|special administrative region(s)|
|Cantonese Yale||Dahkbiht Hàngjingkēui|
|Portuguese||regiões administrativas especiais|
pronounced [ʁɨʒiˈõɨʃ ɐdminiʃtɾɐˈtivɐʃ (ɨ)ʃpɨsiˈaiʃ]
The legal basis for the establishment of SARs, unlike the administrative divisions of Mainland China, is provided for by Article 31, rather than Article 30, of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China of 1982. Article 31 reads: "The state may establish special administrative regions when necessary. The systems to be instituted in special administrative regions shall be prescribed by law enacted by the National People's Congress in the light of the specific conditions".
At present, there are two SARs established according to the Constitution, namely the Hong Kong SAR and the Macau SAR, former British and Portuguese dependencies respectively, transferred to China in 1997 and 1999 respectively pursuant to the Sino-British Joint Declaration of 1984 and the Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration of 1987. Pursuant to their Joint Declarations, which are binding inter-state treaties registered with the United Nations, and their Basic laws, the Chinese SARs "shall enjoy a high degree of autonomy". Generally, the two SARs are not considered to constitute a part of Mainland China, by both Chinese and SAR authorities.
The provision to establish special administrative regions appeared in the constitution in 1982, in anticipation of the talks with the United Kingdom over the question of the sovereignty over Hong Kong. It was envisioned as the model for the eventual reunification with Taiwan and other islands, where the Republic of China has resided since 1949. Special administrative regions should not be confused with special economic zones, which are areas in which special economic laws apply to promote trade and investments.
Under the One country, two systems principle, the two SARs continue to possess their own governments, multi-party legislatures, legal systems, police forces, monetary systems, separate customs territory, immigration policies, national sports teams, official languages, postal systems, academic and educational systems, and substantial competence in external relations that are different or independent from the People's Republic of China.
Special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China
|Largest SAR/city||Hong Kong|
|Languages||Standard Chinese (in Traditional characters), English (in HK), Cantonese (de facto in HK and Macau), Portuguese (in Macau)|
|Special Administrative Regions|
|Government||One country, two systems|
|1,135.7 km2 (438.5 sq mi)|
• 2014[a] estimate
|6,920/km2 (17,922.7/sq mi)|
|Currency||Hong Kong dollar|
There are currently two special administrative regions established according to Article 31 of the Chinese Constitution. For the Wolong Special Administrative Region in Sichuan province, please see the section § Wolong below.
|Name||Chinese (T) / (S)||Yale||Pinyin||Postal map||Abbreviation and GB||Population||Area km2||ISO||ISO:CN||Admin. Division|
|Hong Kong||香港||Hēunggóng||Xiānggǎng||Hongkong||港 (Gǎng), HK, HKSAR||7,184,000||1,104.4||
||List (18 districts)|
|Macau||澳門 / 澳门||Oumùhn||Àomén||Macao||澳 (Ào), MO, MC, MSAR, RAEM||614,500||31.3||
||List (7 freguesias)|
The two special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau (created in 1997 and 1999 respectively) each have a codified constitution called Basic Law. The law provides the regions with a high degree of autonomy, a separate political system, and a capitalist economy under the principle of "one country, two systems" proposed by Deng Xiaoping.
Currently, the two SARs of Hong Kong and Macau are responsible for all affairs except those regarding diplomatic relations and national defense. Consequently, the National People's Congress authorizes the SAR to exercise a high degree of autonomy and enjoy executive, legislative and independent judicial power, and each with their own Courts of Final Appeal.
Special administrative regions are empowered to contract a wide range of agreements with other countries and territories such as mutual abolition of visa requirement, mutual legal aid, air services, extradition, handling of double taxation and others, with no Chinese Government involvement. However, in some diplomatic talks involving a SAR, the SAR concerned may choose to send officials to be part of the Chinese delegation. For example, when former Director of Health of Hong Kong Margaret Chan became the World Health Organization (WHO) Director-General, she served as a delegate from the People's Republic of China to the WHO.
In sporting events the SARs participate under the respective names of "Hong Kong, China" and "Macau, China", and compete as different entities as they had done since they were under foreign rules, but both SARs are usually allowed to omit the term ", China" for informal use.
The Government of Hong Kong has established Hong Kong Economic and Trade Offices (HKETOs) in few countries as well as Greater China Region. HKETOs serve as a quasi-interests section in favor of Hong Kong. For regions with no HKETOs, Chinese diplomatic missions take charge of protecting Hong Kong-related interests.
Some countries which have a diplomatic relationship with the central Chinese government maintain Consulate-General offices in Hong Kong.
The People's Liberation Army is garrisoned in both SARs. PRC authorities have said the PLA will not be allowed to interfere with the local affairs of Hong Kong and Macau, and must abide by its laws. In 1988, scholar Chen Fang of the Academy of Military Science even tried to propose the "One military, two systems" concept to separate the defence function and public functions in the army. The PLA does not participate in the governance of the SAR but the SAR may request them for civil-military participation, in times of emergency such as natural disasters. Defence is the responsibility of the PRC government.
A 1996 draft PRC law banned People's Liberation Army–run businesses in Hong Kong, but loopholes allow them to operate while the profits are ploughed back into the military. There are many PLA-run corporations in Hong Kong. The PLA also have sizable land holdings in Hong Kong worth billions of dollars.
Each of the SARs issues passports on its own to its permanent residents who are concurrently Chinese (PRC) citizens. PRC citizens must also satisfy one of the following conditions:
Apart from affording the holder consular protection by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China, these passports also specify that the holder has right of abode in the issuing SAR.
The National People's Congress has also put each SAR in charge of administering the PRC's Nationality Law in its respective realms, namely naturalization, renunciation and restoration of PRC nationality and issuance of proof of nationality.
Due to their colonial past, many inhabitants of the SARs hold some form of non-Chinese nationality (e.g. British National (Overseas) status, British citizenship, British Overseas citizenship or Portuguese citizenship). However, SAR residents who are Chinese descent have always been considered as Chinese citizens by the PRC authorities, an exception to this case is Macau, wherein residents of Chinese descent may choose Chinese or Portuguese nationality. Special interpretation of the Nationality Law, while not recognizing dual nationality, has allowed Chinese citizens to keep their foreign "right of abode" and use travel documents issued by the foreign country. However, such travel documents cannot be used to travel to mainland China and persons concerned must use Home Return Permit. Therefore, master nationality rule applies so the holder may not enjoy consular protection while in mainland China. Chinese citizens who also have foreign citizenship may declare a change of nationality at the Immigration Department of the respective SARs, and upon approval, would no longer be considered Chinese citizens.
SAR permanent residents who are not Chinese citizens (including stateless persons) are not eligible for SAR passports. Persons who hold a non-Chinese citizenship must obtain passports from foreign diplomatic missions which represents their countries of citizenship. For those who are stateless, each SAR may issue its own form of certificates of identity, e.g. Document of Identity, in lieu of national passports to the persons concerned. Chinese citizens who are non-permanent residents of two SARs are also ineligible for SAR passports but may obtain CIs just like stateless persons.
|Body||Hong Kong||Macau||China (Central Government only)|
|Constitutional Document||Hong Kong Basic Law||Macau Basic Law||Constitution of the PRC|
|Final Authority of
Constitutional Interpretation & Review
|NPC Standing Committee||NPC Standing Committee||NPC Standing Committee|
|Head of State / Territory||Chief Executive of Hong Kong||Chief Executive of Macau||President of the PRC|
|Head of Government||Chief Executive of Hong Kong||Chief Executive of Macau||Premier of the State Council|
|Executive||Executive Council of Hong Kong||Executive Council of Macau||State Council|
|Legislative||Legislative Council||Legislative Assembly||National People's Congress (NPC);|
NPC Standing Committee
|Judiciary||Court of Final Appeal of Hong Kong||Court of Final Appeal of Macau||Supreme People's Court|
|Department of Justice||Public Prosecutions Office||Supreme People's Procuratorate|
|Police||Hong Kong Police
(part of Hong Kong Disciplined Services)
|Public Security Police;
(parts of Macau Security Force)
|People's Police (of Public Security, State Security, Justice, Court and Procuratorate systems);|
People's Armed Police
|Military||PLA Hong Kong Garrison||PLA Macau Garrison||People's Liberation Army (PLA);|
People's Armed Police;
|Currency||Hong Kong dollar||Macanese pataca||Renminbi (Chinese yuan)|
|Official Language(s)||Chinese (traditional, (Cantonese)), English||Chinese (traditional, (Cantonese)), Portuguese||Standard Chinese (Putonghua) (simplified)|
|Foreign relations||limited under "Hong Kong, China"||limited under "Macau, China"||full rights|
in Foreign Affairs
|Ministry of Foreign Affairs Commissioner Office in Hong Kong||Ministry of Foreign Affairs Commissioner Office in Macau||Ministry of Foreign Affairs|
|Citizenship||Chinese citizenship||Chinese citizenship||Chinese citizenship|
|Proof of Residency||Right of abode||Right of abode||Hukou|
|Passport||Hong Kong SAR passport||Macau SAR passport||PRC passport|
|Passport Issuing Authorities||Immigration Department||Identification Services Bureau||Ministry of Public Security;|
Ministry of Foreign Affairs/diplomatic missions
(and local government Foreign Affairs Offices)
|Customs||Customs and Excise Department||Macao Customs Service||General Administration of Customs|
The status of a special administrative region for Taiwan and other areas controlled by the Republic of China was first proposed in 1981. The 1981 proposal was put forth by Ye Jianying called "Ye's nine points" (葉九條). A series of different offers have since appeared. On 25 June 1983 Deng Xiaoping appeared at Seton Hall University in the US to propose "Deng's six points" (鄧六條), which called for a "Taiwan Special Administrative Region" (台灣特別行政區). It was envisioned that after Taiwan's unification with the PRC as an SAR, the PRC would become the sole representative of China. Under this proposal, Taiwan would be guaranteed its own military, its own administrative and legislative powers, an independent judiciary and the right of adjudication, although it would not be considered a separate government of China.
In 2005 the Anti-Secession Law of the PRC was enacted. It promises the lands currently ruled by the authorities of Taiwan a high degree of autonomy, among other things. The PRC can also employ non-peaceful means and other necessary measures to defend its claims to sovereignty over the ROC's territories in the event of an outright declaration of independence by Taiwan (ROC).
In January 2019, the 40 year anniversary of a statement made by the PRC to Taiwan in 1979, Chinese Communist Party general secretary Xi Jinping outlined in a speech how the "one country, two systems" principle would be applied to Taiwan. Several major points from the speech include:
The Wolong Special Administrative Region (Chinese: 卧龙特别行政区; pinyin: Wòlóng Tèbié Xíngzhèngqū) is located in the southwest of Wenchuan County, Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture of Sichuan. It was formerly known as Wolong Special Administrative Region of Wenchuan County, Sichuan Province and was founded in March 1983 with approval of the State Council. It was given its current name and placed under Sichuan provincial government with administrative supervision by the provincial department of forestry. Its area supersedes Sichuan Wolong National Nature Reserve and its administrative office is the same as the Administrative Bureau of the State Forestry Administration for the reserve. It currently has a population of 5343.
Despite its name, the Wolong Special Administrative Region is not an SAR as defined by Article 31 of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China; as a result, it has been proposed the Wenchuan Wolong Special Administrative Region of Sichuan Province change its name, with designations such as special area or township.
In the Republic of China (ROC) era between 1912 and 1949, the "special administrative regions" (Chinese: 特別行政區; pinyin: tèbié xíngzhèngqū) were historically used to designate special areas, most of which were eventually converted into provinces. All were suspended or abolished after the end of the Chinese Civil War, with the establishment of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the ROC government's retreat to Taiwan. The regions were:
|Suiyuan||綏遠||Suíyuǎn||1914||1928||Part of Inner Mongolia|
|Chahar||察哈爾||Cháhā'ěr||1914||1928||Distributed into Inner Mongolia, Beijing and Hebei|
|Jehol||熱河||Rèhé||1914||1928||Distributed into Hebei, Liaoning and Inner Mongolia|
|Chwanpien||川邊||Chuānbiān||1914||1935 (as Xikang Province)||Western Sichuan and eastern Tibet Autonomous Region|
|Tungsheng||東省||Dōngshěng||1924||Land along the Chinese Eastern Railway, now part of Heilongjiang|
|Weihai||威海||Wēihǎi||1930||Part of Shandong|
|Hainan||海南||Hǎinán||1944||In preparation in 1949||Hainan Province|
Chahar was made a special administrative region in 1914 by the Republic of China, as a subdivision of the then Zhili Province, with 6 banners and 11 counties. In 1928 it became a province, with 5 of its counties partitioned to Suiyuan, and 10 counties were included from Hebei.
Administrative divisions of China are the political divisions of the People's Republic of China.
Administrative divisions of China may also refer to:
History of the administrative divisions of China:
History of the administrative divisions of China before 1912
History of the administrative divisions of China (1912–49)
History of the administrative divisions of China (1949–present)
Administrative divisions of the Special Administrative Regions of China
Districts of Hong Kong
Civic and Municipal Affairs Bureau (Macau)Beninese passport
The Beninese passport is issued to citizens of the Benin for international travel.Civil Aviation Administration of China
The Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC; simplified Chinese: 中国民用航空局; traditional Chinese: 中國民用航空局; pinyin: Zhōngguó Mínyòng Hángkōng Jú), formerly the General Administration of Civil Aviation of China (simplified Chinese: 中国民用航空总局; traditional Chinese: 中國民用航空總局; pinyin: Zhōngguó Mínyòng Hángkōng Zǒngjú), is the aviation authority under the Ministry of Transport of the People's Republic of China. It oversees civil aviation and investigates aviation accidents and incidents. As the aviation authority responsible for China, it concludes civil aviation agreements with other aviation authorities, including those of the Special administrative regions of China which are categorized as "special domestic". It directly operated its own airline, China's aviation monopoly, until 1988. The agency is headquartered in Dongcheng District, Beijing.The CAAC does not share the responsibility of managing China's airspace with the Central Military Commission under the regulations in the Civil Aviation Law of the People's Republic of China (中华人民共和国民用航空法, Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Mínyòng Hángkōng Fǎ).Fijian passport
Fijian passports are issued to citizens of Fiji by the Passport Division of the Department of Immigration, under the ambits of the Fiji Islands Passports Act 2002.Functional constituency
A functional constituency is an electoral device (a non-geographical constituency) used within the political systems of two Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China:
Functional constituency (Hong Kong) - a group of professionals within the Legislative Council of Hong Kong.
Functional constituency (Macau) - a political group in Macau.Gambian passport
Gambian passports are issued to Gambian citizens to travel outside the Gambia.Guinean passport
The Guinean passport is issued to citizens of the Guinea for international travel.Kiribati passport
The Kiribati Passport is an international travel document issued for Kiribati citizens.Liberian passport
Liberian passports are issued to Liberian citizens to travel outside Liberia.List of Asian and Pacific countries by GDP (PPP)
This is a list of gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) for the latest years recorded in the CIA World Factbook. All sovereign states with United Nations membership and territory in either Asia or Oceania are included on the list apart from those who are also members of the Council of Europe. In addition, the list includes the special administrative regions of China (Hong Kong and Macao). All dependent territories (including those under the control of states on this list) are excluded. The figures provided are quoted in US dollars and are 2016 estimates unless otherwise noted.List of Asian countries by population growth rate
The list is based on CIA World Factbook estimates for the year 2016. All sovereign states with United Nations membership and territory in Asia are included on the list apart from those who are also members of the Council of Europe. In addition, the list includes the special administrative regions of China (Hong Kong and Macao) and Taiwan. Dependent territories of non-Asian countries are excluded.List of Asian states by GDP growth
This is a list of estimates of the real gross domestic product growth rate (not rebased GDP) in Asian states for the latest years recorded in the CIA World Factbook. All sovereign states with United Nations membership and territory in Asia are included on the list apart from those who are also members of the Council of Europe. In addition, the list includes the special administrative regions of China (Hong Kong and Macao) and Taiwan. Dependent territories of non-Asian states are excluded.List of countries and dependencies and their capitals in native languages
The following chart lists countries and dependencies along with their capital cities, in English as well as any additional official language(s).
In bold: Internationally recognized sovereign states
The 193 member states of the United Nations (UN)
Vatican City (administered by the Holy See, a UN observer state), which is generally recognized as a sovereign state
In bold italics: States with limited recognition and associated states not members of the United Nations
De facto sovereign states with partial international recognition, such as the State of Palestine, the Republic of Kosovo and Taiwan
De facto sovereign states lacking general international recognition
Cook Islands and Niue, two associated states of New Zealand without UN membership
In italics: Non-sovereign territories that are recognized by the UN as part of some member state
Special territories recognized by international treaty (such as the special administrative regions of China)
Other territories often regarded as separate geographical territories even though they are integral parts of their mother countries (such as the overseas departments of France)List of diplomatic missions of Taiwan
The diplomatic missions of Taiwan include embassies and representative offices. Due to its unique political status, the Republic of China (Taiwan) only maintains a handful of full-fledged diplomatic missions abroad. Notably, the Republic of China is one of the few countries in the world that has resident embassies in all of the countries with which it has diplomatic relations.
In countries with which the ROC does not have diplomatic relations, semi-official intermediary bodies, whose heads are nonetheless appointed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs, are maintained for routine matters that would otherwise be handled by embassies or consulates, such as passport and visa issuance, public affairs, economic, cultural, and educational cooperation, etc. These offices are usually titled "Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office" or "Taipei Representative Office". Owing to the One-China policy practised by the international community, no countries allow semi-official Taiwanese missions to operate under the country's official name, the only exception being Fiji. In turn, many countries maintain missions in Taipei, such as the American Institute in Taiwan, which function as de facto embassies.
Taiwan is represented in an unofficial capacity in the two Special Administrative Regions of China. In Hong Kong the Taipei Economic and Cultural Office, Hong Kong provides a limited range of services on behalf of the Taiwanese government, working strictly in an unofficial capacity. When Hong Kong was under British administration, the service was managed by Taiwan's foreign ministry, but since the handover in 1997, it has been administered by the Mainland Affairs Council. In Macau, the Taipei Economic and Cultural Office in Macau works under a similar remit. In addition, under a mechanism established in 2010, governments of Taiwan and Hong Kong engage through representation by the Taiwan-Hong Kong Economic and Cultural Co-operation Council (ECCC) and Hong Kong-Taiwan Economic and Cultural Co-operation and Promotion Council (ECCPC) respectively.Macau
Macau or Macao ( (listen); 澳門, Cantonese: [ōu.mǔːn]; Portuguese: Macau [mɐˈkaw]), officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is a special administrative region on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in southern China. With a population of 653,100 and an area of 32.9 km2 (12.7 sq mi), it is the most densely populated region in the world.
Macau was formerly a colony of the Portuguese Empire, after Ming China leased the territory as a trading post in 1557. Portugal governed the area under Chinese authority and sovereignty until 1887, when it was given perpetual occupation rights for Macau. The colony remained under Portuguese control until 1999, when it was returned to China. As a special administrative region, Macau's system of government is separate from that of mainland China.Originally a sparsely populated collection of coastal islands, the territory has become a major resort city and the top destination for gambling tourism. It is the ninth-highest recipient of tourism revenue and its gaming industry is seven times larger than that of Las Vegas. Although the city has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, it has severe income inequality.Macau has a very high Human Development Index and the fourth-highest life expectancy in the world. The territory is highly urbanised and most development is built on reclaimed land; two-thirds of total land area is reclaimed from the sea.Outline of Hong Kong
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Hong Kong:
Hong Kong – one of two special administrative regions of China, the other being Macau. The territory lies on the eastern side of the Pearl River Delta, bordering Guangdong province in the north and facing the South China Sea in the east, west and south. Beginning as a trading port in the 19th century, Hong Kong has developed into one of the world's leading financial centres.
Hong Kong was a Crown colony of the United Kingdom from 1842 to 1981 and was a British dependent territory from 1981 until the transfer of its sovereignty to the People's Republic of China in 1997. The Sino-British Joint Declaration and the Basic Law of Hong Kong stipulate that Hong Kong operate with a high degree of autonomy until at least 2047, fifty years after the transfer.
Under the “one country, two systems” policy, the Central People's Government is responsible for the territory's defence and foreign affairs, while the Government of Hong Kong is responsible for its own legal system, police force, monetary system, customs policy, immigration policy, and delegates to international organisations and events.Senegalese passport
Senegalese passports are issued to Senegalese citizens to travel outside Senegal.SmarTone
SmarTone Telecommunications Holdings Limited, trading as SmarTone (Chinese: 數碼通) is a telecommunications company headquartered in Hong Kong. The group provided services via their operating subsidiaries, such as SmarTone Mobile Communications Limited in Hong Kong and SmarTone – Comunicações Móveis, S.A. in Macau, two special administrative regions of China. The company provides voice, multimedia and mobile broadband services through its territory-wide 4G and 3G networks, as well as fixed fibre broadband services for the consumer and corporate markets, and plain SIM card. SmarTone is a subsidiary of Hong Kong conglomerate Sun Hung Kai Properties.Zambian passport
The Zambian passport is issued to citizens of Zambia for international travel.
As of 1 January 2017, Zambian citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 63 countries and territories, ranking the Zambian passport 73rd in terms of travel freedom (tied with Cape Verdean and Tunisian passports) according to the Henley visa restrictions index.
|Hanyu Pinyin||Tèbié Xíngzhèngqū|
|Yale Romanization||Dahkbiht Hàngjingkēui|
Articles on first-level administrative divisions of Asian countries
|Special administrative regions|