Spanking

Spanking is a common form of corporal punishment involving the act of striking the buttocks of another person to cause physical pain, generally with an open hand. More severe forms of spanking, such as switching, paddling, belting, caning, whipping, and birching, involve the use of an object instead of a hand.

Parents commonly spank children or adolescents in response to undesired behavior.[1] Boys are more frequently spanked than girls, both at home and in school.[2] Some countries have outlawed the spanking of children in every setting, including homes, schools, and penal institutions,[3] but most allow it when done by a parent or guardian.

Terminology

In North America, the word "spanking" has often been used as a synonym for an official paddling in school,[4] and sometimes even as a euphemism for the formal corporal punishment of adults in an institution.[5]

In British English, most dictionaries define "spanking" as being given only with the open hand.[6]

In American English, dictionaries define spanking as being administered with either the open hand or an implement such as a paddle.[7] Thus, the standard form of corporal punishment in US schools (use of a paddle) is often referred to as a spanking.

In the United Kingdom, Ireland, Australia and New Zealand, the word "smacking" is generally used in preference to "spanking" when describing striking with an open hand, rather than with an implement. Whereas a spanking is invariably administered to the bottom, a "smacking" is less specific and may refer to slapping the child's hands, arms or legs as well as its bottom.[8]

In the home

Conrad, Giorgio (1827-1889) - n. 202a
Painting by Georg Conrad (1827–1889)

Parents commonly spank their children as a form of corporal punishment in the United States.[1] It is normally done with one or more slaps on the child's buttocks with a bare hand, although, not uncommonly, various objects are used to spank children.[1] Historically, boys have been spanked more than girls.[2][9] In the United States, the spanking of infants is common, with toddler-age children being spanked the most.[10] The main reasons parents give for spanking children are to make children more compliant and to promote better behavior, especially to put a stop to children's aggressive behaviors.

However, research has shown that spanking (or any other form of corporal punishment) is associated with the opposite effect.[1] Children who are physically punished more often tend to obey parents less with time, and to develop more aggressive behaviors, including toward other children.[1] This increase in aggressive behavior is thought to reflect the child's perception that hitting is the way to deal with anger and frustration.[1] There are also a number of adverse physical, mental, and emotional effects correlated with spanking and other forms of corporal punishment, including various physical injuries, increased anxiety, depression, and antisocial behavior.[1][11] Children who were spanked during childhood are more likely to abuse their own children and spouse.[1]

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) states no child under the age of two should be spanked.[1] Additionally, the AAP recommends that primary care providers (e.g., pediatricians and family medicine physicians) begin to discuss parents' discipline methods no later than 9 months of age and consider initiating such discussions by age 3–4 months.[1] By 8 months of age, 5% of parents report spanking and 5% report starting to spank by age 3 months.[1] Primary care providers may recommend that a parent never spank their child; however, since spanking is a highly prevalent form of child discipline, this approach may lead parents to disregard a health care professional's advice and interfere with educational efforts to discuss alternative forms of discipline.[1]

Although parents and other advocates of spanking often claim that spanking is necessary to promote child discipline, studies have shown that parents tend to apply physical punishment inconsistently and tend to spank more often when they are angry or under stress.[12] The use of corporal punishment by parents increases the likelihood that children will suffer physical abuse,[1] and most documented cases of physical abuse in Canada and the United States begin as disciplinary spankings.[13] If a child is frequently spanked, this form of corporal punishment tends to become less effective at modifying behavior over time (also known as extinction).[1] In response to decreased effectiveness of spanking, some parents increase the frequency or severity of spanking or use an object.[1]

There are many effective alternatives to spanking and other forms of corporal punishment. For example, such techniques include time-ins (increasing attention, praise, and special time to promote desired behaviors), time outs (taking a break from escalating misbehavior), positive reinforcement (rewarding desirable behavior (e.g., with a star, sticker, or treat)), non-physical negative reinforcement (an unpleasant consequence follows misbehavior (e.g., replying with a sharp "no" expressing disapproval for a specific action or taking away a privilege)), passive inattention (ignoring low-level misbehaviors and prioritizing attention for more significant forms of misbehavior appropriate for a child's developmental level), and avoidance (avoid the opportunity for the misbehavior to occur and thus the need for corrective discipline).[1]

In schools

Corporal punishment, usually delivered with an implement (such as a paddle or cane) rather than with the open hand, used to be a common form of school discipline in many countries, but it is now banned in most of the Western World.

Corporal punishment, such as caning, remains a common form of discipline in schools in several Asian and African countries, even in countries in which this practice has been deemed illegal such as India and South Africa.[14][15][16] In these cultures it is referred to as "caning" and not "spanking."

The Supreme Court of the United States in 1977 held that the paddling of school students was not per se unlawful.[17] However, 31 states have now banned paddling in public schools. It is still common in some schools in the South, and more than 167,000 students were paddled in the 2011-2012 school year in American public schools.[18] Students can be physically punished from kindergarten to the end of high school, meaning that even adults who have reached the age of majority are sometimes spanked by school officials.[19]

Adult spanking

KissMeKateFilm
Theatrical release poster for Kiss Me Kate, 1953.

Men spanking their wives and girlfriends was often seen as an acceptable form of domestic discipline in the early 20th century as a way to correct behavior, maintain male dominance, and enforce gender norms. It was a common trope in American films.[20] In the early 21st century, adherents of a small subculture known as Christian domestic discipline rely on a literalist interpretation of the Bible to justify spanking as a form of punishment of women by their husbands.[21] Critics describe such practices as a form of domestic abuse.[22]

Ritual spanking traditions

Pomlázka
An Easter whip (Czech: pomlázka; Slovak: korbáč)
AljazevStolp3036
Spanking of people who have for the first time succeeded in climbing on the top of Mount Triglav (2,864 metres or 9,396 feet), the highest mountain of Slovenia

There are some rituals or traditions which involve spanking. For example, on the first day of the lunar Chinese new year holidays, a week-long 'Spring Festival', the most important festival for Chinese people all over the world, thousands of Chinese visit the Taoist Dong Lung Gong temple in Tungkang to go through the century-old ritual to get rid of bad luck. Men traditionally receive spankings and women get whipped, with the number of strokes to be administered (always lightly) by the temple staff being decided in either case by the god Wang Ye and by burning incense and tossing two pieces of wood, after which all go home happily, believing their luck will improve.[23]

On Easter Monday, there is a Slavic tradition of hitting girls and young ladies with woven willow switches (Czech: pomlázka; Slovak: korbáč) and dousing them with water.[24][25][26]

In Slovenia, there is a jocular tradition that anyone who succeeds in climbing to the top of Mount Triglav receives a spanking or birching.[27]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Zolotor, AJ (October 2014). "Corporal punishment". Pediatric Clinics of North America (Review). 61 (5): 971–8. doi:10.1016/j.pcl.2014.06.003. PMID 25242709.
  2. ^ a b Straus, Murray A.; Douglas, Emily M.; Madeiros, Rose Ann (2013). The Primordial Violence: Spanking Children, Psychological Development, Violence, and Crime. New York: Routledge. pp. 31–32. ISBN 1848729537.
  3. ^ "States which have prohibited all corporal punishment". Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children.
  4. ^ E.g. "Corporal punishment — spanking or paddling the student — may be used as a discipline management technique .... The instrument to be used in administering corporal punishment shall be approved by the principal or designee".Texas Association of School Boards – Standard Code of Conduct wording. Archived 25 June 2007 at Archive.today
  5. ^ See e.g. Evidence of Colonel G. Headly Basher, Deputy Minister for Reform Institutions, Ontario, Joint Committee of the Senate and House of Commons on Capital and Corporal Punishment and Lotteries, Canada, 1953–55.
  6. ^ Oxford English Dictionary: "Spank: To slap or smack (a person, esp. a child) with the open hand." Collins English Dictionary: "Spank: To slap or smack with the open hand, esp. on the buttocks."
  7. ^ American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: "Spank: To slap on the buttocks with a flat object or with the open hand, as for punishment."
  8. ^ Oxford English Dictionary: "Smack: To strike (a person, part of the body, etc.) with the open hand or with something having a flat surface; to slap. Also spec. to chastise (a child) in this manner and fig."
  9. ^ Elder, G.H.; Bowerman, C. E. (1963). "Family Structure and Child Rearing Patterns: The Effect of Family Size and Sex Composition". American Sociological Review. 28 (6): 891–905. doi:10.2307/2090309. JSTOR 2090309.
  10. ^ Straus, Murray A. (Spring 2010). "Prevalence, Societal Causes, and Trends in Corporal Punishment by Parents in World Perspective" (PDF). Law and Contemporary Problems. Duke University School of Law. 73 (2). Figure 1. Corporal Punishment Begins With Infants, Is Highest For Toddlers, And Continues Into The Teen Years For Many Children
  11. ^ Gershoff, Elizabeth T. (September 2013). "Spanking and Child Development: We Know Enough Now to Stop Hitting Our Children". Child Development Perspectives. The Society for Research in Child Development. 7 (3): 133–137. doi:10.1111/cdep.12038. PMC 3768154. PMID 24039629.
  12. ^ Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health (April 1998). "Guidance for effective discipline". Pediatrics. American Academy of Pediatrics. 101 (4 Pt 1): 723–8. PMID 9521967.
  13. ^ Gershoff, Elizabeth T. (Spring 2010). "More Harm Than Good: A Summary of Scientific Research on the Intended and Unintended Effects of Corporal Punishment on Children". Law & Contemporary Problems. Duke University School of Law. 73 (2): 31–56.
  14. ^ Pak, Jennifer (5 April 2014). "Malaysia's love for the cane is questioned". BBC News.
  15. ^ "Corporal punishment 'widespread' in Indian schools". BBC News. 25 October 2010. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  16. ^ Seale, Lebogang (7 October 2017). "Severe corporal punishment still carried out at many SA schools". IOL. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  17. ^ Ingraham v. Wright, 97, S.Ct. 1401 (1977).
  18. ^ Anderson, Melinda D. "The States Where Teachers Can Still Spank Students". The Atlantic. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
  19. ^ C. Farrell (October 2016). "Corporal punishment in US schools". www.corpun.com.
  20. ^ Heisel, Andrew. "'I Don't Know Whether to Kiss You or Spank You': A Half Century of Fear of an Unspanked Woman". Pictorial. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  21. ^ Snyder-Hall, R. Claire (2008). "The Ideology of Wifely Submission: A Challenge for Feminism?". Politics & Gender. 4 (4): 563–586. doi:10.1017/S1743923X08000482.
  22. ^ Zadrozny, Brandy (19 June 2013). "Spanking For Jesus: Inside The Unholy World Of 'Christian Domestic Discipline'". The Daily Beast.
  23. ^ "Ring in the new year with a spanking for luck". Independent Online (South Africa). 26 January 2004.
  24. ^ Ember, Melvin; Ember, Carol R. (2004). Encyclopedia of sex and gender: men and women in the world's cultures. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum. pp. M1 382. ISBN 0-306-47770-X.
  25. ^ Montley, Patricia (2005). In Nature's Honor: Myths And Rituals Celebrating The Earth. Boston, MA: Skinner House Books. pp. M1 56. ISBN 1-55896-486-X.
  26. ^ Knab, Sophie Hodorowicz (1993). Polish customs, traditions, and folklore. New York: Hippocrene. ISBN 0-7818-0068-4.
  27. ^ Walters, Joanna (12 November 2000). "Reach for the top and a birching". The Guardian. London.

External links

Birching

Birching is a corporal punishment with a birch rod, typically applied to the recipient's bare buttocks, although occasionally to the back and/or shoulders.

Corporal punishment in the home

Physical or corporal punishment by a parent or other legal guardian is any act causing deliberate physical pain or discomfort to a minor child in response to some undesired behavior. It typically takes the form of spanking or slapping the child with an open hand or striking with an implement such as a belt, slipper, cane, hairbrush or paddle, and can also include shaking, pinching, forced ingestion of substances, or forcing children to stay in uncomfortable positions.

Social acceptance of corporal punishment is high in countries where it remains lawful, particularly among more traditional groups. In many cultures, parents have historically been regarded as having the right, if not the duty, to physically punish misbehaving children in order to teach appropriate behavior. Researchers, on the other hand, point out that corporal punishment typically has the opposite effect, leading to more aggressive behavior in children and less long-term obedience. Other adverse effects, such as depression, anxiety, anti-social behavior and increased risk of physical abuse, have also been linked to the use of corporal punishment by parents. Evidence shows that spanking and other physical punishments, while nominally for the purpose of child discipline, are inconsistently applied, often being used when parents are angry or under stress. Severe forms of corporal punishment, including kicking, biting, scalding and burning, can also constitute unlawful child abuse.

International human-rights and treaty bodies such as the Committee on the Rights of the Child, the Council of Europe and the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights have advocated an end to all forms of corporal punishment, arguing that it violates children's dignity and right to bodily integrity. Many existing laws against battery, assault, and/or child abuse make exceptions for "reasonable" physical punishment by parents, a defence rooted in common law and specifically English law. During the late 20th and into the 21st century, some countries began removing legal defences for adult guardians' use of corporal punishment, followed by outright bans on the practice. Most of these bans are part of civil law and therefore do not impose criminal penalties unless a charge of assault and/or battery is justified. Since Sweden outlawed all corporal punishment of children in 1979, an increasing number of countries have enacted similar bans, particularly following international adoption of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. However, domestic corporal punishment of children remains legal in most of the world.

Dippoldism

In psychiatry, the term dippoldism (German: dippoldismus) is used to refer to the spanking (or other corporal punishment) of minors for sexual motives.

Dippoldism is the paraphilia of sexual arousal from spanking or otherwise applying corporal punishment to children. It is named after Andreas Dippold, a German schoolteacher who, in 1903, beat his pupil Heinz Koch to death.

Doug (TV series)

Doug is an American animated television series created by Jim Jinkins. The show focuses on the early adolescent life of its title character, Douglas "Doug" Funnie, who experiences common predicaments while attending school in his new hometown of Bluffington. Doug narrates each story in his journal, and the show incorporates many imagination sequences. The series addresses numerous topics, including trying to fit in, platonic and romantic relationships, self-esteem, bullying, and rumors. Many episodes center on Doug's attempts to impress his classmate and crush, Patti Mayonnaise.

Jinkins developed Doug from drawings in his sketchbook that he created over the course of the 1980s. Doug, a mostly autobiographical creation, was largely inspired by Jinkins's childhood growing up in Virginia, with most characters in the series being based on real individuals. He first pitched Doug as a children's book to uninterested publishers before Nickelodeon purchased the show. Following this, the series underwent further development, in which Jinkins meticulously detailed every aspect of the show's setting. Jinkins was insistent that the series would have a purpose and instructed writers to annotate each script with a moral. The show's unusual soundtrack consists largely of mouth noises.

The series premiered in 1991 on the cable network Nickelodeon, as the channel's first original animated content alongside Rugrats and The Ren & Stimpy Show. The series' original run consisted of 52 episodes over four seasons that were broadcast from 1991 to 1994. In 1996, Disney acquired the series, retooling it with several creative changes, thus renaming it Brand Spanking New! Doug (retitled Disney's Doug in 1998), and airing it for three years on ABC's Saturday morning lineup. It became a top-rated show, inspiring various books, merchandise, a live musical stage show, and a theatrical feature, Doug's 1st Movie, released at the series' conclusion in 1999.

Erotic spanking

Erotic spanking is the act of spanking another person for the sexual arousal or gratification of either or both parties. Activities range from a spontaneous smack on bare buttocks during a sexual activity, to occasional sexual roleplay, such as ageplay, to domestic discipline and may involve the use of a hand or the use of a variety of spanking implements, such as a spanking paddle or cane. Erotic spankings are commonly combined with other forms of sexual foreplay. The most common type of erotic spanking is administered on the bare buttocks, but can also be combined with bondage, in order to heighten sexual arousal and feelings of helplessness.

Many cultures describe pain as an aphrodisiac. For example, the Kama Sutra, in particular, goes into specific detail on how to properly strike a partner during sex.

Figging

Figging is the practice of inserting a piece of skinned ginger root into the human anus or the vagina in order to generate an acute burning sensation. Historically this was a method of punishment, but has since been adopted as a practice of BDSM. The term "figging" comes from the 19th-century word "feaguing."

Freak Kitchen

Freak Kitchen is an experimental rock band from Gothenburg, Sweden, formed in 1992.

Grounding (discipline technique)

Grounding is a common discipline technique used with children and teenagers, in which the child or teen is not allowed to leave their place of residence or bedroom except for required activities such as school or work. Children and teenagers are generally not allowed to leave the house for leisure during this time.

Other possible consequences can also include removing positive reinforcements, electronics, privileges and freedom such as television, video games, MP3 players, radios, toys, dolls, computers, Internet, cellphones, mobile devices, fidget spinners, cars, slumber parties, movie theaters, amusement parks, shopping malls and hanging out with or having friends over.Grounding has been suggested as an alternative to physical discipline or spanking for behavior management in the home. According to a 2000 review on child outcomes, "Grounding has been replicated as a more effective disciplinary alternative than spanking with teenagers." Grounding can backfire if the type and duration of restrictions are too severe relative to the behavior meant to be corrected, or if the restrictions are too difficult for the parent to enforce.

Harry Enfield's Brand Spanking New Show

Harry Enfield's Brand Spanking New Show was a British sketch show starring Harry Enfield. It was first broadcast on Sky 1 in 2000 for one series.

The series followed Enfields first project Harry Enfield's Television Programme. Seven years later Enfield return with Harry and Paul once again on the BBC. Enfield admitted in 2010 that he didn't give the series his full attention as he was involved in the editing of Kevin & Perry Go Large at the same time as the show's production.A compilation of some of the best sketches from the series was released on DVD in 2002.

Impact play

Impact play is a human sexual practice in which one person (the bottom) is struck (usually repeatedly) by another person (the Top) for the sexual gratification of either or both parties. It is considered a form of BDSM.

There are number of activities that qualify as impact play.

In erotic spanking the sub is struck either with the top's open hand, or a rigid implement such as a paddle, cane or riding crop. In the latter case the activity is often referred to as paddling, caning or cropping. The usual targets for spanking are the buttocks and inner or outer thighs.

In erotic flagellation the sub is struck with a flexible implement such a whip or belt. Whips are classified by how many falls they have:

Single tails such as a bullwhip have a single fall. The associated activity is referred to as single tailing.

Floggers, such as a cat o' nine tails have many falls. The associated activity is referred to as flogging.

For safety, impact play should be done on areas of the human body well protected by fat or muscle; spots to avoid include the kidneys, neck, tailbone, hipbones, the head and all joints. The usual targets for flagellation are the buttocks and the two areas of the upper back below the shoulder blades. With care, the thighs, the backs of the calves and the chest can be targets as well. Breasts are another potential (but high-risk) target, and should only be used with experience.

The use of a whip means that the Top must take great care to hit the intended target area, and avoid wrapping; when a whip or flogger makes contact with the target area somewhere up its length and the remaining length wraps around the sub's body to deliver a sharp, non-erotic, and possibly injurious off-target blow, such as to the hipbones or ribs. The longer the falls, the more skill is required by the Top to land a safe blow. Advanced flogging techniques use a pair of floggers employed in a martial arts style alternating pattern, a technique commonly referred to as "florentining" or "florentine flogging."

Less common forms of impact play include punching and face slapping.

The sensations produced by impact play depend on the area in which the impact is concentrated. Wide implements such as an open hand, paddle or flogger produce a dull "thuddy" sensation. Narrow implements such as a cane, riding crop, belt or single tail produce a sharp "stingy" sensation.

A slapper or smacker may also be used. This consists of a broad (3 to 4 inch wide) semi flexible leather paddle with rounded and tapered edges, designed to minimize the severity of tip strike.

MTV Brand New

MTV Brand New is a 24-hour specialist music channel featuring new music videos, alternative and indie music available in the Netherlands, Germany, and In Italy until 2011, when it was replaced by MTV Rocks. The Italian version of the channel launched on September 14, 2003; it then launched in the Netherlands on August 1, 2006. The German-speaking version of the channel launched in Germany, Austria and Switzerland on February 1, 2011.

MTV Brand New for (2011-2018) is a showcase at Electric Ballroom

Paddle (spanking)

A spanking paddle is an implement used to strike a person on the buttocks. The act of spanking a person with a paddle is known as "paddling". A paddling may be for punishment (normally of a student at school in the United States), or as an initiation or hazing ritual.

Pyramid

A pyramid (from Greek: πυραμίς pyramís) is a structure whose outer surfaces are triangular and converge to a single point at the top, making the shape roughly a pyramid in the geometric sense. The base of a pyramid can be trilateral, quadrilateral, or of any polygon shape. As such, a pyramid has at least three outer triangular surfaces (at least four faces including the base). The square pyramid, with a square base and four triangular outer surfaces, is a common version.

A pyramid's design, with the majority of the weight closer to the ground, and with the pyramidion on top, means that less material higher up on the pyramid will be pushing down from above. This distribution of weight allowed early civilizations to create stable monumental structures.

Civilizations in many parts of the world have built pyramids. The largest pyramid by volume is the Great Pyramid of Cholula, in the Mexican state of Puebla. For thousands of years, the largest structures on Earth were pyramids—first the Red Pyramid in the Dashur Necropolis and then the Great Pyramid of Khufu, both in Egypt—the latter is the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still remaining.

Khufu's Pyramid, built mainly of limestone (with large red granite blocks used in some interior chambers), contains over 2,000,000 blocks ranging in weight from 2.5 tonnes (5,500 lb) to 15 tonnes (33,000 lb) and is built on a square base with sides measuring about 230 m (755 ft), covering 13 acres. Its four sides face the four cardinal points precisely and it has an angle of 52 degrees. The original height of the pyramid was 146.5 m (488 ft), but today it is only 137 m (455 ft) high as 9 m (33 ft) has gone missing due to theft of the fine quality white Tura limestone covering, or casing stones, for construction in Cairo. It remains the tallest pyramid.

School corporal punishment

School corporal punishment refers to causing deliberate pain or discomfort in response to undesired behavior by students in schools. It often involves striking the student either across the buttocks or on the hands, with an implement such as a rattan cane, wooden paddle, slipper, leather strap or wooden yardstick. Less commonly, it could also include spanking or smacking the student with the open hand, especially at the elementary school level.

In the English-speaking world, the use by schools of corporal punishment has historically been justified by the common-law doctrine in loco parentis, whereby teachers are considered authority figures granted the same rights as parents to punish children in their care.

Advocates of school corporal punishment argue that it provides an immediate response to indiscipline and that the student is quickly back in the classroom learning, as opposed to suspension from school. Opponents, including a number of medical and psychological societies, along with human-rights groups, argue that physical punishment is ineffective in the long term, interferes with learning, leads to antisocial behavior as well as various forms of mental distress, disproportionately affects students of color, and is a form of violence that breaches the rights of children.Poland was the first nation to outlaw corporal punishment in schools in 1783. School corporal punishment is no longer legal in any European country. As of 2016, an estimated 128 countries have prohibited corporal punishment in schools, including all of Europe, and most of South America and East Asia. Approximately 69 countries still allow for corporal punishment in schools, including parts of the United States, some Australian states, and a number of countries in Africa and Asia.

Spanking Machine

Spanking Machine is the debut album by American punk rock band Babes in Toyland, released in 1990.

Spanking the Monkey

Spanking the Monkey is a 1994 American black comedy film written and directed by David O. Russell. The title is a slang phrase for masturbation and is used in the film by one of the teenage characters. It was filmed in Pawling, New York.

Switch (corporal punishment)

A switch is a flexible rod which is typically used for corporal punishment, similar to birching.

Tanning

Tanning may refer to:

Tanning (leather), treating animal skins to produce leather

Sun tanning, using the sun to darken pale skin

Indoor tanning, the use of artificial light in place of the sun

Sunless tanning, application of a stain or dye to the skin

Physical punishment, metaphorically, such as a severe spanking which leaves clear marks

The Electric Spanking of War Babies

The Electric Spanking of War Babies is the 13th studio album by the American funk band Funkadelic, released in April 1981 on Warner Bros. Records. The title is an allusion to the Vietnam War and baby boomers. It includes many relative newcomers to P-Funk, many of whom remained employed by George Clinton on future releases under his own name or under the name George Clinton & the P-Funk All-Stars. Sly Stone is a collaborator on this album. Clinton originally planned on this being a double album, but the idea was quashed by Warner Brothers. Some of the deleted tracks appeared on later P-Funk releases, most notably the 1982 hit single "Atomic Dog" which appeared on the first George Clinton solo album, Computer Games.

Of all the original group members since Funkadelic's debut album, only George Clinton, Ray Davis, and Eddie Hazel appear on this album. Junie Morrison plays all the instruments on the title track except the guitar solo which was played by Michael Hampton. This was the last Album to feature Eddie Hazel, Ray Davis, Garry Shider, Junie Morrison, Mallia Franklin, and Jessica Cleaves. Also this is the only Funkadelic album the late Roger Troutman appears on as well.

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