Special district (United States)

Special districts (also known as special service districts, special district governments, limited purpose entities, or special-purpose districts in the United States) are independent, special-purpose governmental units that exist separately from local governments such as county, municipal, and township governments, with substantial administrative and fiscal independence. They are formed to perform a single function or a set of related functions.[1] The term special district governments as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau excludes school districts.[1] In 2007, the U.S. had more than 37,000 special district governments.[2]

Definition of "Special District" by the United States Census

The United States Census counts government units across all States. This includes "special districts." To count the special districts the Census must define the special districts so as to address all such governmental entities across the broad spectrum of 50 states' definitions and interpretations. The Census's full definition is:

Special district governments are independent, special purpose governmental units, other than school district governments, that exist as separate entities with substantial administrative and fiscal independence from general purpose local governments. As defined for Census Bureau statistics on governments, the term ‘‘special district governments’’ excludes school district governments as they are defined as a separate governmental type.

Special district governments provide specific services that are not being supplied by existing general purpose governments. Most perform a single function, but in some instances, their enabling legislation allows them to provide several, usually related, types of services. The services provided by these districts range from such basic social needs as hospitals and fire protection, to the less conspicuous tasks of mosquito abatement and upkeep of cemeteries.

The Census Bureau classification of special district governments covers a wide variety of entities, most of which are officially called districts or authorities. Not all public agencies so termed, however, represent separate governments. Many entities that carry the designation ‘‘district’’ or ‘‘authority’’ are, by law, so closely related to county, municipal, town or township, or state governments that they are classified as subordinate agencies of those governments in Census Bureau statistics on governments, and are not counted as separate special district governments.

In order to be classified as a special district government, rather than as a subordinate agency, an entity must possess three attributes—existence as an organized entity, governmental character, and substantial autonomy. Each state description also lists various statutory authorities, commissions, corporations, and other forms of organizations that have certain governmental characteristics, but are subject by law to administrative or fiscal control by the state or by independent local governments; therefore, they are classified as subordinate agencies of those governments.[3]

Characteristics

Special districts serve limited areas and have governing boards that accomplish legislatively assigned functions using public funds.[4]

Areas served

Special districts provide specialized services to persons living within the designated geographic area and may contract to provide services outside the area. Special districts often cross the lines of towns, villages, and hamlets but less frequently cross city or county lines. Increasingly, however, regional special districts are being created that may serve a large portion of a state or portions of more than one state.

Governing body

Each district is governed by a board of directors, commissioners, board of supervisors, or the like. These boards may be appointed by public officials, appointed by private entities, popularly elected, or elected by benefited citizens (typically, property owners). Sometimes, one or more public officials will serve as an ex officio member on the board.

The board of a special district serves primarily as a managing board and often appoints a chief executive for day-to-day operations and decision making and policy implementation. In the New England states, special districts are often run in the same town meeting fashion as other local governments. Most districts have employees,[5] but some districts exist solely to raise funds by issuing bonds and/or by providing tax increment financing.

Functions

Special districts perform many functions including airports, ports, highways, mass transit, parking facilities, fire protection, libraries, parks, cemeteries, hospitals, irrigation, conservation, sewerage, wastewater treatment, solid waste, fiber optic systems, stadiums, water supply, electric power, and natural gas utility.[6][7]

Legal basis

Originated from English custom, special districts are authorized by state law and must have public foundation, civil office, and public accountability.

English custom

Special districts in the United States follow the English custom. The earliest known general law in England authorizing special purpose authorities was the Statute of Sewers of 1532.[8] Single purpose authorities created by individual charters also existed at the time.[8] However, the early authorities were temporary and unconnected to local government structure.[9] The first laws authorizing permanent authorities connected to local governments were the Incorporated Guardians of the Poor, which were created by special acts in the 17th century.[10] Turnpike trusts were an early and popular special purpose authority in England.[11] Internal drainage boards are current examples in parts of England and Wales.

State law

Special districts in the United States are founded by some level of government in accordance with state law [12] (either constitutional amendment, general law, or special acts)[13] and exist in all states. Special districts are legally separate entities with at least some corporate powers.[14] Districts are created by legislative action, court action, or public referendum. The procedures for creating a special district may include procedures such as petitions, hearings, voter or landowner approval, or government approval. Tribal governments may create special districts pursuant to state law and may serve on the boards of special districts.

Public foundation

Special districts, like all public entities, have public foundation.[15][16][17] The landmark case of the U.S. Supreme Court addressing public versus private charters was Dartmouth College v. Woodward in 1819.[18] Dartmouth established the fundamental differences between public and private organizations. Critically, a government must be founded by all of the people of a governmental area or by their governmental representatives.[18][19][20][21][22][23][24]

Civil office

Special districts possess some form of civil office, that is, the board has received a delegation of sovereign power from the state.[25] Some boards may be appointed by only landowners.[26][27] Private entities may appoint some or all of the members of a special district;[28][29][30] however, there must be evidence of civil office. In addition to special districts with privately appointed boards, a special district may have a privately founded board;[31] however, such a board could not be given the power to set a tax.

Accountability

There is a citizen-government fiscal accountability relationship.[32] To maintain accountability for special districts, states must maintain ultimate control (the power to repeal the authorizing law at any time).[33][34][35][36][37][38] Due to public foundation and, thus, ultimate control, the state can freely delegate sovereign power (such as the power to tax) to special districts and can allow them to act autonomously with little supervision.

History

There is little information available on the earliest special districts in the United States. It is known that park districts existed in the 18th century. Toll road and canal corporations existed in the 19th century.[39] The first general statute authorizing irrigation districts was adopted by California in 1887.[40] The U.S. Census Bureau began identifying and collecting data on special districts in 1942.[41]

Trends

The state of Illinois leads the nation in the number of special districts with California close behind.[42] State counts of their special districts may differ from the federal count because the states may have different definitions of a special district than the U.S. Census Bureau.[39]

Examples

All of the following examples have been found by the U.S. Census Bureau to be special districts.[42] See the Census of Governments Government Organization publications at a depository library or visit https://www.census.gov and select Governments Division.

  • Alabama: Alabama Municipal Electric Authority (special act)
  • Alaska: regional electrical authorities (general law)
  • Arizona: drainage districts (general law)
  • Arkansas: fire ant abatement districts (general law)
  • California: In California a Community Services District (CSD) is a special district providing multiple services, often for unincorporated communities,[43] such as Vandenberg Village CSD for Vandenberg Village. An example of a non-CSD special district is the Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District
  • Colorado: ambulance districts (general law)
  • Connecticut: Pomperaug Valley Water Authority (special act)
  • Delaware: tax ditches (general law)
  • Florida: Daytona Beach Racing and Recreational Facilities District (special act); Reedy Creek Improvement District, which includes the Walt Disney Resort and the cities of Bay Lake and Lake Buena Vista (special act); The Tohopekaliga Water Authority (TWA, or Toho for short), which provides the majority of the public water, wastewater, and reclaimed water services for Osceola County and some small parts of Polk and Orange Counties (special act)
  • Georgia: airport authorities (special acts)
  • Hawaii: Office of Hawaiian Affairs (constitutional amendment)
  • Idaho: auditorium districts (general law)
  • Illinois: Chicago Transit Authority (special act)
  • Indiana: Northwest Indiana Regional Development Authority (special act)
  • Iowa: library districts (joint or regional) (general law)
  • Kansas: industrial districts (general law)
  • Kentucky: Louisville-Jefferson County Air Pollution Control District (general law with special application)
  • Louisiana: Abbeville Film and Visitors Commission District (special act)
  • Maine: cemetery districts (special acts)
  • Maryland: water and sewer authorities (general law)
  • Massachusetts: Goose Pond Maintenance District (special act)
  • Michigan: recreation authorities (general law)
  • Minnesota: Metropolitan Mosquito Control District (special act)
  • Mississippi: lighting districts (special acts)
  • Missouri: Jackson County Sports Complex Authority (special act)
  • Montana: county rail authorities (general law)
  • Nebraska: Omaha Metropolitan Utilities District (general law with special application)
  • New Hampshire: housing authorities (general law)
  • New Jersey: Port Authority of New York and New Jersey and New Jersey Turnpike Authority - 1948 law (joint or regional) (general law)
  • New Mexico: cotton boll weevil control districts (general law)
  • New York: Hyde Park Fire and Water District (special act)
  • North Carolina: Research Triangle Regional Public Transit Authority (special act)
  • North Dakota: vector control districts (general law)
  • Ohio: new community authorities, special improvement districts,[44] transportation improvement districts[45] (general law)
  • Oklahoma: public library systems (general law)
  • Oregon: geothermal heating districts, port authorities -1909 (general law)
  • Pennsylvania: Philadelphia Regional Port Authority (special act)
  • Rhode Island: East Providence Special Development District Commission (special act)
  • South Carolina: Myrtle Beach Air Base Redevelopment Authority (executive order)
  • South Dakota: television translator districts (general law)
  • Tennessee: utility districts (general law)
  • Texas: Palacios Seawall Commission (special act)
  • Utah: irrigation districts (general law)
  • Vermont: Vermont Public Power Supply Authority (special act)
  • Virginia: Buchanan County Tourist Train Development Authority (special act)
  • Washington: hydroelectric resources authorities (general law)
  • West Virginia: Hatfield-McCoy Regional Recreation Authority (special act)
  • Wisconsin: local professional baseball park districts (general law)
  • Wyoming: resort districts (general law)

See also

References

  1. ^ a b U.S. Census Bureau (2002). 2002 Census of Governments, Vol 1, Number 1, Government Organization, GC02(1)-1 (PDF). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. pp. vii–viii.
  2. ^ "United States Census Bureau". census.gov. Archived from the original on 2012-02-24.
  3. ^ "2007 United States Census - Individual State Descriptions - Census of Government" (PDF). p. 6. Retrieved 2017-06-22.
  4. ^ Mitzanry, K, & Manatt, A. (2002, February).What's so special about special districts? A citizen's guide to special districts in California. 3rd. ed. p. 2.
  5. ^ https://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/gc023x2.pdf
  6. ^ https://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/gc021x1.pdf
  7. ^ Burns, N. The formation of American local governments: Private values in public institutions. Oxford University Press, 1994, p. 14.
  8. ^ a b Webb, S.(1922). English local government: Statutory authorities for special purposes. p. 61.
  9. ^ Webb, S.(1922). English local government: Statutory authorities for special purposes. p. 300.
  10. ^ Webb, S.(1922). English local government: Statutory authorities for special purposes. p. 299.
  11. ^ Webb, S.(1922). English local government: Statutory authorities for special purposes.
  12. ^ U.S. Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations. (1993, March). State laws governing local government structure and administration. page 7.
  13. ^ Mitzanry, K, & Manatt, A. (2002, February) What's so special about special districts? A citizen's guide to special districts in California. 3rd. ed. p. 4.
  14. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (2002). 2002 Census of Governments, Vol 1, Number 1, Government Organization, GC02(1)-1 (PDF). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. p. ix.
  15. ^ 15A Am Jur 2d Colleges and Universities § 2
  16. ^ 16B Am Jur 2d Constitutional Law § 723
  17. ^ 4B M.J. CORPORATIONS § 26
  18. ^ a b Newmyer, R. K. John Marshall and heroic age of the Supreme Court. Louisiana State University Press: Baton Rouge, 2001, pp. 244-253.
  19. ^ Allen v. McKean, 1 F. Cas. 489 (1833)
  20. ^ Louisville v. University of Louisville, 54 Ky. 642 (June 1855)
  21. ^ Ohio v. Neff, 52 Ohio St. 375, 40 N.E. 720 (1895)
  22. ^ Currie, D. P. (1982, Fall). The Constitution in the Supreme Court: State and Congressional powers, 1801-1835. University of Chicago Law Review. 49 U. Chi. L. Rev. 887.
  23. ^ Opinion No. 84-134, 1984 Okla. AG LEXIS 17
  24. ^ Opinion No. 1007, 1994 Minn. AG LEXIS 2
  25. ^ Commissioner v. Shamberg's Estate, 144 F.2d 998 (1945)
  26. ^ Mitzanry, K, & Manatt, A. (2002, February).What's so special about special districts? A citizen's guide to special districts in California. 3rd. ed. p. 7 (box).
  27. ^ Burns, N. The formation of American local governments: Private values in public institutions. Oxford University Press, 1994, p. 12.
  28. ^ Scholle v. Maryland 90 Md. 729, 46 A. 736 (1900)
  29. ^ Marks v. Frantz, 179 Ky. 638 (1956)
  30. ^ Palm Beach County Health Care District v. Everglades Memorial Hospital 658 So. 2d 577 (Fla. 1995)
  31. ^ Sharpless v. Mayor 21 Pa. 147 (1853)
  32. ^ Mead, D. M. (Winter 2002). The role of GASB 34 in the citizen-government accountability relationship. State and Local Government Review. Vol 34, No. 1 51-63.
  33. ^ Hess V. Port Authority Trans-Hudson Corporation, 513 U.S. 30, 115 S. Ct. 394, 130 L. Ed. 2d 245 (1994)
  34. ^ Meriwether v. Garrett, 102 U.S. 472, 26 L. Ed. 197 (1880)
  35. ^ Palm Beach County Health Care District v. Everglades Memorial Hospital, 658 So. 2d 577 (Fla. 1995)
  36. ^ Hess v. Port Authority Trans-Hudson Corporation, 513 U.S. 30,115 S. Ct. 394, 130 L. Ed. 2d 245 (1994)
  37. ^ Vogt v. Orleans Levee District, 294 F.3d 684 (5th Cir. 2002)
  38. ^ Reynolds v. Sims, 377 U.S. 533, 84 S. Ct. 136, 12 L. Ed. 2d 506 (1964)
  39. ^ a b Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations. (1964, May). The problem special districts in American government. Washington, DC UNT Digital Library
  40. ^ Bollens, J. C. (1957). Special district government in the United States. University of California Press, pp. 142-144.
  41. ^ under construction
  42. ^ a b U.S. Census Bureau 2012 Census of Governments Governments Organization
  43. ^ "What is a Community Services District?". Twain Harte Community Services District. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  44. ^ "Lawriter - ORC 1710". ohio.gov.
  45. ^ "Lawriter - ORC 5540". ohio.gov.

Further reading

  • Friedman, L. M. A history of American law. (3rd). Simon & Schuster: New York. 2005.
  • Krane, D., Rigos, P. N., and Hill, M. B. Home rule in America: A fifty-state handbook. CQ Press. 2001.
  • Mergent's Municipal and Government Manual
  • Zimmerman, J. F. The New England town meeting. Greenwood Publishing Group. 1997.

External links

Chinese exonyms

When a foreign place name, or toponym, occurs in Chinese text, the problem arises of spelling it in Chinese characters, given the limited phonetics and restrictive phonology of Mandarin Chinese, and the possible meaning of those characters when treated as Chinese words. For example:

"London Heathrow Airport" is usually rendered in Chinese text as 倫敦希斯路機場 (Lúndūn Xīsīlù Jīchǎng), with the English pronunciation of 'London' being fairly accurate, and of 'Heathrow' being less accurate: in Chinese literally this means "kinship, honest" (for London), "hope/rare, given/this, road" (for Heathrow), "aircraft, field", with the last syllable of "Heathrow" rendered as "lu" although the more accurate "lo" and "lou" are known Chinese words. However, the Cantonese pronunciation of 希斯路 (Hei1si1lou6) is much closer to "Heathrow".Names of foreign nations are sometimes shortened to their first character when used in compounds. For example, the name for Russia in Chinese is 俄罗斯 (Éluósī), but the name of the Russian language is 俄语 (Éyǔ), anything Russian-style is 俄式 (Éshì), and the Russian military is 俄军 (Éjūn).

For toponyms in Korea, Japan, or Vietnam, the Chinese exonym is often the Chinese pronunciation of the Korean hanja, Japanese kanji, or ancient Vietnamese Chữ Nôm writing of the toponym. In some cases, especially in Japan, the Chinese pronunciation may be completely unlike the native-language pronunciation.

Countries had been founded or had gained independence after 1949 (the year Kuomintang had exiled to Taiwan after losing to the Communist Party) often have different exonyms used in mainland China (PRC) and Taiwan due to differences in official standards resulting from the split in government. This is especially apparent in the names of African nations, many of which have gained independence during the 1960s or later.

Sometimes, if the country's endonym is not internationally well-known, Chinese will transcribe the English name into Chinese characters.

Dartmouth College v. Woodward

Trustees of Dartmouth College v. Woodward, 17 U.S. (4 Wheat.) 518 (1819), was a landmark decision in United States corporate law from the United States Supreme Court dealing with the application of the Contracts Clause of the United States Constitution to private corporations. The case arose when the president of Dartmouth College was deposed by its trustees, leading to the New Hampshire legislature attempting to force the college to become a public institution and thereby place the ability to appoint trustees in the hands of the governor of New Hampshire. The Supreme Court upheld the sanctity of the original charter of the college, which pre-dated the creation of the State.The decision settled the nature of public versus private charters and resulted in the rise of the American business corporation and the American free enterprise system.

Public-benefit corporation

Public-benefit corporations are a specific type of corporation that allow for public benefit to be a charter purpose in addition to the traditional corporate goal of maximizing profit for shareholders. Depending on the country they may also be known as crown corporations, statutory corporations, or government owned corporations having monopoly over a specific service or market..

The Public Utility Vehicle Modernization Program may be given as an example of public benefit, coming from a governmental organization.

Secondly, the model of a public utility corporation shall represent an example for the private sector of the economy.

A public authority is a type of public-benefit corporation that takes on a more bureaucratic role, such as the maintenance of public infrastructure, that often has broad powers to regulate or maintain public property. These agencies are known in some countries as statutory authorities, statutory boards, government owned corporations, regulatory agencies, QUANGO or independent government agencies.

Authorities borrow from both municipal corporation law (that is, the laws responsible for the creation of cities, towns, and other forms of local government) and private corporations law. Other public-benefit corporations resemble private non-profit organizations, and take on roles that private corporations might otherwise perform. These corporations often operate in heavily regulated industries, such as broadcasting and transportation.

Corporations such as these are often found in common law jurisdictions such as the Commonwealth countries and the United States.

Special district

Special district may refer to:

Certain districts of Ethiopia not part of a zone

Special district (United States), independent, special-purpose governmental units

Special districts in Illinois

Special districts of China

Tribal sovereignty in the United States

Tribal sovereignty in the United States is the concept of the inherent authority of indigenous tribes to govern themselves within the borders of the United States. The U.S. federal government recognizes tribal nations as "domestic dependent nations" and has established a number of laws attempting to clarify the relationship between the federal, state, and tribal governments.

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