The administrative divisions of North Korea are organized into three hierarchical levels. These divisions were discovered in 2002. Many of the units have equivalents in the system of South Korea. At the highest level are nine provinces, two directly governed cities, and three special administrative divisions. The second-level divisions are cities, counties, wards, and districts. These are further subdivided into third-level entities: towns, neighborhoods, villages, and workers' districts.
The three-level administrative system used in North Korea was first inaugurated by Kim Il-sung in 1952, as part of a massive restructuring of local government. Previously, the country had used a multi-level system similar to that still used in South Korea.
(The English translations are not official, but approximations. Names are romanized according to the McCune-Reischauer system as officially used in North Korea; the editor was also guided by the spellings used on the 2003 National Geographic map of Korea).Capital punishment in Macau
Capital punishment in Macau was formally abolished in 1976 and reiterated in the Penal Code of Macau in the 1995.
Before that, capital punishment was last used in the 19th century. Under the principle of independence of legal system in Macau Basic Law, Macau continues its repudiation of capital punishment after the handover to China in 1999 despite the fact that capital punishment is practised in Mainland China.
The longest sentence in the Macau legal system is 30 years.Chief Executive of Hong Kong
The Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China is the representative of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and head of the Government of Hong Kong. The position was created to replace the Governor of Hong Kong, the representative of the Monarch of the United Kingdom during British rule. The office, stipulated by the Hong Kong Basic Law, formally came into being on 1 July 1997 when the sovereignty of Hong Kong was transferred from the United Kingdom to the People's Republic of China.
The functions of the Chief Executive (CE) include nominating principal officials for appointment by the Central People's Government of China (State Council), headed by Premier, conducting foreign relations, appointing judges and other public officers, giving consent to legislation passed by the Legislative Council, and bestowing honours. The Basic Law grants the Chief Executive a wide range of powers, but obliges him or her, before making important policy decisions, introducing bills to the Legislative Council, making subsidiary legislation, and dissolving the Legislative Council, to act only after consultation with the Executive Council (all of whose members are the CE's own appointees). The Executive Council consists of official and non-official members, including the Chief Secretary of Hong Kong, the most senior official and head of the Government Secretariat, in charge of overseeing the administration of the Government.
The Chief Executive holds the title "The Honourable", and ranks first in the Hong Kong order of precedence. The official residence of the chief executive is Government House in Central, Hong Kong Island.
The current Chief Executive is Carrie Lam, who was selected on 26 March 2017, appointed by the Central People's Government with the State Council Decree signed by Premier Li Keqiang, on 11 April 2017 and took office on 1 July 2017. She is the first woman to serve as Chief Executive.Chief Executive of Macau
The Chief Executive of the Macau Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (Chinese: 中華人民共和國澳門特別行政區行政長官; Portuguese: Chefe do Executivo da Região Administrativa Especial de Macau da República Popular da China) is the head of government of Macau, a special administrative region of China and a former Portuguese overseas province governed by the Governor of Macau.
Under the Basic Law of Macau, the CE's role is:
...be the head of the Macau Special Administrative Region and shall represent the Region. The Chief Executive of the Macau Special Administrative Region shall be accountable to the Central People's Government and the Macau Special Administrative Region in accordance with the provisions of this Law.
The current chief executive is Fernando Chui Sai On. His office is located at the Macau Government Headquarters, formerly the Governor's House (from 1883-1926) and the Governor's office (from 1926 to 1999). The CE has used this as his office since 2009.Court of Final Appeal (Hong Kong)
The Hong Kong Court of Final Appeal (HKCFA or CFA; Chinese: 香港終審法院) is the final appellate court of Hong Kong. It was established on 1 July 1997, when China resumed exercising sovereignty over Hong Kong, replacing the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council as the highest judicial institution under Hong Kong law. With its constitutional role defined in the Basic Law of Hong Kong, the Court of Final Appeal exercises its judicial powers independent of interference. The Hong Kong Court of Final Appeal Ordinance and the Hong Kong Court of Final Appeal Rules set out the functions and procedures of the court.
The Court of Final Appeal has no original jurisdiction. An appeal can either originate from the Court of Appeal or the Court of First Instance. All appeal cases are heard by a bench of five judges consisting of the Chief Justice, three permanent judges and a non-permanent judge. If the Chief Justice does not sit in an appeal, the three permanent judges will sit with a Hong Kong non-permanent judge and an overseas non-permanent judge.Department of Justice (Hong Kong)
The Department of Justice (Chinese: 律政司), is the department responsible for the laws of Hong Kong headed by the Secretary for Justice. Before 1997, the names of the department and the position was the Legal Department (律政署) and Attorney General (律政司) respectively.
The Department of Justice’s main value is the rule of law. This law is the law that has brought Hong Kong the success of being known as the world’s international financial centre. Their leading principle consists of the quote “One country, Two Systems”. The Department of Justice is very important in the legal system in many ways. One being that they give legal advice to other departments in the government system. “drafts government bills, makes prosecution decisions, and promotes the rule of law”. Its main goal is to ensure that Hong Kong’s status as the main centre for legal services is enhanced and maintained.Flag of Hong Kong
The flag of Hong Kong, officially the regional flag of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, features a white stylised five-petal Hong Kong orchid tree (Bauhinia blakeana) flower in the centre of a red field. Its design was adopted on 4 April 1990 at the Third Session of the Seventh National People's Congress. The precise use of the flag is regulated by laws passed by the 58th executive meeting of the State Council held in Beijing. The design of the flag is enshrined in Hong Kong's Basic Law, the territory's constitutional document, and regulations regarding the use, prohibition of use, desecration, and manufacture of the flag are stated in the Regional Flag and Regional Emblem Ordinance. The flag of Hong Kong was first officially hoisted on 1 July 1997, during the handover ceremony marking the transfer of sovereignty.The Chinese name of Bauhinia × blakeana is most commonly rendered as "洋紫荊", but is often shortened to 紫荊/紫荆 in official uses since "洋" (yáng) means "foreign" in Chinese, notwithstanding 紫荊/紫荆 refers to another genus called Cercis. A sculpture of the plant has been erected in Golden Bauhinia Square in Hong Kong. The representation of the flower in white runs contrary to the fact they are bright pinkish purple.Government of Hong Kong
The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, commonly the Hong Kong Government or simplified as GovHK, refers to the executive authorities of the Hong Kong SAR. The Government is formally led by the Chief Executive of the SAR, who nominates its principal officials for appointment by the State Council of the People's Republic of China (Central People's Government).
The Government Secretariat is headed by the Chief Secretary of Hong Kong, who is the most senior principal official of the Government. The Chief Secretary and the other secretaries jointly oversee the administration of the SAR, give advice to the Chief Executive as members of the Executive Council, and are accountable for their actions and policies to the Chief Executive and the Legislative Council.Under the "one country, two systems" constitutional principle, the Government is exclusively in charge of Hong Kong's internal affairs and external relations. The Government of the People's Republic of China, of which the Hong Kong government is financially independent, is responsible for Hong Kong's defence and foreign policy. Despite gradually evolving, the overall governmental structure was inherited from British Hong Kong.Hong Kong
Hong Kong ( (listen); Chinese: 香港, Hong Kong Cantonese: [hœ́ːŋ.kɔ̌ːŋ] (listen)), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is a special administrative region on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in southern China. With over 7.4 million people of various nationalities in a 1,104-square-kilometre (426 sq mi) territory, Hong Kong is the world's fourth-most densely populated region.
Hong Kong became a colony of the British Empire after Qing China ceded Hong Kong Island at the end of the First Opium War in 1842. The colony expanded to the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 after the Second Opium War, and was further extended when Britain obtained a 99-year lease of the New Territories in 1898. The territory was transferred to China in 1997. As a special administrative region, Hong Kong maintains separate governing and economic systems from that of mainland China, and its people overwhelmingly identify as Hongkongers rather than Chinese.Originally a sparsely populated area of farming and fishing villages, the territory has become one of the world's most significant financial centres and commercial ports. It was estimated to be the world's tenth-largest exporter and ninth-largest importer, and its legal tender (the Hong Kong dollar) is the world's 13th-most traded currency. Hong Kong hosts the largest concentration of ultra high-net-worth individuals of any city in the world. Although the city has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, there is severe income inequality.Hong Kong is classified as an alpha+ world city, indicating its influence throughout the world. Hong Kong is one of the most significant global financial centres, holding the highest Financial Development Index score and consistently ranking as the most competitive and freest economic area in the world in 2017. As the world's seventh-largest trading entity, its legal tender, the Hong Kong dollar, is the 13th-most traded currency. The city has the largest number of skyscrapers in the world, most surrounding Victoria Harbour. Hong Kong consistently ranks high on the Human Development Index, and has one of the highest life expectancies in the world. Over 90 per cent of its population uses public transportation. Air pollution from neighbouring industrial areas of mainland China has caused a high level of atmospheric particulates in the region.Hong Kong Basic Law
The Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China is the constitution of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and a national law of the People's Republic of China. Comprising nine chapters, 160 articles and three annexes, the Basic Law was adopted on 4 April 1990 by the Seventh National People's Congress and signed by President Yang Shangkun.
The Basic Law came into effect on 1 July 1997 in Hong Kong when the sovereignty over Hong Kong was transferred from the United Kingdom to the People's Republic of China, replacing Hong Kong's colonial constitution of the Letters Patent and the Royal Instructions.Hong Kong Special Administrative Region passport
The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Passport (Chinese: 香港特別行政區護照) is a passport issued only to the permanent residents of Hong Kong who also hold Chinese citizenship. In accordance with the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, since the transfer of sovereignty on 1 July 1997, the passport has been issued by the Immigration Department of the Government of Hong Kong under the authorisation of the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China. As the official languages of Hong Kong are Chinese and English, the passport is printed bilingually in both Chinese (traditional characters) and English.Macao Basic Law
The Basic Law of the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (Chinese: 中華人民共和國澳門特別行政區基本法, Portuguese: Lei Básica da Região Administrativa Especial de Macau da República Popular da China) is the constitutional document of Macau, replacing the Estatuto Orgânico de Macau. It was adopted on 31 March, 1993 by National People's Congress and signed by President Jiang Zemin, and came into effect on 20 December, 1999.
In accordance with Article 31 of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China, Macau has special administrative region status, which provides constitutional guarantees for implementing the policy of "one country, two systems" and the constitutional basis for enacting the Basic Law of the Macau Special Administrative Region. The Macau Special Administrative Region is directly under the authority of the central government of China in Beijing, which controls the foreign policy and defense of Macau but otherwise grants the region a "high degree of autonomy." The Basic Law took force on December 20, 1999.Macao Special Administrative Region passport
The Macao Special Administrative Region passport (Portuguese: Passaporte da Região Administrativa Especial de Macau; Chinese: 澳門特別行政區護照) is a passport issued to Chinese citizens who are permanent residents of Macau.
In accordance with Macau Basic Law, since the transfer of sovereignty over Macau on 20 December 1999, this passport has been issued by the Identification Services Bureau (under the Secretariat for Administration and Justice) of the government of Macau under the prerogative of the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China.
The official languages of Macau are Portuguese and Chinese; consequently, all the passport's text is in traditional Chinese characters, Portuguese, and English.Macau
Macau or Macao ( (listen); 澳門, Cantonese: [ōu.mǔːn]; Portuguese: Macau [mɐˈkaw]), officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is a special administrative region on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in southern China. With a population of 653,100 and an area of 32.9 km2 (12.7 sq mi), it is the most densely populated region in the world.
Macau was formerly a colony of the Portuguese Empire, after Ming China leased the territory as a trading post/treaty port in 1557. Portugal governed the area under titular Chinese sovereignty until 1887, when it was given perpetual colonial rights for Macau. The colony remained under Portuguese control until 1999, when it was returned to China. As a special administrative region, Macau's system of government is separate from that of mainland China.Originally a sparsely populated collection of coastal islands, the territory has become a major resort city and the top destination for gambling tourism. It is the ninth-highest recipient of tourism revenue and its gaming industry is seven times larger than that of Las Vegas. Although the city has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, it has severe income inequality.Macau has a very high Human Development Index and the fourth-highest life expectancy in the world. The territory is highly urbanised and most development is built on reclaimed land; two-thirds of total land area is reclaimed from the sea.Macau Liaison Office
The Macau Liaison Office, officially known as the Central People's Government Liaison Office of the Macao Special Administrative Region (Chinese: 中央人民政府駐澳門特別行政區聯絡辦公室 (abbreviated: Chinese: 聯絡辦公室); Portuguese: Gabinete de Ligação do Governo Central na RAEM) is the representative office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China (CPG) in Macau. Its counterpart body in Mainland China is the Office of the Macau Special Administrative Region in Beijing.It is one of the three agencies of the Central People's Government in the Macao Special Administrative Region. The other two are the Office of the Commissioner of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China in the Macao Special Administrative Region and the People's Liberation Army Macau Garrison.
The building of the Macau Liaiso Office is a threat to one of the Macao world heritage sites Guia Lighthouse since 2007.Security Bureau (Hong Kong)
The Security Bureau (Chinese: 保安局) is a body of the Government of Hong Kong responsible for a range of activities, including law enforcement, search and rescue, and the administration of various laws in relation to the security of Hong Kong.
The bureau is headed by the Secretary for Security.
Before 1997, it was named the Security Branch. Before 1973 it was known as the Defence Branch.Solicitor
A solicitor is a legal practitioner who traditionally deals with most of the legal matters in some jurisdictions. A person must have legally-defined qualifications, which vary from one jurisdiction to another, to be described as a solicitor and enabled to practise there as such. For example, in England and Wales a solicitor is admitted to practise under the provisions of the Solicitors Act 1974. With some exceptions, practising solicitors must possess a practising certificate. There are many more solicitors than barristers in England; they undertake the general aspects of giving legal advice and conducting legal proceedings.In the jurisdictions of England and Wales and in Northern Ireland, in a few Australian states, Hong Kong, South Africa (where they are called attorneys) and the Republic of Ireland, the legal profession is split between solicitors and barristers (called advocates in some countries, for example Scotland), and a lawyer will usually only hold one of the two titles. However, in Canada, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore and most Australian states, the legal profession is now for practical purposes "fused", allowing lawyers to hold the title of "barrister and solicitor" and practise as both. Some legal graduates will start off as one and then also qualify as the other.Special administrative regions of China
The special administrative regions (SAR) are one type of provincial-level administrative divisions of China directly under Central People's Government. They possess the highest degree of autonomy.
The legal basis for the establishment of SARs, unlike the administrative divisions of Mainland China, is provided for by Article 31, rather than Article 30, of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China of 1982. Article 31 reads: "The state may establish special administrative regions when necessary. The systems to be instituted in special administrative regions shall be prescribed by law enacted by the National People's Congress in the light of the specific conditions".At present, there are two SARs established according to the Constitution, namely the Hong Kong SAR and the Macau SAR, former British and Portuguese dependencies respectively, transferred to China in 1997 and 1999 respectively pursuant to the Sino-British Joint Declaration of 1984 and the Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration of 1987. Pursuant to their Joint Declarations, which are binding inter-state treaties registered with the United Nations, and their Basic laws, the Chinese SARs "shall enjoy a high degree of autonomy". Generally, the two SARs are not considered to constitute a part of Mainland China, by both Chinese and SAR authorities.
There is additionally the Wolong Special Administrative Region in Sichuan province, which is however not established according to Article 31 of the Constitution.
The provision to establish special administrative regions appeared in the constitution in 1982, in anticipation of the talks with the United Kingdom over the question of the sovereignty over Hong Kong. It was envisioned as the model for the eventual reunification with Taiwan and other islands, where the Republic of China has resided since 1949. Special administrative regions should not be confused with special economic zones, which are areas in which special economic laws apply to promote trade and investments.
Under the One country, two systems principle, the two SARs continue to possess their own governments, multi-party legislatures, legal systems, police forces, monetary systems, separate customs territory, immigration policies, national sports teams, official languages, postal systems, academic and educational systems, and substantial competence in external relations that are different or independent from the People's Republic of China.
Special administrative regions should be distinguished from the constituent countries system in the United Kingdom or Kingdom of the Netherlands.Wolong Special Administrative Region
The Wolong Special Administrative Region (simplified Chinese: 卧龙特别行政区; traditional Chinese: 臥龍特別行政區; pinyin: Wòlóng Tèbié Xíngzhèngqū) is an area in Sichuan, China. It is located in the southwest of Wenchuan County, Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture of Sichuan. It was formerly known as Wolong Special Administrative Region of Wenchuan County, Sichuan Province and was founded in March 1983 with approval of the State Council. It was given its current name and placed under Sichuan provincial government with administrative supervision by the provincial department of forestry. Its area supersedes Sichuan Wolong National Nature Reserve and its administrative office is the same as the Administrative Bureau of the State Forestry Administration for the reserve. It currently has a population of 5343.Despite its name, the Wolong Special Administrative Region is not a special administrative region (SAR) as defined by Article 31 of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China, unlike the SARs of Hong Kong and Macau.
Designations for types of administrative territorial entities
1 Used by ten or more countries or having derived terms. Historical derivations in italics.