The terms special edition, limited edition, and variants such as deluxe edition, or collector's edition, are used as a marketing incentive for various kinds of products, originally published products related to the arts, such as books, prints, video games or recorded music and films, but now including clothing, cars, fine wine, and whisky, among other products. A limited edition is restricted in the number of copies produced, although in fact the number may be very low or very high. A special edition implies there is extra material of some kind included. The term is frequently used on DVD film releases, often when the so-called "special" edition is actually the only version released.
Collector's edition may just be another term for special edition. It may also refer to books in special limited and numbered editions, sometimes hand-bound, and signed by the artist and containing one or more original works or prints produced directly from their work and printed under their supervision.
Popular culture widely employs Special, Deluxe, Expanded and Limited Edition in marketing, releasing subsequent, improved versions of film DVDs, music, and video games. Companies widely use special editions and incremental improvements to sell the same products to consumers multiple times. This has been seen in the 10th Anniversary edition of Titanic, which simply consists of the first two discs of the previous Special Collector's edition, only with new packaging, and on CD with the 30 Year Anniversary Edition of Bob Marley's Exodus, which has exactly the same content as the original album, but in new packaging.
In many cases, successful film releases have had items made in limited numbers. These "limited editions" usually contain the best DVD edition possible of a film with special items in a box set, sometimes containing items available only in the limited edition. Items marked thus are often (but not always) released for a shorter time and in lower quantity than common editions, often with a running number (e.g. "13055 of 20000") printed on the products to boost the rarity feel, as the company implies not to manufacture more. It is also common to have such items packaged with unique designs.
With the success of DVDs, special editions of films themselves (instead of just special editions of film DVDs) have also become fairly common. Sharing similarities with the concept of a director's cut (another long-suffering inflation-by-marketing term). These generally feature additional in-movie material. The material may be footage originally deleted from the final cut, or new digitally-created, interpolated content. Unlike true director's cuts, the directors may not have had part in such projects, such as in Superman II: The Richard Donner Cut, in which Richard Donner did not help create the new version, just supply the material. The Doctor Who television movie The Five Doctors was edited, recut, amongst various other changes, to make the "Special Edition" in 1999 for the first DVD release of the episode.
Limited edition prints, also known as LEs, have been standard in printmaking from the nineteenth century onwards. A limit to the print run is crucial, as many traditional printmaking techniques can only produce a limited number of best quality impressions. This can be as few as ten or twenty for a technique like drypoint, but more commonly would be in the low hundreds - print runs of over a thousand are regarded as dubious by the serious art market for original prints, even though with many techniques there is no loss of quality.
Edition sizes higher than about 500 are likely to be of print reproductions of paintings, of much less value, though some modern techniques blur this traditional distinction. As in other fields, the use of the concept has become largely driven by marketing imperatives, and has been misused in parts of the market. In particular, lithographic, photogravure, rotogravure, and giclee reproductions of prints, derived from photographs of an original print, which are most unlikely to have any investment value, are often issued in limited editions implying that they will have such value. These need to be distinguished from the original artist's print, carefully produced directly from his work, and printed under the artist's supervision.
In UK and New Zealand the Fine Art Trade Guild ensures the quality and verification of limited edition prints by employing a number of strictly administered regulations for all processes and aspects related to them.
In the United States limited editions are regulated under state consumer protections laws. California became the first state to regulate the sale of limited edition art prints with the "California Print Law" of 1971. The state of Illinois later expanded on the California statute. However, it was not until 1986 that more comprehensive provisions, still in place today, were enacted with the passage of the "Georgia Print Law". That law became the template for statutes subsequently enacted by other states. The Georgia Print Law written by (former) State Representative Chesley V. Morton, became effective July 1, 1986. The law requires art dealers, artists, or auctioneers to supply information to perspective purchasers about the nature of the print, the number of prints and editions (including HC editions) produced, and the involvement (if any) of the artist in the creation of the print. The penalty for violation of the law ranges from simple reimbursement to treble damages, in the case of a willful violation. Those found to be in violation of the law are also liable for court costs, expenses, and attorney fees. The law applies to works of art valued at more than $100.00 (not including frame). Charitable organizations are specifically exempt from the provision of the law. The statute of limitations is one year after discovery, and, if discovery of the violation is not made within three years of the sale, then the purchaser’s remedies are extinguished.
A limited edition is normally hand signed and numbered by the artist, typically in pencil, in the form (e.g.): 14/100. The first number is the number of the print itself. The second number is the number of overall prints the artist will print of that image. The lower the second number is, the more valuable and collectible the limited editions are likely to be, within whatever their price range is. A small number of "artists' proofs" may also be produced as well, signed and with "AP", "proof", etc. Prints that are given to someone or are for some reason unsuitable for sale are marked "H. C." or "H/C", meaning "hors de commerce", not for sale.
In terms of musical albums, the term "deluxe edition" refers to a re-release of an album, generally a sufficient period after the initial release, featuring extra content related to the album. From the 2000s it has become commonplace for a deluxe edition to be released at the same time as the standard edition. The deluxe edition often includes some or all of the following: extra tracks; demo recordings of album tracks; live recordings of album tracks; alternate takes, mixes, or edits of album tracks; B-sides from album singles that did not appear on the album; DVD content, including music videos. These editions are commonly repackaged, with the new content on a second disc and many feature additional liner notes.
Also, some albums are initially released in two editions, a regular retail version and a "special" or "limited" version in distinctive packaging and often including extras such as a second disc, a video DVD, or liner notes expanded into a hardback book. Generally, the special package is only produced for the first pressing or a set number of copies - some are limited to only being sold at one chain of retailers. It is important to distinguish this from an expanded re-release, since those are generally available widely and for a long period of time.
Milking, or double-dipping, refers to the practice of releasing multiple editions of the same product (usually a CD, DVD, Blu-ray Disc), simultaneously or at different times, with the purpose of enticing consumers to buy more than one edition. This can be done with, for example, a special edition, a director's cut, an ultimate edition, and a collector's edition, sometimes with different features or supplementary material.
The consumer may be persuaded to purchase multiple editions, with the belief that the additional features or content will be worth paying for a product that is largely equivalent to one already owned.
"A Special Edition" is an episode of The Outer Limits television show. It was first broadcast on 25 July 1997, during the third season.Aliens (film)
Aliens is a 1986 American science fiction action horror film written and directed by James Cameron, produced by Gale Anne Hurd and starring Sigourney Weaver. It is the sequel to the 1979 film Alien and the second installment in the Alien franchise. The film follows Weaver's character Ellen Ripley as she returns to the moon where her crew encountered the hostile Alien creature, this time accompanied by a unit of space marines. Additional roles are played by Carrie Henn, Michael Biehn, Paul Reiser, Lance Henriksen, Jenette Goldstein, William Hope, Al Matthews, and Bill Paxton.
Gordon Carroll, David Giler, and Walter Hill of Brandywine Productions, who produced the first film and its later sequels, served as executive producers on Aliens. They were interested in a follow-up to Alien as soon as its 1979 release, but the new management at 20th Century Fox postponed those plans until 1983. Brandywine picked Cameron to write after reading his script for The Terminator; when that film became a hit in 1984, Fox greenlit Aliens with Cameron as director and a budget of approximately $18 million. It was filmed in England at Pinewood Studios and at a decommissioned power plant in Acton, London.
Aliens was released on July 18, 1986 and grossed $180 million worldwide. It was nominated for seven Academy Awards, including a Best Actress nomination for Sigourney Weaver, winning both Sound Effects Editing and Visual Effects. It won eight Saturn Awards (Best Science Fiction Film, Best Actress for Weaver, Best Supporting Actor for Paxton, Best Supporting Actress for Goldstein, and Best Direction and Best Writing for Cameron), and a Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation. Empire magazine voted it the 'Greatest Film Sequel Of All Time'. Aliens was the seventh-highest-grossing film of 1986 in North America.
A sequel, Alien 3, was released in 1992, with Weaver reprising her role as Ripley and Henriksen as Bishop in the film.Changes in Star Wars re-releases
Changes in Star Wars re-releases vary from minor differences in color timing, audio mixing, and take choices to major insertions of new visual effects, additions of characters and dialogue, scene expansions, and replacement of original cast members with newer ones. Though changes were also made to the prequel trilogy, the original trilogy saw the most alteration. Dissatisfied with the original theatrical cuts of the original Star Wars film, The Empire Strikes Back, and Return of the Jedi, creator George Lucas altered the films in an attempt to achieve the ideal versions that he could not initially due to limitations of time, budget, and technology.
The first significant changes were made in 1997 with the release of a Special Edition remaster in commemoration of the franchise's twentieth anniversary. These changes were intended to modernize the films and create consistency with the forthcoming prequel trilogy. Additional significant changes were made when the original trilogy was released on DVD in 2004, and such changes tried to further create consistency with the prequel trilogy after the release of The Phantom Menace and Attack of the Clones and in anticipation of Revenge of the Sith. Further changes were made to the films for their Blu-ray release in 2011.
Many changes met criticism and outrage from fans and critics, and many believed that Lucas degraded the original films with the additions. Most controversial is the decision to have Greedo shoot before Han Solo does, which sparked wide usage of the phrase "Han shot first". Other controversial changes include replacing the "Lapti Nek" performance by a puppet Sy Snootles with a longer "Jedi Rocks" performance by a CGI Snootles, having Darth Vader yell "No!" as he kills the Emperor, and replacing Sebastian Shaw as the Force ghost of Anakin Skywalker with Hayden Christensen, who was cast to play Anakin in the prequel films. It was also felt that subsequent changes stripped the Star Wars film of the qualities for which it won Academy Awards. Despite the negative response to many significant changes, critics also felt that many smaller changes were improvements, innocuous, or understandable.Crysis
Crysis is a first-person shooter video game series developed by German developer Crytek and published by Electronic Arts. The series revolves around a group of military protagonists with "nanosuits," technologically advanced suits of armor that allow them to gain enhanced physical strength, speed, defense, and cloaking abilities. The protagonists face off against hostile North Korean soldiers, heavily armed mercenaries, and a race of technologically advanced aliens known as the Ceph, who arrived on Earth millions of years ago for unclear reasons, and have recently been awakened.
The series consists of three main installments, a standalone spinoff of the first game with a separate multiplayer title, and a compilation.Devil May Cry 4
Devil May Cry 4 (デビルメイクライ4) is an action-adventure hack and slash video game developed and published by Capcom in 2008 for the PlayStation 3, Xbox 360 and Windows platforms. It is the fourth installment in the Devil May Cry series and is written by Bingo Morihashi and directed by Hideaki Itsuno. The story follows Nero, a teenager possessing demonic powers who is on a mission to stop the series' main character, Dante, after he assassinates demons and the leader of the Order of the Sword. The player controls both Nero and Dante as they fight enemies in close combat using firearms, swords, and other weapons.
Devil May Cry 4 was the first entry in the series to be released simultaneously for multiple consoles. During its development, Capcom focused on each version achieving the same visual quality using the MT Framework game engine. Around eighty people formed the team that created the game. Nero was introduced to attract new gamers. Dante's popularity with gamers proved challenging because the developers needed to use him as a supporting character in the story.
Critical reception to Devil May Cry 4 was positive. It was praised for its challenging difficulty, its visuals and Nero's characterization as a new protagonist. However, it was criticized for its backtracking in Dante's stages and a troublesome camera. The game sold over three million units worldwide, becoming the series' best-selling title. Bingo Morihashi adapted it into a two-volume light novel.
It was later released on iOS as Devil May Cry 4: Refrain. A remastered version of the game was released in June 2015 as Devil May Cry 4: Special Edition (デビルメイクライ4 スペシャルエディション), which adds both English and Japanese voice tracks, improved visual effects and textures, in-game re-balancing, additional costumes, and three bonus playable characters: Vergil, Lady and Trish.Finding Nemo
Finding Nemo is a 2003 American computer-animated adventure film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures. Written and directed by Andrew Stanton with co-direction by Lee Unkrich, the film stars the voices of Albert Brooks, Ellen DeGeneres, Alexander Gould, and Willem Dafoe. It tells the story of the overprotective ocellaris clownfish named Marlin who, along with a regal blue tang named Dory, searches for his abducted son Nemo all the way to Sydney Harbour. Along the way, Marlin learns to take risks and comes to terms with Nemo taking care of himself.
Finding Nemo was released on May 30, 2003; the film won the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature, and was nominated in three more categories, including Best Original Screenplay. Finding Nemo became the highest-grossing animated film at the time and was the second-highest-grossing film of 2003, earning a total of $871 million worldwide by the end of its initial theatrical run.The film is the best-selling DVD title of all time, with over 40 million copies sold as of 2006, and was the highest-grossing G-rated film of all time before Pixar's own Toy Story 3 overtook it. The film was re-released in 3D in 2012. In 2008, the American Film Institute named it the 10th greatest animated film ever made as part of their 10 Top 10 lists. In a 2016 poll of international critics conducted by BBC, Finding Nemo was voted one of the 100 greatest motion pictures since 2000. A sequel, Finding Dory, was released on June 17, 2016 in the United States.IPhone SE
The iPhone SE (Special Edition) is a smartphone that was designed and marketed by Apple Inc. It is part of the ninth generation of the iPhone alongside the iPhone 6S. It was announced on March 21, 2016 at the Town Hall auditorium in the Apple Campus by Apple executive Greg Joswiak, with pre-orders beginning on March 24 and official release on March 31, 2016. It was re-released almost a year later on March 24, 2017 with larger storage capacities. The iPhone SE shares the same physical design and dimensions as the iPhone 5S, but has upgraded internal hardware, including the newer Apple A9 system-on-chip, greater battery capacity, and a 12-megapixel rear camera that can record 4K video. Along with the iPhone 6S and the iPhone X, the iPhone SE was discontinued by Apple on September 12, 2018.No affordable successor to the iPhone SE was announced, and Business Insider wrote that "Apple made a big mistake by removing its smallest and most affordable iPhone from its lineup", suggesting that the company was disregarding a significant number of customers who had been worried over the loss of the smaller design.In relation with the discontinuation of the iPhone SE, Quartz mentioned that women and other smartphone users with smaller hands have reported "pain from holding, scrolling, and swiping on phones, and a review of research on the ergonomics of handheld devices concludes that bigger products, like large phones and tablets, often result in overextension of the thumb and wrist", hinting to repetitive strain injury and that oversized iPhones and smartphones in general can be physically unusable for several users. The technology website Gizmodo shared the same concern, hoping that "there will be a return to smaller phones", and expressed a desire "to hold one's phone in a single hand, and be able to use it fully."Limited-edition book
A limited-edition book is a book released in a limited-quantity print run, usually fewer than 1000 copies (much smaller than publishing-industry standards). The term connotes scarcity or exclusivity. The higher the quantity printed the less likely the book will become scarce and thus increase in value. Limited editions were introduced by publishers in the late 19th century. The term also implies that no further additional printings of the book with the same design treatment will take place, unlike open-ended trade editions wherein further copies may be released in more print runs as the first and subsequent printings sell out.Limited-edition books may also be numbered or lettered to distinguish in that set each book. For example, a numbered, limited book could have a marking such as "Copy 1 of a limited edition of 250 copies" or "1/250". Much less common is the lettered limited-edition book that could have denotations such as "1 of 26" or "1/26" or "A of 26" or "Copy A", etc. Sometimes a copy of a limited-edition book is stated as being "out of series": this is an unnumbered copy, often a review copy.
Limited-edition books are also sometimes signed by the author, illustrator and/or other contributors to make them more exclusive and collectible. In some instances, the limited-edition version contains additional material not found in the mass-market (or trade) version of the book. Likewise, they are sometimes housed in slipcases.Monster Manual
The Monster Manual (MM) is the primary bestiary sourcebook for monsters in the Dungeons & Dragons (D&D) fantasy role-playing game, first published in 1977 by TSR. It includes monsters derived from mythology and folklore, as well as creatures created specifically for D&D. It describes each with game-specific statistics (such as the monster's level or number of hit dice), and a brief description of its habits and habitats. Most of the entries also have an image of the creature. Along with the Player's Handbook and Dungeon Master's Guide, it is one of the three "core rulebooks" in most editions of the D&D game. Several editions of the Monster Manual have been released for each edition of D&D. It was the first hardcover book of the D&D series. Due to the level of detail and illustration included, it was cited as a pivotal example of a new style of wargame books. Future editions would draw on various sources and act as a compendium of published monsters.Nokia N73
The Nokia N73 is a smartphone announced by Nokia on 25 April 2006, as part of the Nseries and started shipping on 24 July. The N73 succeeded the N70 and packed in numerous multimedia features. It features a 3.2 megapixel autofocus camera, a front camera, a then-large 2.4 inch display, and stereo speakers, all in a relatively slim and pocketable size and form. It runs on Symbian v9.1 (S60 3rd Edition).
It became one of the top selling Nseries devices during 2006 and 2007, and its high popularity helped Nokia's sales of 'multimedia' phones grow 28% year-on-year in Q3 2007 (according to Nokia the other top selling from the line were the N70 and N95).Product Red
Product Red, stylized as (PRODUCT)RED™, is a licensed brand that seeks to engage the private sector in raising awareness and funds to help eliminate HIV/AIDS in eight African countries. It is licensed to partner companies including Nike, American Express (UK), Apple Inc., The Coca-Cola Company, Starbucks, Converse, Electronic Arts, Head, Buckaroo, Penguin Classics (UK & International), Gap, Armani, Hallmark (US), SAP, Beats Electronics, and Supercell. The concept was founded in 2006 by U2 frontman and activist Bono, together with Bobby Shriver of the ONE Campaign and DATA. The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria is a recipient of Product Red's money.
As part of a new business model, each partner company creates a product with the Product Red logo. In return for the opportunity to increase revenue through the Product Red license, up to 50% of profits gained by each partner is donated to the Global Fund. As Product Red is owned by Red, a portion of the contributions received from the partner brands is assigned as profit. Such an amalgamation of humanitarian aid and for-profit businesses is one example of "ethical consumerism".
In 2012, ONE acquired (RED) as a division of ONE. Both organizations were co-founded by Bono and Bobby Shriver.Space Channel 5
Space Channel 5 (スペースチャンネル5, Supēsu Channeru Faibu) is a music video game developed by United Game Artists under the direction of Tetsuya Mizuguchi and published by Sega. During gameplay, the game characters perform a sequence of moves to the beat, such as steps and shots, which the player must reproduce with corresponding button presses. The game's theme song, Mexican Flyer, was composed by Ken Woodman in the 1960s. Space Channel 5 was first released in Japan in 1999 and North America and Europe in 2000 for the Dreamcast; it was later released for the PlayStation 2 in Japan and Europe in 2002 and in North America as Space Channel 5: Special Edition in 2003; and then ported by THQ to the Game Boy Advance as Space Channel 5: Ulala's Cosmic Attack in the same year. A sequel, Space Channel 5: Part 2, was released for Dreamcast (Japan only) and PlayStation 2 (Japan and Europe) in 2002, and on Steam on March 4, 2011.The Five Doctors
The Five Doctors is a special feature-length episode of the British science fiction television series Doctor Who, produced in celebration of the programme's 20th anniversary. It had its world premiere in the United States, on the Chicago PBS station WTTW and various other PBS member stations on 23 November 1983, the anniversary date. It was transmitted in the United Kingdom two days later.
The episode aired after the conclusion of the 20th season to celebrate the 20th anniversary. Patrick Troughton and Jon Pertwee reprised their roles as the Second and Third Doctors, respectively. Richard Hurndall portrayed the First Doctor, as the character's original actor, William Hartnell, had died since his last appearance on the show ten years previously. Since Tom Baker decided not to appear in this special, footage from the unfinished serial Shada was used to portray the Fourth Doctor.The Secret of Monkey Island
The Secret of Monkey Island (alternatively known as Monkey Island I) is a 1990 point-and-click graphic adventure game developed and published by Lucasfilm Games. It takes place in a fantastic version of the Caribbean during the age of piracy. The player assumes the role of Guybrush Threepwood, a young man who dreams of becoming a pirate and explores fictional islands while solving puzzles.
The game was conceived in 1988 by Lucasfilm employee Ron Gilbert, who designed it with Tim Schafer and Dave Grossman. Gilbert's frustrations with contemporary adventure titles led him to make the player character's death almost impossible, which meant that gameplay focused the game on exploration. The atmosphere was based on that of the Pirates of the Caribbean theme park ride. The Secret of Monkey Island was the fifth game built with the SCUMM engine, which was heavily modified to include a more user-friendly interface.
The early releases of this game came with copy-protection. A cardboard wheel, named "Dial-a-Pirate", was provided, and the player had to match the pirate shown on-screen with that of the wheel. Critics praised The Secret of Monkey Island for its humor, audiovisuals, and gameplay. The game spawned a number of sequels, collectively known as the Monkey Island series. Gilbert, Schafer and Grossman also led the development of the sequel Monkey Island 2: LeChuck's Revenge. LucasArts released a remake of the original in 2009, which was also well received by the gaming press.Toyota FJ Cruiser
The Toyota FJ Cruiser is a retro style, mid-size SUV. Introduced as a concept car at the January 2003 North American International Auto Show, the FJ Cruiser was approved for production after positive consumer response and debuted at the January 2005 North American International Auto Show in final production form.The FJ Cruiser was built by Toyota subsidiary Hino Motors in Hamura, Japan since 2006 and shares many structural underpinnings with the Toyota Land Cruiser Prado. The FJ Cruiser entered the Japanese market on 4 December 2010, announced on 25 November in that year.
On 5 November 2013, Toyota USA announced the 2014 model year Trail Teams edition would be called the "Ultimate Edition" and that the 2014 model year would be the last for the FJ Cruiser in that market. It continued to be made for sale in other markets such as Australia and the Middle East until its export to those market was discontinued in August 2016.The "Final Edition" of the FJ Cruiser went on sale in Japan on 12 September 2017. Sales of the FJ Cruiser were discontinued there on 31 January 2018.