Specialty (medicine)

A medical speciality is a branch of medical practice that is focused on a defined group of patients, diseases, skills, or philosophy. Examples include children (paediatrics), cancer (oncology), laboratory medicine (pathology), or primary care (family medicine). After completing medical school, physicians or surgeons usually further their medical education in a specific specialty of medicine by completing a multiple-year residency to become a medical specialist.[1]

History of medical specialization

To a certain extent, medical practitioners have long been specialized. According to Galen, specialization was common among Roman physicians. The particular system of modern medical specialties evolved gradually during the 19th century. Informal social recognition of medical specialization evolved before the formal legal system. The particular subdivision of the practice of medicine into various specialties varies from country to country, and is somewhat arbitrary.[2]

Classification of medical specialization

Medical specialties can be classified along several axes. These are:

  • Surgical or internal medicine
  • Age range of patients
  • Diagnostic or therapeutic
  • Organ-based or technique-based

Throughout history, the most important has been the division into surgical and internal medicine specialties. The surgical specialties are those in which an important part of diagnosis and treatment is achieved through major surgical techniques. The internal medicine specialties are the specialties in which the main diagnosis and treatment is never major surgery. In some countries, anesthesiology is classified as a surgical discipline, since it is vital in the surgical process, though anesthesiologists never perform major surgery themselves.

Many specialties are organ-based. Many symptoms and diseases come from a particular organ. Others are based mainly around a set of techniques, such as radiology, which was originally based around X-rays.

The age range of patients seen by any given specialist can be quite variable. Paediatricians handle most complaints and diseases in children that do not require surgery, and there are several subspecialties (formally or informally) in paediatrics that mimic the organ-based specialties in adults. Paediatric surgery may or may not be a separate specialty that handles some kinds of surgical complaints in children.

A further subdivision is the diagnostic versus therapeutic specialties. While the diagnostic process is of great importance in all specialties, some specialists perform mainly or only diagnostic examinations, such as pathology, clinical neurophysiology, and radiology. This line is becoming somewhat blurred with interventional radiology, an evolving field that uses image expertise to perform minimally invasive procedures.

Specialties that are common worldwide

Specialty May be subspecialty of Diagnostic (D) or therapeutic (T) specialty Surgical (S) or internal medicine specialty (I) Age range of patients Organ-based (O) or technique-based (T)
Allergy and immunology Internal medicine
Pediatrics
Both I All O
Adolescent medicine Pediatrics Both I Pediatric T
Anesthesiology Family Medicine T Both All Both
Aerospace medicine Family Medicine Both Neither All Both
Cardiology Internal medicine T I Adults O
Cardiothoracic surgery General surgery T S Adults O
Child and adolescent psychiatry Psychiatry T I Paediatric T
Clinical neurophysiology Neurology D I All Both
Colorectal surgery General Surgery Both S All O
Dermatology None T I All O
Developmental pediatrics Pediatrics T I Pediatric Neither
Emergency medicine Family Medicine Both Both All Both
Endocrinology Internal medicine T I Adults O
Family Medicine None Both Both All Multidisciplinary
Forensic pathology Pathology D Neither All T
Forensic psychiatry Psychiatry S I All T
Gastroenterology Internal medicine T I Adults O
General surgery None T S Adults T
General surgical oncology General surgery T S Adults T
Geriatrics Family medicine
Internal medicine
T I Geriatric Multidisciplinary
Geriatric psychiatry Geriatrics
Psychiatry
T I Geriatric Neither
Gynecologic oncology Obstetrics and gynecology T S All O
Hematology Internal medicine D I Adults Neither
Hematologic pathology Hematology
Pathology
D Neither All T
Infectious disease Internal medicine
Pediatrics
Both I All Neither
Internal medicine None T I Adults Neither
Interventional radiology Radiology Both Unknown All Multidisciplinary
Intensive care medicine Anesthesiology
Emergency medicine
Internal medicine
T Both All Both
Maternal-fetal medicine Obstetrics and gynecology T S Adults Both
Medical biochemistry Internal medicine D I All Neither
Medical genetics None D I All Neither
Medical oncology Internal medicine D I Adults Neither
Neonatology Pediatrics T I Neonatal Neither
Nephrology Internal medicine T I All O
Neurology Internal medicine T I All O
Neuropathology Pathology D Neither All T
Neurosurgery None T S All O
Nuclear medicine None Both I All T
Obstetrics and gynecology Family medicine T S All O
Occupational medicine Family medicine
Internal medicine
T I Adults Multidisciplinary
Ophthalmology None T S All O
Orthopedic surgery None T S All O
Oral and maxillofacial surgery None T S All O
Otorhinolaryngology None T S All O
Palliative care Family Medicine
Internal medicine
Pediatrics
Both Neither All Neither
Pathology None D Neither All T
Pediatrics None T I Pediatric Neither
Pediatric allergy and immunology Pediatrics T I Pediatric O
Pediatric cardiology Pediatrics T I Pediatric O
Pediatric emergency medicine Pediatrics Both Both Pediatric Both
Pediatric endocrinology Pediatrics T I Pediatric O
Pediatric gastroenterology Pediatrics T I Pediatric O
Pediatric hematology and oncology Pediatrics T I Pediatric O
Pediatric infectious disease Pediatrics T I Pediatric O
Pediatric nephrology Pediatrics T I Pediatric O
Pediatric respiratory medicine Pediatrics S I Pediatric O
Pediatric rheumatology Pediatrics T I Pediatric O
Pediatric surgery General surgery T S Pediatric O
Physical medicine and rehabilitation None T I All Multidisciplinary
Plastic, reconstructive and aesthetic surgery General surgery T S All O
Psychiatry Family medicine S I All T
Public health Family medicine Neither Neither All T
Radiation oncology None T Neither All T
Radiology None Both I All T
Reproductive endocrinology and infertility Obstetrics and gynecology T S Adults T
Respiratory medicine Internal medicine T I Adults O
Rheumatology Internal medicine T I Adults Neither
Sports medicine Family medicine Both Neither All Multidisciplinary
Thoracic surgery General surgery T S Adults T
Neuroradiology Radiology Both I All Both
Urology None T S All O
Vascular surgery General surgery T S All O

List of specialties recognized in the European Union and European Economic Area

The European Union publishes a list of specialties recognized in the European Union, and by extension, the European Economic Area.[3] Note that there is substantial overlap between some of the specialties and it is likely that for example "Clinical radiology" and "Radiology" refer to a large degree to the same pattern of practice across Europe.

  • Accident and emergency medicine
  • Allergology
  • Anaesthetics
  • Biological hematology
  • Cardiology
  • Child psychiatry
  • Clinical biology
  • Clinical chemistry
  • Clinical neurophysiology
  • Craniofacial surgery
  • Dental, oral and maxillo-facial surgery
  • Dermato-venereology
  • Dermatology
  • Endocrinology
  • Family and General Medicine
  • Gastro-enterologic surgery
  • Gastroenterology
  • General hematology
  • General Practice
  • General surgery
  • Geriatrics
  • Immunology
  • Infectious diseases
  • Internal medicine
  • Laboratory medicine
  • Maxillo-facial surgery
  • Microbiology
  • Nephrology
  • Neuro-psychiatry
  • Neurology
  • Neurosurgery
  • Nuclear medicine
  • Obstetrics and gynecology
  • Occupational medicine
  • Ophthalmology
  • Orthopaedics
  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Paediatric surgery
  • Paediatrics
  • Pathology
  • Pharmacology
  • Physical medicine and rehabilitation
  • Plastic surgery
  • Podiatric Surgery
  • Psychiatry
  • Public health and Preventive Medicine
  • Radiation Oncology
  • Radiology
  • Respiratory medicine
  • Rheumatology
  • Stomatology
  • Thoracic surgery
  • Tropical medicine
  • Urology
  • Vascular surgery
  • Venereology

List of North American medical specialties and others

In this table, as in many healthcare arenas, medical specialties are organized into the following groups:

  • Surgical specialties focus on manually operative and instrumental techniques to treat disease.
  • Medical specialties that focus on the diagnosis and non-surgical treatment of disease.
  • Diagnostic specialties focus more purely on diagnosis of disorders.
Specialty Code Group Sub-specialties Focus
Allergy and immunology Allergic reactions, asthma, and the immune system
Anesthesiology AN, PAN Surgery[4] Anesthesia
Cardiology Medicine Disease of the cardiovascular system
Cardiovascular surgery Surgery The operation of heart and major blood vessels of the chest.
Clinical laboratory sciences Diagnostic Application of diagnostic techniques in medical laboratories such as assays, microscope analysis.
Dermatology D, DS Medicine Dermatology, Mohs surgery Skin and its appendages (hair, nails, sweat glands etc.).
Dietetics RD[5] Food and nutrition
Emergency medicine EM Medicine
  • Disaster medicine
  • Emergency medical services
  • Hospice and palliative medicine
  • International Emergency Medicine and Global Health
  • Medical toxicology
  • Pediatric emergency medicine
  • Research
  • Simulation
  • Sports medicine
  • Toxicology
  • Ultrasound
  • Undersea and hyperbaric medicine
  • Wilderness medicine
The initial management of emergent medical conditions, often in hospital emergency departments or the field.
Endocrinology Medicine The endocrine system (i.e., endocrine glands and hormones) and its diseases, including diabetes and thyroid diseases.
Family medicine FM Medicine
  • Addiction medicine
  • Adolescent medicine
  • Anesthesia
  • Emergency medicine
  • Care of the elderly (geriatric medicine)
  • Clinical environmental health
  • Global health
  • HIV care
  • Hospital medicine
  • Indigenous health
  • Low-risk obstetrics
  • Medical education
  • Medical oncology
  • Medical simulation
  • Pain medicine
  • Palliative care
  • Point of Care Ultrasound (POCUS)
  • Research
  • Sleep medicine
  • Sports and exercise medicine
  • Women's health
Continuing, comprehensive healthcare for the individual and family, integrating the biological, clinical and behavioral sciences to treat patients of all ages, sexes, organ systems, and diseases.
Forensic medicine Medicine
Gastroenterology GI Medicine The alimentary tract
General surgery GS Surgery
  • Colorectal surgery
  • Gastrointestinal surgery
  • Transplant surgery
  • Trauma surgery
Geriatrics IMG Medicine[4] Elderly patients
Gynecology Female reproductive health
Hepatology Medicine The liver and biliary tract, usually a part of gastroenterology.
Hospital medicine Medicine
Infectious disease ID Medicine Diseases caused by biological agents
Intensive care medicine Medicine Life support and management of critically ill patients, often in an ICU.
Internal Medicine Medicine
Medical research Anatomy, Biochemistry, Embryology, Genetics, Pharmacology, Toxicology Care of hospitalized patients
Nephrology Medicine Kidney diseases
Neurology N Medicine Diseases involving the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems
Neurosurgery NS Surgery Disease of the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, and spinal column.
Obstetrics and gynecology OB/GYN Surgery[4]
Oncology ON Medicine Cancer and other malignant diseases, often grouped with hematology.
Ophthalmology OPH Surgery Retina, Cornea Diseases of the visual pathways, including the eyes, brain, etc.
Oral and maxillofacial surgery Maxfacs, OMS Surgery
  • Oral and Craniofacial surgery (Head and neck)
  • Facial cosmetic surgery
  • Craniomaxillofacial trauma
Disease of the head, neck, face, jaws and the hard and soft tissues of the oral and maxillofacial region.
Orthopedic surgery ORS Surgery Hand surgery, surgical sports medicine, adult reconstruction, spine surgery, foot and ankle, musculoskeletal oncology, orthopedic trauma surgery, pediatric orthopedic surgery Injury and disease of the musculoskeletal system.
Otorhinolaryngology, or ENT ORL, ENT Surgery Head and neck, facial cosmetic surgery, Neurotology, Laryngology Treatment of ear, nose, and throat disorders. The term head and neck surgery defines a closely related specialty that is concerned mainly with the surgical management of cancer of the same anatomical structures.
Palliative care PLM Medicine A relatively modern branch of clinical medicine that deals with pain and symptom relief and emotional support in patients with terminal illnesses including cancer and heart failure.
Pathology PTH Diagnostic Understanding disease through examination of molecules, cells, tissues and organs. The term encompasses both the medical specialty that uses tissues and body fluids to obtain clinically useful information and the related scientific study of disease processes.
Pediatrics PD Medicine Children. Like internal medicine, pediatrics has many sub-specialties for specific age ranges, organ systems, disease classes, and sites of care delivery. Most sub-specialties of adult medicine have a pediatric equivalent such as pediatric cardiology, pediatric emergency medicine, pediatric endocrinology, pediatric gastroenterology, pediatric hematology, pediatric oncology, pediatric ophthalmology, and neonatology. deals with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents (from newborn to age 16-21, depending on the country).
Pediatric surgery Surgery Treats a wide variety of thoracic and abdominal (and sometimes urologic) diseases of childhood.
Physical medicine and rehabilitation Or Physiatry PM&R Medicine
  • Cancer Rehabilitation
  • Pain Management
  • Traumatic Brain Injury
  • Spinal Cord Injury
  • Sports Medicine
  • Pediatrics
  • Hospice & Palliative Medicine
Concerned with functional improvement after injury, illness, or congenital disorders.
Plastic surgery PS Surgery
  • Cosmetic surgery
  • Burn
  • Microsurgery
  • Hand surgery
  • Craniofacial surgery
Elective cosmetic surgery as well as reconstructive surgery after traumatic or operative mutilation.
Podiatry POD Surgery
  • Forefoot surgery
  • Midfoot surgery
  • Rearfoot surgery
  • Ankle surgery
  • Soft tissue leg surgery
Elective podiatric surgery of the foot and ankle, lower limb diabetic wound and salvation, peripheral vascular disease limb preservation, lower limb mononeuropathy conditions. Reconstructive foot & ankle surgery.
Proctology PRO Medicine (or Colorectal Surgery) Treats disease in the rectum, anus, and colon.
Psychiatry P Medicine The bio-psycho-social study of the etiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of cognitive, perceptual, emotional and behavioral disorders. Related non-medical fields include psychotherapy and clinical psychology.
Pulmonology Medicine The lungs and respiratory system. Pulmonology is generally considered a branch of internal medicine, although it is closely related to intensive care medicine when dealing with patients requiring mechanical ventilation.
Public Health Public health focuses on the health of populations. Physicians employed in this field work in policy, research or health promotion, taking a broad view of health that encompasses the social determinants of health.
Radiology R, DR Diagnostic and Therapeutic
  • Interventional radiology is concerned with using expert imaging of the human body, usually via CT, ultrasound, fluoroscopy, or MRI to perform a breadth of intravascular procedures (angioplasty, arterial stenting, thrombolysis, uterine fibroid embolization), biopsies and minimally invasive oncologic procedures (radiofrequency and cryoablation of tumors & transarterial chemoembolization)
  • Nuclear medicine uses radioactive substances for in vivo and in vitro diagnosis either using imaging of the location of radioactive substances placed into a patient or using in vitro diagnostic tests utilizing radioactive substances.
The use of expertise in radiation in the context of medical imaging for diagnosis or image guided minimally invasive therapy. X-rays, etc.
Rheumatology RHU Medicine Autoimmune and inflammatory diseases of the joints and other organ systems, such as arthritis and other rheumatic diseases.
Surgical oncology SO Surgery Curative and palliative surgical approaches to cancer treatment.
Thoracic surgery TS Surgery Surgery of the organs of the thoracic cavity: the heart, lungs, and great vessels.
Transplant surgery TTS Surgery Transplantation of organs from one body to another
Urgent Care Medicine UCM Medicine Immediate medical care offering outpatient care for the treatment of acute and chronic illness and injury
Urology U Surgery Urinary tracts of males and females, and the male reproductive system. It is often practiced together with andrology ("men's health").
Vascular surgery VS Surgery The peripheral blood vessels – those outside the chest (usually operated on by cardiovascular surgeons) and outside the central nervous system (treated by neurosurgery)

Salaries

The mean annual salary of a medical specialist in the US in 2006 was $175,011[6] and $272,000 for surgeons.[6]

The table below details the average range of salaries for physicians in the US of selected specialties as of July 2010. Also given in the average number of hours worked per week for full-time physicians (2003 data).

Specialty Median salary (USD)[7] Average hours

work/week[8]

Average salary/hour (USD)[9]
Anaesthesia 331,000 to $423,507 61
Dermatology 313,100 to $480,088 45.5 103
Emergency medicine 239,000 to $316,296 46 87
Cardiac Surgery 218,684 to $500,000 55
Family medicine 175,000 to $220,196 52.5 58
Internal medicine 184,200 to $231,691 57 58
Neurology 213,000 to $301,327 55.5 93
Obstetrics and Gynecology 251,500 to $326,924 61 83
Ophthalmology 150,000 to $351,000 47
Orthopedic surgery 397,879 to $600,000 58
Otolaryngology 191,000 to $393,000 53.5
Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 260,000 to $440,210 53
Pediatrics 160,111 to $228,750 54 69
Podiatry 170,800 to $315,150 45 80
Psychiatry 173,800 to $248,198 48 72
Radiology (diagnostic) 377,300 to $478,000 58
Surgery (general) 284,642 to $383,333 60
Urology 331,192 to $443,518 60.5
Neurosurgery 350,000 to $705,000 132
Plastic surgery 265,000 to $500,000 114
Gastroenterology 251,026 to $396,450 93
Pulmonology 165,000 to $365,875 72

Specialties by country

Australia and New Zealand

Specialty training in Australia and New Zealand is overseen by the specialty colleges:

Canada

Specialty training in Canada is overseen by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada and the College of Family Physicians of Canada. For specialists working in the province of Quebec, the Collège des médecins du Québec also oversees the process.

Germany

In Germany these doctors use the term Facharzt.

India

Specialty training in India is overseen by the Medical Council of India, which is responsible for recognition of post graduate training and by the National Board of Examinations. And education of Ayurveda in overseen by Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM), the council conducts u.g and p.g courses all over India, while Central Council of Homoeopathy does the same in the field of Homeopathy.

Sweden

In Sweden, a medical license is required before commencing specialty training. Those graduating from Swedish medical schools are first required to do a rotational internship of about 1.5 to 2 years in various specialties before attaining a medical license. The specialist training lasts 5 years.[10]

United States

There are three agencies or organizations in the United States that collectively oversee physician board certification of MD and DO physicians in the United States in the 26 approved medical specialties recognized in the country. These organizations are the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) and the American Medical Association (AMA); the American Osteopathic Association Bureau of Osteopathic Specialists (AOABOS) and the American Osteopathic Association; the American Board of Physician Specialties (ABPS) and the American Association of Physician Specialists (AAPS). Each of these agencies and their associated national medical organization functions as its various specialty academies, colleges and societies.

Certifying board National organization Physician type
ABMS AMA MD and DO
AOABOS AOA DO only
ABPS AAPS MD and DO

All boards of certification now require that medical practitioners demonstrate, by examination, continuing mastery of the core knowledge and skills for a chosen specialty. Recertification varies by particular specialty between every seven and every ten years.

In the United States there are hierarchies of medical specialties in the cities of a region. Small towns and cities have primary care, middle sized cities offer secondary care, and metropolitan cities have tertiary care. Income, size of population, population demographics, distance to the doctor, all influence the numbers and kinds of specialists and physicians located in a city.[11]

Demography

A population's income level determines whether sufficient physicians can practice in an area and whether public subsidy is needed to maintain the health of the population. Developing countries and poor areas usually have shortages of physicians and specialties, and those in practice usually locate in larger cities. For some underlying theory regarding physician location, see central place theory.[11]

The proportion of men and women in different medical specialties varies greatly. Such sex segregation is largely due to differential application.[12]

Satisfaction and burnout

A survey of physicians in the United States came to the result that dermatologists are most satisfied with their choice of specialty followed by radiologists, oncologists, plastic surgeons, and gastroenterologists.[13] In contrast, primary care physicians were the least satisfied, followed by nephrologists, obstetricians/gynecologists, and pulmonologists.[13] Surveys have also revealed high levels of depression among medical students (25 - 30%) as well as among physicians in training (22 - 43%), which for many specialties, continue into regular practice.[14][15] A UK survey conducted of cancer-related specialties in 1994 and 2002 found higher job satisfaction in those specialties with more patient contact. Rates of burnout also varied by specialty.[16]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Different Types of Doctors: Find the Specialist You Need". webmd.com. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
  2. ^ Weisz G (Fall 2003). "The Emergence of Medical Specialization in the Nineteenth Century". Bull Hist Med. 77 (3): 536–574. doi:10.1353/bhm.2003.0150. PMID 14523260.
  3. ^ "Directive 2005/36/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 September 2005 on the recognition of professional qualifications". European Parliament and Council. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  4. ^ a b c Regeringen.se – new grouping of the medical specialties Archived April 10, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ "Becoming a Registered Dietitian". Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Retrieved 21 April 2016.
  6. ^ a b ibmdllc.com -Physician income not rising as fast as other professional pay Archived April 10, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ Physician Compensation Survey [special feature]. Modern Healthcare. July 19, 2010: 20-26. [1] Archived November 30, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ Physician work hours (2003) Medfriends.org. Accessed 15 December 2010.
  9. ^ Leigh JP; Tancredi D; Jerant A; Kravitz RL (October 2010). "Physician wages across specialties: informing the physician reimbursement debate". Arch. Intern. Med. 170 (19): 1728–34. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2010.350. PMID 20975019.
  10. ^ "Specialty training / residency". Lund University, Faculty of Medicine. 2015-05-20. Retrieved 2016-11-26.
  11. ^ a b Smith, Margot Wiesinger (1979). "A guide to the delineation of medical care regions, medical trade areas, and hospital service areas" (PDF). Public Health Reports. 94 (3): 248–254. JSTOR 4596085.
  12. ^ Error: Bad DOI specified!
  13. ^ a b "Medscape Log In". www.medscape.com. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
  14. ^ Rotenstein, Lisa S.; Ramos, Marco A.; Torre, Matthew; Segal, J. Bradley; Peluso, Michael J.; Guille, Constance; Sen, Srijan; Mata, Douglas A. (2016-12-06). "Prevalence of Depression, Depressive Symptoms, and Suicidal Ideation Among Medical Students: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". JAMA. 316 (21): 2214–2236. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.17324. ISSN 1538-3598. PMC 5613659. PMID 27923088.
  15. ^ Douglas A. Mata, Marco A. Ramos, Narinder Bansal, Rida Khan, Constance Guille, Emanuele Di Angelantonio & Srijan Sen (2015). "Prevalence of Depression and Depressive Symptoms Among Resident Physicians: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis". JAMA. 314 (22): 2373–2383. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.15845. PMC 4866499. PMID 26647259.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  16. ^ doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67178-4
Albany, Oregon

Albany is the county seat of Linn County, and the 11th largest city in the State of Oregon. Albany is located in the Willamette Valley at the confluence of the Calapooia River and the Willamette River in both Linn and Benton counties, just east of Corvallis and south of Salem. It is predominantly a farming and manufacturing city that settlers founded around 1848. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population of Albany was 50,158. Its population was estimated by the Portland Research Center to be 51,583 in 2013.Albany has a home rule charter, a council–manager government, and a full-time unelected city manager. The city provides the population with access to over 30 parks and trails, a senior center, and many cultural events such as the Northwest Art & Air Festival, River Rhythms and Movies at Monteith. In addition to farming and manufacturing, the city's economy depends on retail trade, health care, and social assistance. In recent years the city has worked to revive the downtown shopping area, with help from the Central Albany Revitalization Area.

American Board of Medical Specialties

Established in 1933, the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) is a non-profit organization which represent 24 broad areas of specialty medicine. ABMS is the largest physician-led specialty certification organization in the United States.ABMS Member Boards have maintained a rigorous process for the evaluation and Board certification of medical specialists, though none of the processes have been confirmed by independent third-party review. They certify specialists in more than 150 medical specialties and subspecialties. More than 80 percent of practicing physicians in the United States have achieved Board Certification by one or more of the ABMS Member Boards. The Member Boards support lifelong learning by physicians through the ABMS Maintenance of Certification (ABMS MOC) program. ABMS also collaborates with other professional medical organizations and agencies to set standards for graduate medical school education and accreditation of residency programs. ABMS makes information available to the public about the Board Certification of physicians and their participation in the ABMS MOC program.

Bumrungrad International Hospital

Bumrungrad International Hospital (Thai: โรงพยาบาลบำรุงราษฎร์, [roːŋpʰájaːbaːn bamruŋrâːt], bahm-roong-RAHT; SET: BH) is a private multiple-specialty medical centre founded 1980 in Bangkok, Thailand. More frequently referred to as Bumrungrad Hospital or simply Bumrungrad, its name, "Bumrungrad" means "to care for the populace" or "to nurture the people."

Certification Commission for Healthcare Information Technology

The Certification Commission for Health Information Technology (CCHIT) was an independent, 501(c)3 nonprofit organization with the public mission of accelerating the adoption of robust, interoperable health information technology. The Commission certified electronic health record technology from 2006 until 2014. It was approved by the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) as an Authorized Testing and Certification Body (ONC-ATCB). The CCHIT Certified program is an independently developed certification that includes a rigorous inspection of an EHR’s integrated functionality, interoperability and security using criteria developed by CCHIT’s broadly representative, expert work groups. These products may also be certified in the ONC-ATCB certification program.

Covington, Washington

Covington is a city in King County, Washington, United States. The population was 17,575 at the time of the 2010 census. Prior to the 2010 census, Covington was counted as part of Covington-Sawyer-Wilderness CDP.

Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust

Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (HHFT) is an NHS Foundation Trust providing services in Hampshire and parts of west Berkshire. It was established in January 2012 as the result of the integration of Basingstoke and North Hampshire NHS Foundation Trust and Winchester and Eastleigh Healthcare Trust. It runs Andover War Memorial Hospital (AWMH), Basingstoke and North Hampshire Hospital (BNHH) and Royal Hampshire County Hospital. (RHCH) The Trust also runs a private hospital on the same site as BNHH - the Candover Clinic.

Highlands Regional Medical Center

Highlands Regional Medical Center is a hospital in Prestonsburg, Kentucky. It is a 184-bed, nonprofit healthcare facility owned and operated by the Prestonsburg and Paintsville communities. The hospital serves the counties of Floyd, Johnson, Martin, and Magoffin, for a total combined population of over 90,000.

Matthew C. Keifer

Matthew C. Keifer (born 1954) is the director of the VA Occupational Health and the Specialty Medicine Service Line at the VA Puget Sound, Seattle, WA. Keifer served as director of the National Farm Medicine Center (NFMC) from 2012-2016, and is currently a co-director of the Upper Midwest Agricultural Safety and Health Center, and a project PI within the National Children's Center for Rural and Agricultural Health and Safety. He is an occupational physician and internist who also practiced occupational medicine at the Marshfield Clinic in Marshfield, Wisconsin during his time as the director of NFMC. He is an affiliate professor at the University of Washington School of Public Health, where he was on the active faculty and served as founding co-director of the Pacific Northwest Agricultural Safety and Health Center until 2010. His research areas include pesticide health effects, injuries and illness in agriculture, and clinical occupational injury management.

Meta-analysis

A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies.

The basic tenet behind meta-analyses is that there is a common truth behind all conceptually similar scientific studies, but which has been measured with a certain error within individual studies. The aim then is to use approaches from statistics to derive a pooled estimate closest to the unknown common truth based on how this error is perceived. In essence, all existing methods yield a weighted average from the results of the individual studies and what differs is the manner in which these weights are allocated and also the manner in which the uncertainty is computed around the point estimate thus generated. In addition to providing an estimate of the unknown common truth, meta-analysis has the capacity to contrast results from different studies and identify patterns among study results, sources of disagreement among those results, or other interesting relationships that may come to light in the context of multiple studies.A key benefit of this approach is the aggregation of information leading to a higher statistical power and more robust point estimate than is possible from the measure derived from any individual study. However, in performing a meta-analysis, an investigator must make choices which can affect the results, including deciding how to search for studies, selecting studies based on a set of objective criteria, dealing with incomplete data, analyzing the data, and accounting for or choosing not to account for publication bias.Meta-analyses are often, but not always, important components of a systematic review procedure. For instance, a meta-analysis may be conducted on several clinical trials of a medical treatment, in an effort to obtain a better understanding of how well the treatment works. Here it is convenient to follow the terminology used by the Cochrane Collaboration, and use "meta-analysis" to refer to statistical methods of combining evidence, leaving other aspects of 'research synthesis' or 'evidence synthesis', such as combining information from qualitative studies, for the more general context of systematic reviews. A meta-analysis is a secondary source.

Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry

The Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry is principal university for preparing dentists and one of the leading universities in Russia for training in the specialty "Medicine." The university has a 93-year history, which dates back to the first dental schools that have emerged in Russia in the 19th century.

The university counts its history from 2 April 1922, when the State Institute of Dentistry (GIZ) was founded.

In 1927, GIZ was renamed the State Institute of Dentistry and Odontology (GISO). GISO pursued postgraduate specialty dentists, organized dental care to the population, engaged in scientific research. In 1932 GISO was renamed the State Scientific-Research Institute of Dentistry and Odontology.

In 1949, after several re-organizations, the Moscow Medical Stomatological Institute (MMSI), was created which became a scientific advisory center on all matters of dentistry.

In 1999, the institute received a university status and became known as the Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry (MSUMD).

The university has an unofficial name applied in common parlance, "the 3rd Medical University."

Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses

PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) is an evidence-based minimum set of items aimed at helping authors to report a wide array of systematic reviews and meta-analyses that assess the benefits and harms of a health care intervention. PRISMA focuses on ways in which authors can ensure a transparent and complete reporting of this type of research. The PRISMA standard supersedes the QUOROM standard.

Randomized controlled trial

A randomized controlled trial (or randomized control trial; RCT) is a type of scientific (often medical) experiment which aims to reduce bias when testing a new treatment. The people participating in the trial are randomly allocated to either the group receiving the treatment under investigation or to a group receiving standard treatment (or placebo treatment) as the control. Randomization minimises selection bias and the different comparison groups allow the researchers to determine any effects of the treatment when compared with the no treatment (control) group, while other variables are kept constant. The RCT is often considered the gold standard for a clinical trial. RCTs are often used to test the efficacy or effectiveness of various types of medical intervention and may provide information about adverse effects, such as drug reactions. Random assignment of intervention is done after subjects have been assessed for eligibility and recruited, but before the intervention to be studied begins.

Random allocation in real trials is complex, but conceptually the process is like tossing a coin. After randomization, the two (or more) groups of subjects are followed in exactly the same way and the only differences between them is the care they receive. For example, in terms of procedures, tests, outpatient visits, and follow-up calls, should be those intrinsic to the treatments being compared. The most important advantage of proper randomization is that it minimizes allocation bias, balancing both known and unknown prognostic factors, in the assignment of treatments.The terms "RCT" and randomized trial are sometimes used synonymously, but the methodologically sound practice is to reserve the "RCT" name only for trials that contain control groups, in which groups receiving the experimental treatment are compared with control groups receiving no treatment (a placebo-controlled study) or a previously tested treatment (a positive-control study). The term "randomized trials" omits mention of controls and can describe studies that compare multiple treatment groups with each other (in the absence of a control group). Similarly, although the "RCT" name is sometimes expanded as "randomized clinical trial" or "randomized comparative trial", the methodologically sound practice, to avoid ambiguity in the scientific literature, is to retain "control" in the definition of "RCT" and thus reserve that name only for trials that contain controls. Not all randomized clinical trials are randomized controlled trials (and some of them could never be, in cases where controls would be impractical or unethical to institute). The term randomized controlled clinical trials is a methodologically sound alternate expansion for "RCT" in RCTs that concern clinical research; however, RCTs are also employed in other research areas, including many of the social sciences.

Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada

The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (Royal College) (French: Collège royal des médecins et chirurgiens du Canada) is a regulatory college which acts as a national, nonprofit organization established in 1929 by a special Act of Parliament to oversee the medical education of specialists in Canada.

The Royal College is an association of physicians concerned with setting national standards for medical education and continuing professional development in Canada for 80 medical specialties. As such, the Royal College is neither a licensing nor a disciplinary body. Instead, it is a regulatory authority that helps ensure that the training and evaluation of medical and surgical specialists and three special programs maintain certain standards of quality.All specialists in Canada, with the exception of family physicians, must be certified by the Royal College before they obtain a provincial or territorial licence to practise. The only exception is in the province of Quebec, where the Royal College shares the responsibility for certifying physicians with the Collège des médecins du Québec.To become certified, a physician must pass Royal College examinations. Access to these examinations is usually gained by completing a Royal College-accredited residency program at a Canadian university. Access is also available for medical residents who complete a Royal College-recognized residency program in the United States. Certain international training programs approved by the Royal College provide limited access to Royal College examinations.Since its founding, the Royal College has been granted the patronage of the Canadian monarch, currently Elizabeth II.

Specialty

Specialty or speciality may refer to:

Deed, a contract in law

Index of speciality, a geometrical invariant

Speciality (album), an album by J-Pop singer Nami Tamaki

Specialty (medicine), a field within medicine

Specialty (dentistry), a field within dentistry

Specialty Records, a record label

Specialty show, a dog show of a single breed

Transesophageal echocardiogram

A transesophageal echocardiogram, or TEE (TOE in the United Kingdom and other countries such as Australia, reflecting the spelling transoesophageal), is an alternative way to perform an echocardiogram. A specialized probe containing an ultrasound transducer at its tip is passed into the patient's esophagus. This allows image and Doppler evaluation which can be recorded.

It has several advantages and some disadvantages compared with a transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE).

University of Bologna

The University of Bologna (Italian: Università di Bologna, UNIBO), founded in 1088 by an organised guild of students (hence “studiorum”), is the oldest university of the world, as well as one of the leading academic institutions in Italy and Europe. It is one of the most prestigious Italian universities, commonly ranking in the first places of national rankings.It was the first place of study to use the term universitas for the corporations of students and masters, which came to define the institution (especially its famous law school) located in Bologna, Italy. The University's crest carries the motto Alma mater studiorum ("nourishing mother of studies") and the date A.D. 1088, and it has about 86,500 students in its 11 schools. It has campuses in Ravenna, Forlì, Cesena and Rimini and a branch center abroad in Buenos Aires, Argentina. It also has a school of excellence named Collegio Superiore di Bologna. An associate publisher of the University of Bologna is Bononia University Press S.p.A. (BUP).

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