A medical speciality is a branch of medical practice that is focused on a defined group of patients, diseases, skills, or philosophy. Examples include children (paediatrics), cancer (oncology), laboratory medicine (pathology), or primary care (family medicine). After completing medical school, physicians or surgeons usually further their medical education in a specific specialty of medicine by completing a multiple-year residency to become a medical specialist.
To a certain extent, medical practitioners have long been specialized. According to Galen, specialization was common among Roman physicians. The particular system of modern medical specialties evolved gradually during the 19th century. Informal social recognition of medical specialization evolved before the formal legal system. The particular subdivision of the practice of medicine into various specialties varies from country to country, and is somewhat arbitrary.
Medical specialties can be classified along several axes. These are:
Throughout history, the most important has been the division into surgical and internal medicine specialties. The surgical specialties are those in which an important part of diagnosis and treatment is achieved through major surgical techniques. The internal medicine specialties are the specialties in which the main diagnosis and treatment is never major surgery. In some countries, anesthesiology is classified as a surgical discipline, since it is vital in the surgical process, though anesthesiologists never perform major surgery themselves.
Many specialties are organ-based. Many symptoms and diseases come from a particular organ. Others are based mainly around a set of techniques, such as radiology, which was originally based around X-rays.
The age range of patients seen by any given specialist can be quite variable. Paediatricians handle most complaints and diseases in children that do not require surgery, and there are several subspecialties (formally or informally) in paediatrics that mimic the organ-based specialties in adults. Paediatric surgery may or may not be a separate specialty that handles some kinds of surgical complaints in children.
A further subdivision is the diagnostic versus therapeutic specialties. While the diagnostic process is of great importance in all specialties, some specialists perform mainly or only diagnostic examinations, such as pathology, clinical neurophysiology, and radiology. This line is becoming somewhat blurred with interventional radiology, an evolving field that uses image expertise to perform minimally invasive procedures.
|Specialty||May be subspecialty of||Diagnostic (D) or therapeutic (T) specialty||Surgical (S) or internal medicine specialty (I)||Age range of patients||Organ-based (O) or technique-based (T)|
|Allergy and immunology||Internal medicine
|Aerospace medicine||Family Medicine||Both||Neither||All||Both|
|Cardiothoracic surgery||General surgery||T||S||Adults||O|
|Child and adolescent psychiatry||Psychiatry||T||I||Paediatric||T|
|Colorectal surgery||General Surgery||Both||S||All||O|
|Emergency medicine||Family Medicine||Both||Both||All||Both|
|General surgical oncology||General surgery||T||S||Adults||T|
|Gynecologic oncology||Obstetrics and gynecology||T||S||All||O|
|Infectious disease||Internal medicine
|Intensive care medicine||Anesthesiology
|Maternal-fetal medicine||Obstetrics and gynecology||T||S||Adults||Both|
|Medical biochemistry||Internal medicine||D||I||All||Neither|
|Medical oncology||Internal medicine||D||I||Adults||Neither|
|Obstetrics and gynecology||Family medicine||T||S||All||O|
|Occupational medicine||Family medicine
|Oral and maxillofacial surgery||None||T||S||All||O|
|Palliative care||Family Medicine
|Pediatric allergy and immunology||Pediatrics||T||I||Pediatric||O|
|Pediatric emergency medicine||Pediatrics||Both||Both||Pediatric||Both|
|Pediatric hematology and oncology||Pediatrics||T||I||Pediatric||O|
|Pediatric infectious disease||Pediatrics||T||I||Pediatric||O|
|Pediatric respiratory medicine||Pediatrics||S||I||Pediatric||O|
|Pediatric surgery||General surgery||T||S||Pediatric||O|
|Physical medicine and rehabilitation||None||T||I||All||Multidisciplinary|
|Plastic, reconstructive and aesthetic surgery||General surgery||T||S||All||O|
|Public health||Family medicine||Neither||Neither||All||T|
|Reproductive endocrinology and infertility||Obstetrics and gynecology||T||S||Adults||T|
|Respiratory medicine||Internal medicine||T||I||Adults||O|
|Sports medicine||Family medicine||Both||Neither||All||Multidisciplinary|
|Thoracic surgery||General surgery||T||S||Adults||T|
|Vascular surgery||General surgery||T||S||All||O|
The European Union publishes a list of specialties recognized in the European Union, and by extension, the European Economic Area. Note that there is substantial overlap between some of the specialties and it is likely that for example "Clinical radiology" and "Radiology" refer to a large degree to the same pattern of practice across Europe.
In this table, as in many healthcare arenas, medical specialties are organized into the following groups:
|Allergy and immunology||Allergic reactions, asthma, and the immune system|
|Cardiology||Medicine||Disease of the cardiovascular system|
|Cardiovascular surgery||Surgery||The operation of heart and major blood vessels of the chest.|
|Clinical laboratory sciences||Diagnostic||
||Application of diagnostic techniques in medical laboratories such as assays, microscope analysis.|
|Dermatology||D, DS||Medicine||Dermatology, Mohs surgery||Skin and its appendages (hair, nails, sweat glands etc.).|
|Dietetics||RD||Food and nutrition|
|Emergency medicine||EM||Medicine||The initial management of emergent medical conditions, often in hospital emergency departments or the field.|
|Endocrinology||Medicine||The endocrine system (i.e., endocrine glands and hormones) and its diseases, including diabetes and thyroid diseases.|
||Continuing, comprehensive healthcare for the individual and family, integrating the biological, clinical and behavioral sciences to treat patients of all ages, sexes, organ systems, and diseases.|
|Gastroenterology||GI||Medicine||The alimentary tract|
|Gynecology||Female reproductive health|
|Hepatology||Medicine||The liver and biliary tract, usually a part of gastroenterology.|
|Infectious disease||ID||Medicine||Diseases caused by biological agents|
|Intensive care medicine||Medicine||Life support and management of critically ill patients, often in an ICU.|
|Medical research||Anatomy, Biochemistry, Embryology, Genetics, Pharmacology, Toxicology||Care of hospitalized patients|
|Neurology||N||Medicine||Diseases involving the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems|
|Neurosurgery||NS||Surgery||Disease of the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, and spinal column.|
|Obstetrics and gynecology||OB/GYN||Surgery|
|Oncology||ON||Medicine||Cancer and other malignant diseases, often grouped with hematology.|
|Ophthalmology||OPH||Surgery||Retina, Cornea||Diseases of the visual pathways, including the eyes, brain, etc.|
|Oral and maxillofacial surgery||Maxfacs, OMS||Surgery||
||Disease of the head, neck, face, jaws and the hard and soft tissues of the oral and maxillofacial region.|
|Orthopedic surgery||ORS||Surgery||Hand surgery, surgical sports medicine, adult reconstruction, spine surgery, foot and ankle, musculoskeletal oncology, orthopedic trauma surgery, pediatric orthopedic surgery||Injury and disease of the musculoskeletal system.|
|Otorhinolaryngology, or ENT||ORL, ENT||Surgery||Head and neck, facial cosmetic surgery, Neurotology, Laryngology||Treatment of ear, nose, and throat disorders. The term head and neck surgery defines a closely related specialty that is concerned mainly with the surgical management of cancer of the same anatomical structures.|
|Palliative care||PLM||Medicine||A relatively modern branch of clinical medicine that deals with pain and symptom relief and emotional support in patients with terminal illnesses including cancer and heart failure.|
|Pathology||PTH||Diagnostic||Understanding disease through examination of molecules, cells, tissues and organs. The term encompasses both the medical specialty that uses tissues and body fluids to obtain clinically useful information and the related scientific study of disease processes.|
|Pediatrics||PD||Medicine||Children. Like internal medicine, pediatrics has many sub-specialties for specific age ranges, organ systems, disease classes, and sites of care delivery. Most sub-specialties of adult medicine have a pediatric equivalent such as pediatric cardiology, pediatric emergency medicine, pediatric endocrinology, pediatric gastroenterology, pediatric hematology, pediatric oncology, pediatric ophthalmology, and neonatology.||deals with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents (from newborn to age 16-21, depending on the country).|
|Pediatric surgery||Surgery||Treats a wide variety of thoracic and abdominal (and sometimes urologic) diseases of childhood.|
|Physical medicine and rehabilitation Or Physiatry||PM&R||Medicine||
||Concerned with functional improvement after injury, illness, or congenital disorders.|
||Elective cosmetic surgery as well as reconstructive surgery after traumatic or operative mutilation.|
||Elective podiatric surgery of the foot and ankle, lower limb diabetic wound and salvation, peripheral vascular disease limb preservation, lower limb mononeuropathy conditions. Reconstructive foot & ankle surgery.|
|Proctology||PRO||Medicine||(or Colorectal Surgery) Treats disease in the rectum, anus, and colon.|
||The bio-psycho-social study of the etiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of cognitive, perceptual, emotional and behavioral disorders. Related non-medical fields include psychotherapy and clinical psychology.|
|Pulmonology||Medicine||The lungs and respiratory system. Pulmonology is generally considered a branch of internal medicine, although it is closely related to intensive care medicine when dealing with patients requiring mechanical ventilation.|
|Public Health||Public health focuses on the health of populations. Physicians employed in this field work in policy, research or health promotion, taking a broad view of health that encompasses the social determinants of health.|
|Radiology||R, DR||Diagnostic and Therapeutic||
||The use of expertise in radiation in the context of medical imaging for diagnosis or image guided minimally invasive therapy. X-rays, etc.|
|Rheumatology||RHU||Medicine||Autoimmune and inflammatory diseases of the joints and other organ systems, such as arthritis and other rheumatic diseases.|
|Surgical oncology||SO||Surgery||Curative and palliative surgical approaches to cancer treatment.|
|Thoracic surgery||TS||Surgery||Surgery of the organs of the thoracic cavity: the heart, lungs, and great vessels.|
|Transplant surgery||TTS||Surgery||Transplantation of organs from one body to another|
|Urgent Care Medicine||UCM||Medicine||Immediate medical care offering outpatient care for the treatment of acute and chronic illness and injury|
|Urology||U||Surgery||Urinary tracts of males and females, and the male reproductive system. It is often practiced together with andrology ("men's health").|
|Vascular surgery||VS||Surgery||The peripheral blood vessels – those outside the chest (usually operated on by cardiovascular surgeons) and outside the central nervous system (treated by neurosurgery)|
The table below details the average range of salaries for physicians in the US of selected specialties as of July 2010. Also given in the average number of hours worked per week for full-time physicians (2003 data).
|Specialty||Median salary (USD)||Average hours
|Average salary/hour (USD)|
|Anaesthesia||331,000 to $423,507||61|
|Dermatology||313,100 to $480,088||45.5||103|
|Emergency medicine||239,000 to $316,296||46||87|
|Cardiac Surgery||218,684 to $500,000||55|
|Family medicine||175,000 to $220,196||52.5||58|
|Internal medicine||184,200 to $231,691||57||58|
|Neurology||213,000 to $301,327||55.5||93|
|Obstetrics and Gynecology||251,500 to $326,924||61||83|
|Ophthalmology||150,000 to $351,000||47|
|Orthopedic surgery||397,879 to $600,000||58|
|Otolaryngology||191,000 to $393,000||53.5|
|Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery||260,000 to $440,210||53|
|Pediatrics||160,111 to $228,750||54||69|
|Podiatry||170,800 to $315,150||45||80|
|Psychiatry||173,800 to $248,198||48||72|
|Radiology (diagnostic)||377,300 to $478,000||58|
|Surgery (general)||284,642 to $383,333||60|
|Urology||331,192 to $443,518||60.5|
|Neurosurgery||350,000 to $705,000||132|
|Plastic surgery||265,000 to $500,000||114|
|Gastroenterology||251,026 to $396,450||93|
|Pulmonology||165,000 to $365,875||72|
Specialty training in Australia and New Zealand is overseen by the specialty colleges:
Specialty training in Canada is overseen by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada and the College of Family Physicians of Canada. For specialists working in the province of Quebec, the Collège des médecins du Québec also oversees the process.
In Germany these doctors use the term Facharzt.
Specialty training in India is overseen by the Medical Council of India, which is responsible for recognition of post graduate training and by the National Board of Examinations. And education of Ayurveda in overseen by Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM), the council conducts u.g and p.g courses all over India, while Central Council of Homoeopathy does the same in the field of Homeopathy.
In Sweden, a medical license is required before commencing specialty training. Those graduating from Swedish medical schools are first required to do a rotational internship of about 1.5 to 2 years in various specialties before attaining a medical license. The specialist training lasts 5 years.
There are three agencies or organizations in the United States that collectively oversee physician board certification of MD and DO physicians in the United States in the 26 approved medical specialties recognized in the country. These organizations are the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) and the American Medical Association (AMA); the American Osteopathic Association Bureau of Osteopathic Specialists (AOABOS) and the American Osteopathic Association; the American Board of Physician Specialties (ABPS) and the American Association of Physician Specialists (AAPS). Each of these agencies and their associated national medical organization functions as its various specialty academies, colleges and societies.
|Certifying board||National organization||Physician type|
|ABMS||AMA||MD and DO|
|ABPS||AAPS||MD and DO|
All boards of certification now require that medical practitioners demonstrate, by examination, continuing mastery of the core knowledge and skills for a chosen specialty. Recertification varies by particular specialty between every seven and every ten years.
In the United States there are hierarchies of medical specialties in the cities of a region. Small towns and cities have primary care, middle sized cities offer secondary care, and metropolitan cities have tertiary care. Income, size of population, population demographics, distance to the doctor, all influence the numbers and kinds of specialists and physicians located in a city.
A population's income level determines whether sufficient physicians can practice in an area and whether public subsidy is needed to maintain the health of the population. Developing countries and poor areas usually have shortages of physicians and specialties, and those in practice usually locate in larger cities. For some underlying theory regarding physician location, see central place theory.
The proportion of men and women in different medical specialties varies greatly. Such sex segregation is largely due to differential application.
A survey of physicians in the United States came to the result that dermatologists are most satisfied with their choice of specialty followed by radiologists, oncologists, plastic surgeons, and gastroenterologists. In contrast, primary care physicians were the least satisfied, followed by nephrologists, obstetricians/gynecologists, and pulmonologists. Surveys have also revealed high levels of depression among medical students (25 - 30%) as well as among physicians in training (22 - 43%), which for many specialties, continue into regular practice. A UK survey conducted of cancer-related specialties in 1994 and 2002 found higher job satisfaction in those specialties with more patient contact. Rates of burnout also varied by specialty.
Albany is the county seat of Linn County, and the 11th largest city in the State of Oregon. Albany is located in the Willamette Valley at the confluence of the Calapooia River and the Willamette River in both Linn and Benton counties, just east of Corvallis and south of Salem. It is predominantly a farming and manufacturing city that settlers founded around 1848. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population of Albany was 50,158. Its population was estimated by the Portland Research Center to be 51,583 in 2013.Albany has a home rule charter, a council–manager government, and a full-time unelected city manager. The city provides the population with access to over 30 parks and trails, a senior center, and many cultural events such as the Northwest Art & Air Festival, River Rhythms and Movies at Monteith. In addition to farming and manufacturing, the city's economy depends on retail trade, health care, and social assistance. In recent years the city has worked to revive the downtown shopping area, with help from the Central Albany Revitalization Area.American Board of Medical Specialties
Established in 1933, the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) is a non-profit organization which represent 24 broad areas of specialty medicine. ABMS is the largest physician-led specialty certification organization in the United States.ABMS Member Boards have maintained a rigorous process for the evaluation and Board certification of medical specialists, though none of the processes have been confirmed by independent third-party review. They certify specialists in more than 150 medical specialties and subspecialties. More than 80 percent of practicing physicians in the United States have achieved Board Certification by one or more of the ABMS Member Boards. The Member Boards support lifelong learning by physicians through the ABMS Maintenance of Certification (ABMS MOC) program. ABMS also collaborates with other professional medical organizations and agencies to set standards for graduate medical school education and accreditation of residency programs. ABMS makes information available to the public about the Board Certification of physicians and their participation in the ABMS MOC program.Bumrungrad International Hospital
Bumrungrad International Hospital (Thai: โรงพยาบาลบำรุงราษฎร์, [roːŋpʰájaːbaːn bamruŋrâːt], bahm-roong-RAHT; SET: BH) is a private multiple-specialty medical centre founded 1980 in Bangkok, Thailand. More frequently referred to as Bumrungrad Hospital or simply Bumrungrad, its name, "Bumrungrad" means "to care for the populace" or "to nurture the people."Certification Commission for Healthcare Information Technology
The Certification Commission for Health Information Technology (CCHIT) was an independent, 501(c)3 nonprofit organization with the public mission of accelerating the adoption of robust, interoperable health information technology. The Commission certified electronic health record technology from 2006 until 2014. It was approved by the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) as an Authorized Testing and Certification Body (ONC-ATCB). The CCHIT Certified program is an independently developed certification that includes a rigorous inspection of an EHR’s integrated functionality, interoperability and security using criteria developed by CCHIT’s broadly representative, expert work groups. These products may also be certified in the ONC-ATCB certification program.Covington, Washington
Covington is a city in King County, Washington, United States. The population was 17,575 at the time of the 2010 census. Prior to the 2010 census, Covington was counted as part of Covington-Sawyer-Wilderness CDP.Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (HHFT) is an NHS Foundation Trust providing services in Hampshire and parts of west Berkshire. It was established in January 2012 as the result of the integration of Basingstoke and North Hampshire NHS Foundation Trust and Winchester and Eastleigh Healthcare Trust. It runs Andover War Memorial Hospital (AWMH), Basingstoke and North Hampshire Hospital (BNHH) and Royal Hampshire County Hospital. (RHCH) The Trust also runs a private hospital on the same site as BNHH - the Candover Clinic.Highlands Regional Medical Center
Highlands Regional Medical Center is a hospital in Prestonsburg, Kentucky. It is a 184-bed, nonprofit healthcare facility owned and operated by the Prestonsburg and Paintsville communities. The hospital serves the counties of Floyd, Johnson, Martin, and Magoffin, for a total combined population of over 90,000.Matthew C. Keifer
Matthew C. Keifer (born 1954) is the director of the VA Occupational Health and the Specialty Medicine Service Line at the VA Puget Sound, Seattle, WA. Keifer served as director of the National Farm Medicine Center (NFMC) from 2012-2016, and is currently a co-director of the Upper Midwest Agricultural Safety and Health Center, and a project PI within the National Children's Center for Rural and Agricultural Health and Safety. He is an occupational physician and internist who also practiced occupational medicine at the Marshfield Clinic in Marshfield, Wisconsin during his time as the director of NFMC. He is an affiliate professor at the University of Washington School of Public Health, where he was on the active faculty and served as founding co-director of the Pacific Northwest Agricultural Safety and Health Center until 2010. His research areas include pesticide health effects, injuries and illness in agriculture, and clinical occupational injury management.Meta-analysis
A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies.
The basic tenet behind meta-analyses is that there is a common truth behind all conceptually similar scientific studies, but which has been measured with a certain error within individual studies. The aim then is to use approaches from statistics to derive a pooled estimate closest to the unknown common truth based on how this error is perceived. In essence, all existing methods yield a weighted average from the results of the individual studies and what differs is the manner in which these weights are allocated and also the manner in which the uncertainty is computed around the point estimate thus generated. In addition to providing an estimate of the unknown common truth, meta-analysis has the capacity to contrast results from different studies and identify patterns among study results, sources of disagreement among those results, or other interesting relationships that may come to light in the context of multiple studies.A key benefit of this approach is the aggregation of information leading to a higher statistical power and more robust point estimate than is possible from the measure derived from any individual study. However, in performing a meta-analysis, an investigator must make choices which can affect the results, including deciding how to search for studies, selecting studies based on a set of objective criteria, dealing with incomplete data, analyzing the data, and accounting for or choosing not to account for publication bias.Meta-analyses are often, but not always, important components of a systematic review procedure. For instance, a meta-analysis may be conducted on several clinical trials of a medical treatment, in an effort to obtain a better understanding of how well the treatment works. Here it is convenient to follow the terminology used by the Cochrane Collaboration, and use "meta-analysis" to refer to statistical methods of combining evidence, leaving other aspects of 'research synthesis' or 'evidence synthesis', such as combining information from qualitative studies, for the more general context of systematic reviews. A meta-analysis is a secondary source.Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry
The Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry is principal university for preparing dentists and one of the leading universities in Russia for training in the specialty "Medicine." The university has a 93-year history, which dates back to the first dental schools that have emerged in Russia in the 19th century.
The university counts its history from 2 April 1922, when the State Institute of Dentistry (GIZ) was founded.
In 1927, GIZ was renamed the State Institute of Dentistry and Odontology (GISO). GISO pursued postgraduate specialty dentists, organized dental care to the population, engaged in scientific research. In 1932 GISO was renamed the State Scientific-Research Institute of Dentistry and Odontology.
In 1949, after several re-organizations, the Moscow Medical Stomatological Institute (MMSI), was created which became a scientific advisory center on all matters of dentistry.
In 1999, the institute received a university status and became known as the Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry (MSUMD).
The university has an unofficial name applied in common parlance, "the 3rd Medical University."Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses
PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) is an evidence-based minimum set of items aimed at helping authors to report a wide array of systematic reviews and meta-analyses that assess the benefits and harms of a health care intervention. PRISMA focuses on ways in which authors can ensure a transparent and complete reporting of this type of research. The PRISMA standard supersedes the QUOROM standard.Randomized controlled trial
A randomized controlled trial (or randomized control trial; RCT) is a type of scientific (often medical) experiment which aims to reduce bias when testing a new treatment. The people participating in the trial are randomly allocated to either the group receiving the treatment under investigation or to a group receiving standard treatment (or placebo treatment) as the control. Randomization minimises selection bias and the different comparison groups allow the researchers to determine any effects of the treatment when compared with the no treatment (control) group, while other variables are kept constant. The RCT is often considered the gold standard for a clinical trial. RCTs are often used to test the efficacy or effectiveness of various types of medical intervention and may provide information about adverse effects, such as drug reactions. Random assignment of intervention is done after subjects have been assessed for eligibility and recruited, but before the intervention to be studied begins.
Random allocation in real trials is complex, but conceptually the process is like tossing a coin. After randomization, the two (or more) groups of subjects are followed in exactly the same way and the only differences between them is the care they receive. For example, in terms of procedures, tests, outpatient visits, and follow-up calls, should be those intrinsic to the treatments being compared. The most important advantage of proper randomization is that it minimizes allocation bias, balancing both known and unknown prognostic factors, in the assignment of treatments.The terms "RCT" and randomized trial are sometimes used synonymously, but the methodologically sound practice is to reserve the "RCT" name only for trials that contain control groups, in which groups receiving the experimental treatment are compared with control groups receiving no treatment (a placebo-controlled study) or a previously tested treatment (a positive-control study). The term "randomized trials" omits mention of controls and can describe studies that compare multiple treatment groups with each other (in the absence of a control group). Similarly, although the "RCT" name is sometimes expanded as "randomized clinical trial" or "randomized comparative trial", the methodologically sound practice, to avoid ambiguity in the scientific literature, is to retain "control" in the definition of "RCT" and thus reserve that name only for trials that contain controls. Not all randomized clinical trials are randomized controlled trials (and some of them could never be, in cases where controls would be impractical or unethical to institute). The term randomized controlled clinical trials is a methodologically sound alternate expansion for "RCT" in RCTs that concern clinical research; however, RCTs are also employed in other research areas, including many of the social sciences.Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada
The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (Royal College) (French: Collège royal des médecins et chirurgiens du Canada) is a regulatory college which acts as a national, nonprofit organization established in 1929 by a special Act of Parliament to oversee the medical education of specialists in Canada.
The Royal College is an association of physicians concerned with setting national standards for medical education and continuing professional development in Canada for 80 medical specialties. As such, the Royal College is neither a licensing nor a disciplinary body. Instead, it is a regulatory authority that helps ensure that the training and evaluation of medical and surgical specialists and three special programs maintain certain standards of quality.All specialists in Canada, with the exception of family physicians, must be certified by the Royal College before they obtain a provincial or territorial licence to practise. The only exception is in the province of Quebec, where the Royal College shares the responsibility for certifying physicians with the Collège des médecins du Québec.To become certified, a physician must pass Royal College examinations. Access to these examinations is usually gained by completing a Royal College-accredited residency program at a Canadian university. Access is also available for medical residents who complete a Royal College-recognized residency program in the United States. Certain international training programs approved by the Royal College provide limited access to Royal College examinations.Since its founding, the Royal College has been granted the patronage of the Canadian monarch, currently Elizabeth II.Specialty
Specialty or speciality may refer to:
Deed, a contract in law
Index of speciality, a geometrical invariant
Speciality (album), an album by J-Pop singer Nami Tamaki
Specialty (medicine), a field within medicine
Specialty (dentistry), a field within dentistry
Specialty Records, a record label
Specialty show, a dog show of a single breedTransesophageal echocardiogram
A transesophageal echocardiogram, or TEE (TOE in the United Kingdom and other countries such as Australia, reflecting the spelling transoesophageal), is an alternative way to perform an echocardiogram. A specialized probe containing an ultrasound transducer at its tip is passed into the patient's esophagus. This allows image and Doppler evaluation which can be recorded.
It has several advantages and some disadvantages compared with a transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE).University of Bologna
The University of Bologna (Italian: Università di Bologna, UNIBO), founded in 1088 by an organised guild of students (hence “studiorum”), is the oldest university of the world, as well as one of the leading academic institutions in Italy and Europe. It is one of the most prestigious Italian universities, commonly ranking in the first places of national rankings.It was the first place of study to use the term universitas for the corporations of students and masters, which came to define the institution (especially its famous law school) located in Bologna, Italy. The University's crest carries the motto Alma mater studiorum ("nourishing mother of studies") and the date A.D. 1088, and it has about 86,500 students in its 11 schools. It has campuses in Ravenna, Forlì, Cesena and Rimini and a branch center abroad in Buenos Aires, Argentina. It also has a school of excellence named Collegio Superiore di Bologna. An associate publisher of the University of Bologna is Bononia University Press S.p.A. (BUP).