevada, Reno[35]

University of New Hampshire

University of New Mexico

University of North Carolina

University of North Carolina–Greensboro

University of North Texas

University of North Dakota

University of Northern Colorado

University of Northern Iowa

University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center[36]

University of Oregon[37]

University of Pittsburgh[38]

University of Puerto Rico

University of Redlands

University of Rhode Island

University of South Alabama

University of South Carolina

University of South Dakota[39]

University of South Florida[40]

University of Southern Mississippi

University of Tennessee–Knoxville

University of Texas at Austin[41]

University of Texas at Dallas

University of Texas at El Paso

University of Texas-Pan American

University of Toledo

University of Tulsa

University of Utah

University of the Pacific[42]

University of Vermont[43]

University of Virginia

University of Washington[44]

University of West Georgia

University of Wisconsin–Eau Claire[45]

University of Wisconsin–Madison[46]

University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee

University of Wisconsin–River Falls[47]

University of Wisconsin–Stevens Point[48]

University of Wisconsin–Whitewater[49]

University of Wyoming

Utah State University

Valdosta State University[50]

Vanderbilt University[51]

Washington State University

Washington State University, Spokane[52]

Wayne State University

West Chester University of Pennsylvania

West Texas A&M University

West Virginia University

Western Carolina University

Western Illinois University

Western Kentucky University

Western Michigan University

Western Washington University

Wichita State University

William Paterson University

Worcester State University

United Kingdom:

Birmingham City University

City University London

de Montfort University

University College London

University of East Anglia

University of Reading

University of Sheffield

University of Strathclyde

University of Manchester

University of Newcastle upon Tyne

University of Ulster

University of Wales Institute, Cardiff

Leeds Metropolitan University

Manchester Metropolitan University

Queen Margaret University

Canada:

University of Alberta

University of British Columbia

Dalhousie University

Université Laval

McGill University

Université de Montréal

University of Ottawa

University of Toronto

University of Western Ontario

Australia:

University of Queensland

James Cook University

La Trobe University

University of Sydney

University of Newcastle, Australia

Charles Sturt University

Macquarie University

Flinders University

Curtin University of Technology

India:

All India Institute of Speech and Hearing

National Institute of Speech and Hearing

Ali Yavar Jung National Institute for the Hearing Handicapped- There are four regional centres

Bangladesh:

Bangladesh Health Professions Institute (BHPI)

Israel:

University of Haifa

Tel Aviv University

Hadassah Academic College

Philippines:

University of the Philippines

University of Santo Tomas

De La Salle Medical and Health Sciences Institute

Cebu Doctors' University

Hong Kong:

University of Hong Kong

Malaysia:

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan

South Korea:

Ewha Womans University[53]

Uganda:

Makerere University[54]

Midwestern University

Midwestern University (MWU) is a private graduate medical and professional school with a main campus in Downers Grove, Illinois and an additional campus in Glendale, Arizona. Midwestern University offers degrees in osteopathic medicine, podiatry, dental medicine, optometry, nurse anesthesia, clinical psychology, physician assistant studies, physical therapy, pharmacy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, biomedical sciences, and veterinary medicine.

Founded in 1900 as the American College of Osteopathic Medicine and Surgery, the Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine is the fourth-oldest medical school currently active in the state of Illinois. In 1995, it opened an additional campus in Glendale, Arizona, becoming the second and largest medical school to teach students in the state of Arizona. The university over the years expanded beyond providing education in medicine and in 1993 it united these programs under the name Midwestern University. It offers degrees in medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, optometry, podiatric medicine, and other health professions.

The university is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission. The medical schools are also accredited by the American Osteopathic Association's Commission on Osteopathic College Accreditation.

Salus University

Salus University is a private university in Elkins Park, Pennsylvania, specializing in degree programs for the health care professions.

Speech and language pathology in school settings

Speech-language pathology, also known as communication sciences and disorders in the United States, is a fast-growing profession that, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, offers about 120,000 jobs in the United States alone. The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) has 166,000 members, who are audiologists, speech-language pathologists, speech, language, and hearing scientists, and speech language pathology assistants. To begin practice in most areas of the United States, a prospective therapist must have an undergraduate degree (preferably in some area of communications) and a graduate degree (with two externships; usually about 2 to 2 1/2 years) in speech pathology. A 9-month, supervised clinical fellowship year is then completed, after which the Certificate of Clinical Competence (CCC) in speech pathology from the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) is granted. In order to be certified clinically competent the Praxis exam must be passed. In some areas the master's degree is not required. In some areas additional requirements must be met: an additional certification from ASHA in school speech pathology and audiology, certification in special education instruction, and/or and must have passed any other federal or state examinations for licensure and certification. To retain the ASHA license a minimum amount of continuing education must be completed. A doctorate is not currently required (as of June 2011), but that may change, as it has for many other areas of therapy. Speech-language pathology overlaps with many educational disciplines, such as communication sciences, linguistics, special education, and health care. This article will explore some of the fundamental elements of speech-language pathology, looking at the career in an educational setting.

St. Ambrose University

St. Ambrose University is a private Roman Catholic liberal arts university in Davenport, Iowa. It is affiliated with the Diocese of Davenport.

Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development

The New York University Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development (commonly referred to as Steinhardt) is the secondary liberal arts and education school of New York University. Founded in 1890, is the first school of pedagogy to be established at an American university. Prior to 2001, it was known as the NYU School of Education.

Located on NYU's founding campus in Greenwich Village, the Steinhardt School offers bachelor's, master's, advanced certificate, and doctoral programs in the fields of applied psychology, art, education, health, media, and music. NYU Steinhardt also offers several degree programs at NYU's Brooklyn campus.

Stuttering Center of Western Pennsylvania

The Stuttering Center of Western Pennsylvania is a partnership between the Department of Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology (Communication Disorders) at UPMC Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh and the Department of Communication Science and Disorders in the School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences at the University of Pittsburgh.

The co-directors of the Stuttering Center are J. Scott Yaruss and Craig Coleman.

Telerehabilitation

Telerehabilitation (or e-rehabilitation) is the delivery of rehabilitation services over telecommunication networks and the internet. Most types of services fall into two categories: clinical assessment (the patient's functional abilities in his or her environment), and clinical therapy. Some fields of rehabilitation practice that have explored telerehabilitation are: neuropsychology, speech-language pathology, audiology, occupational therapy, and physical therapy. Telerehabilitation can deliver therapy to people who cannot travel to a clinic because the patient has a disability or because of travel time. Telerehabilitation also allows experts in rehabilitation to engage in a clinical consultation at a distance.

Most telerehabilitation is highly visual. As of 2006 the most commonly used modalities are via webcams, videoconferencing, phone lines, videophones and webpages containing rich Internet applications. The visual nature of telerehabilitation technology limits the types of rehabilitation services that can be provided. It is most widely used for neuropsychological rehabilitation; fitting of rehabilitation equipment such as wheelchairs, braces or artificial limbs; and in speech-language pathology. Rich internet applications for neuropsychological rehabilitation (aka cognitive rehabilitation) of cognitive impairment (from many etiologies) was first introduced in 2001. This endeavor has recently (2006) expanded as a teletherapy application for cognitive skills enhancement programs for school children. Tele-audiology (hearing assessments) is a growing application. As of 2006, telerehabilitation in the practice of occupational therapy and physical therapy are very limited, perhaps because these two disciplines are more "hands on".

Two important areas of telerehabilitation research are (1) demonstrating equivalence of assessment and therapy to in-person assessment and therapy, and (2) building new data collection systems to digitize information that a therapist can use in practice. Ground-breaking research in telehaptics (the sense of touch) and virtual reality may broaden the scope of telerehabilitation practice, in the future.

In the United States, the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research's (NIDRR) supports research and the development of telerehabilitation. NIDRR's grantees include the "Rehabilitation Engineering and Research Center" (RERC) at the University of Pittsburgh, the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, the State University of New York at Buffalo, and the National Rehabilitation Hospital in Washington DC. Other federal funders of research are the Veterans Administration, the Health Services Research Administration in the US Department of Health and Human Services, and the Department of Defense. Outside the United States, excellent research is conducted in Australia and Europe.

As of 2006, only a few health insurers in the United States will reimburse for telerehabilitation services. If the research shows that tele-assessments and tele-therapy are equivalent to clinical encounters, it is more likely that insurers and Medicare will cover telerehabilitation services.

Thieme Medical Publishers

Thieme Medical Publishers is a German medical and science publisher in the Thieme Publishing Group. It produces professional journals, textbooks, atlases, monographs and reference books in both German and English covering a variety of medical specialties, including neurosurgery, orthopaedics, endocrinology, urology, radiology, anatomy, chemistry, otolaryngology, ophthalmology, audiology and speech-language pathology, complementary and alternative medicine. Thieme has more than 1,000 employees and maintains offices in seven cities worldwide, including New York City, Beijing, Delhi, Stuttgart, and three other cities in Germany.

Towson University College of Health Professions

Towson University's College of Health Professions has the departments of:

Audiology

Speech-Language Pathology and Deaf Studies

Health Science

Kinesiology

Nursing

Occupational Therapy and Occupational science.The college also offers programs in allied health and gerontology. The college enrolls more students in bachelor’s and master’s level health care and sport-related programs and produces more physical education and sports related teachers than any other institution in Maryland. The college is also noted for its combined B.S./M.S. program in occupational therapy and applied doctoral programs in audiology and occupational science.

University of Pittsburgh School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences

The University of Pittsburgh School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences (or SHRS) is an international leader in rehabilitation and disabilities education, research and community service. The School's faculty, students and alumni are dedicated to building a world free of barriers and disparities that allows all people, regardless of health, to have opportunities to participate in life to the fullest. Pitt SHRS includes some of the nation's top-ranked graduate programs including physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology and audiology.

Symptoms and signs: Speech and voice / Symptoms involving head and neck (R47–R49, 784)
Aphasias
Communication disorders
Voice disturbances
Nose
Mouth
Neck
Other
Diseases of the nervous system, primarily CNS (G04–G47, 323–349)
Inflammation
Brain/
encephalopathy
Spinal cord/
myelopathy
Both/either
General
conditions
Related
topics
Lists
Mental and behavioral disorders (F00–F99 & 290–319)

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