Spanish conquest of El Salvador

The Spanish conquest of El Salvador was the campaign undertaken by the Spanish conquistadores against the Late Postclassic Mesoamerican polities in the territory that is now incorporated into the modern Central American nation of El Salvador. El Salvador is the smallest country in Central America, and is dominated by two mountain ranges running east-west. Its climate is tropical, and the year is divided into wet and dry seasons. Before the conquest the country formed a part of the Mesoamerican cultural region, and was inhabited by a number of indigenous peoples, including the Pipil, the Lenca, the Xinca, and Maya. Native weaponry consisted of spears, bows and arrows, and wooden swords with inset stone blades; they wore padded cotton armour.

The Spanish conquistadores were largely volunteers, receiving the spoils of victory instead of a salary; many were experienced soldiers who had already campaigned in Europe. The Spanish expeditions to Central America were launched from three different Spanish jurisdictions, resulting in rival conquests by mutually hostile Spanish captains. Spanish weaponry included swords, firearms, crossbows and light artillery. Metal armour was impractical in the hot, humid climate of Central America and the Spanish were quick to adopt the quilted cotton armour of the natives. The conquistadors were supported by a large number of Indian auxiliaries drawn from previously encountered Mesoamerican groups.

The first campaign against the native inhabitants was undertaken in 1524 by Pedro de Alvarado. Alvarado launched his expedition against the Pipil province of Cuscatlan from the Guatemalan Highlands, but by July 1524 he had retreated back to Guatemala.[1] Gonzalo de Alvarado founded San Salvador the following year, but it was eradicated by a native attack in 1526, during a general uprising that spread across the region. Pedro de Alvarado returned to campaign in El Salvador in 1526 and 1528, and in the latter year, Diego de Alvarado reestablished San Salvador and issued encomiendas to his supporters. In 1528, the uprising finally ended when the Spanish stormed the native stronghold at the Peñol de Cinacantan.

In 1529, El Salvador became embroiled in a jurisdictional dispute with neighbouring Nicaragua. Pedrarias Dávila sent Martín de Estete at the head of an expedition to annex the territory to Nicaragua. Estete captured the leader of a rival Spanish expedition in eastern El Salvador, and marched on San Salvador, before being repulsed by a relief force sent from Guatemala. In 1530, Pedro de Alvarado ordered the establishment of a new settlement at San Miguel, in the east of the country, to protect against further incursions from Nicaragua, and to assist in the conquest of the surrounding area. Indigenous uprisings against the invaders continued, spreading from neighbouring Honduras. The general uprising across the two provinces was put down by the end of 1538, and by 1539 the province was considered pacified. The conquistadores discovered that there was little gold or silver to be found in El Salvador, and it became a colonial backwater with a small Spanish population, within the jurisdiction of the Captaincy General of Guatemala.[2]

Geography

El Salvador Topography
Topographic map of El Salvador

El Salvador is the smallest country in Central America,[3] extending approximately 261 kilometres (162 mi) east-west and 100 kilometres (62 mi) north-south,[4] covering an area of 21,040 square kilometres (8,124 sq mi); much of its territory occupies a volcanic plateau about 600 metres (2,000 ft) above mean sea level. It is located on the Pacific coast of Central America and is bordered by Guatemala to the west, and Honduras to the north and east. The country is seismologically active, and has a history of devastating earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. The country is divided into four main regions; two mountain ranges run east-west across the country,[5] with a 50-kilometre (31 mi) wide central plateau dividing them.[6] The northern range is the Sierra Madre, rising to an altitude of 2,200 metres (7,200 ft) follow the border with Honduras.[5] The southern range is a volcanic chain composed of more than 20 volcanoes clustered in five groups. The Santa Ana Volcano rises near the Guatemalan border to an altitude of 2,365 metres (7,759 ft); its peak is the highest point in the country.[7] The Pacific Lowlands form a narrow littoral plain running along the south coast.[5] El Salvador has over 300 rivers draining into the Pacific. The Lempa River is the only navigable river, and flows from Guatemala through the Sierra Madre and along the central plateau, before crossing the volcanic chain to drain into the Pacific Ocean,[7] dividing the country into clearly defined western and eastern regions.[8] Most of the other rivers are short, flowing either from the central plateau through gaps in the volcanic chain, or draining the coastal plain.[7]

Climate

El Salvador has a tropical climate with a relatively narrow temperature variation, largely dependent upon altitude, with the average temperature ranging between 18.0 and 32.0 °C (64.4 and 89.6 °F). At the highest altitudes, the temperature can drop below freezing. The country experiences a dry season from mid-November to mid-April and a rainy season from mid-May to mid-October. El Salvador has one of the highest rainfalls in Latin America, varying from an average annual rainfall of 170 centimetres (68 in) on the Pacific coast to 240 centimetres (96 in) in the highlands of the Sierra Madre.[9]

El Salvador before the conquest

Before the conquest, El Salvador formed a part of the Mesoamerican cultural region.[10] The central and western portions of the territory were inhabited by the Pipil,[2] a Nahua people related to the Aztecs of Mexico.[10] The Pipil were divided into three main provinces in El Salvador; the two largest were Cuscatlan and Izalco, while Nonualco was the smallest of the three.[11] Cuscatlan extended from the Paz River in the west to the Lempa River in the east.[12] Izalco lay to the southwest of Cuscatlan and was subservient to it on the eve of the Spanish conquest;[13] its territory is now incorporated into the modern departments of Ahuachapan and Sonsonate.[14] Other indigenous groups with territories in El Salvador were the Ch'orti' and the Poqomam (both of these were Maya peoples), the Lenca, the Xinca, and the Matagalpa. The Postclassic Maya and Pipil cities were relatively small by Mesoamerican standards, especially when compared with the great Maya cities of the earlier Classic period (c. 250–950 AD).[15] The Lenca occupied territory to the east of the Lempa River,[16] where their principal kingdom was Chaparrastique.[17] Chaparrastique extended across territory now incorporated into the departments of La Unión, Morazán, and San Miguel. The Ch'orti' and Poqomam occupied territories in the west. The extreme east of El Salvador was occupied by the Mangue, with the Matagalpa in the southeast. The population of the entire territory of El Salvador is variously estimated at anything between 130,000 and 1,000,000 at the time of the conquest;[13] the low-mid estimates within this range are more likely.[18]

The three principal kingdoms of Cuscatlan, Izalco, and Chaparrastique engaged in regular warfare, and smaller groups occasionally rebelled against their larger neighbours. There was flourishing trade, with cacao as the principal commodity, although maize, cotton, and balsam were also traded.[13]

Native weaponry and tactics

The Pipil used wooden weapons with stone blades. Their weapons included long spears, atlatls (spear-throwers), arrows, and the macana (a wooden sword with inset obsidian blades similar to the Aztec macahuitl). These weapons proved inferior to elements of Spanish warfare such as steel, the horse and firearms.[19] The Spanish described how the natives of El Salvador wore thick cotton armour, described as three fingers thick, that extended down to their feet and significantly encumbered them.[20]

After the first two large-scale battles between the Spanish and Pipil armies resulted in decisive victories for the European invaders, the natives preferred to flee their settlements at their approach rather than face the conquistadors on an open battlefield.[21] A common tactic of the natives was to concentrate themselves in strongly-defended mountaintop fortresses.[22]

Background to the conquest

16th century Spanish expansion in the Caribbean
Map of Spanish expansion in the Caribbean during the 16th century

Christopher Columbus discovered the New World for the Kingdom of Castile and Leon in 1492. Private adventurers thereafter entered into contracts with the Spanish Crown to conquer the newly discovered lands in return for tax revenues and the power to rule.[23] The Spanish founded Santo Domingo on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola in the 1490s.[24] In the first decades after the discovery of the new lands, the Spanish colonised the Caribbean and established a centre of operations on the island of Cuba.[25]

In the first two decades of the 16th century, the Spanish established their domination over the islands of the Caribbean Sea, and used these as a staging point to launch their campaigns of conquest on the continental mainland of the Americas.[26] From Hispaniola, the Spanish launched expeditions and campaigns of conquest, reaching Puerto Rico in 1508, Jamaica in 1509, Cuba in 1511, and Florida in 1513.[27] The Spanish heard rumours of the rich empire of the Aztecs on the mainland to the west of their Caribbean island settlements and, in 1519, Hernán Cortés set sail to explore the Mexican coast.[25] By August 1521 the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan had fallen to the Spanish.[28] The Spanish conquered a large part of Mexico within three years, extending as far south as the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. The newly conquered territory became New Spain, headed by a viceroy who answered to the Spanish Crown via the Council of the Indies.[29] The conquest of Central America that followed was effectively an extension of the campaign that overthrew the Aztec Empire.[30]

Conquistadors

Alvarado.jpeg
Pedro de Alvarado led the initial Spanish incursion into El Salvador.

The conquistadors were all volunteers, the majority of whom did not receive a fixed salary but instead a portion of the spoils of victory, in the form of precious metals, land grants and provision of native labour.[31] Many of the Spanish were already experienced soldiers who had previously campaigned in Europe.[32] A sizeable portion of the Spanish conquistadors were from the southwestern regions of Spain, with their origins in Andalusia and Extremadura. Up to 1519, according to licenses issued in Spain, over half were from these two regions. From 1520 to 1539, this fell to just under half of all conquistadors leaving Spain.[33] The conquest of the Central American isthmus was launched from three directions; Mexico, Panama, and the Caribbean island of Hispaniola. Relations between rival conquistadors were dominated by mutual distrust, greed, and envy.[34]

The conquistadors were accompanied by a great many indigenous allies. These included Tlaxcaltecs, Mexicas, Cholutecs, Xochimilcos, Texcocanos, and Huejotzincas that accompanied Pedro de Alvarado from central Mexico, Zapotecs and Mixtecs that joined him as he marched south towards Guatemala and El Salvador, and Kaqchikels that joined him in Guatemala.[33]

A key strategy was the establishment of colonial towns across the territories that underwent the process of conquest and colonisation; they were used to project Spanish power over the surrounding countryside.[35] The Spanish were particularly horrified by the Mesoamerican religious practice of human sacrifice, prompting them to attempt to eradicate the native religion.[10]

Spanish weapons and armour

The steel sword was the greatest Spanish advantage in terms of weaponry.[36] The conquistadors employed broadswords, rapiers, firearms (including the arquebus), crossbows and light artillery such as the falconet.[37] An important Spanish advantage was the use of war horses; their deployment often terrified the native inhabitants of the Americas, who had never seen horses until European contact. As important as the physical advantage given to a mounted conquistador was the ability to rapidly move bodies of troops across a battlefield to outmaneuver their opponents, who were exclusively on foot. Repeated mounted charges could have a devastating impact on massed native infantry.[38] The Spanish also employed fierce war dogs in battle.[39] When laying siege to native fortresses, they would on occasion build wooden siege engines padded with cotton armour, which would act to shield attackers from enemy missiles, and allow them to climb over any fortifications.[40] Mounted conquistadors were armed with a 3.7-metre (12 ft) lance, that also served as a pike for infantrymen. A variety of halberds and bills were also employed. As well as the one-handed broadsword, a 1.7-metre (5.5 ft) long two-handed version was also used.[41] Crossbows had 0.61-metre (2 ft) arms stiffened with hardwoods, horn, bone and cane, and supplied with a stirrup to facilitate drawing the string with a crank and pulley.[42] Crossbows were easier to maintain than matchlocks, especially in a humid tropical climate.[43]

Metal armour was of limited use in the hot, wet tropical climate. It was heavy and had to be constantly cleaned to prevent rusting; in direct sunlight, metal armour became unbearably hot. Conquistadores often went without metal armour, or only donned it immediately prior to battle.[44] They were quick to adopt quilted cotton armour based upon that used by their native opponents, and commonly combined this with the use of a simple metal war hat.[45] Shields were considered essential by both infantry and cavalry; generally this was a circular target shield, convex in form and fashioned from iron or wood. Rings secured it to the arm and hand.[41]

Impact of Old World diseases

Diseases introduced to the Americas by the conquistadors had a great impact upon indigenous populations. As the Spanish were occupied with the conquest of Mexico, these diseases ran ahead of them from 1519 onwards.[46] A smallpox epidemic swept through Guatemala in 1520–1521, and is also likely to have spread throughout the Pipil region of El Salvador.[47] By the time the Spanish arrived in the area in 1524, it is estimated that up to 50% of the native population of El Salvador had already been eliminated by the new diseases, against which they had no immunity.[46] It is likely that disease had significantly weakened the Pipil by the time they fielded large armies against the Spanish at Acajutla and Tacuzcalco.[47] Further waves of epidemic diseases spread across Mesoamerica in 1545–1548, and again in 1576–1581, reducing indigenous populations to just 10% of their pre-contact levels,[48] making successful resistance against the European colonisers extremely difficult.[46] The deadliest of the newly introduced diseases were smallpox, malaria, measles, typhus, and yellow fever.[49] Their introduction was catastrophic in the Americas; it is estimated that 90% of the indigenous population had been eliminated by disease within the first century of European contact.[50]

Spanish discovery of El Salvador

El Salvador principal Spanish invasion routes
Principal expedition routes of the Spanish conquest of El Salvador

Gil González Dávila and Andrés Niño first explored the coast of El Salvador in 1522 as they sailed northwest along the Pacific coast of Central America from Panama, and briefly landed in the Bay of Fonseca.[51] El Salvador fell in a frontier region between rival conquests launched southward from Mexico under the command of Hernán Cortés and his trusted lieutenant Pedro de Alvarado, and northward from Panama under the command of Pedrarias Dávila.[46]

Conquest

The territory now incorporated into El Salvador was not politically unified at the time of Spanish contact. As with neighbouring regions, this hindered the progress of incorporation into the Spanish Empire, as each small kingdom had to be overcome in turn; this contrasted with Mexico where a large empire had been rapidly overcome with the fall of its capital, Tenochtitlan. As Spanish authority gradually spread out from Mexico and Panama, this left El Salvador in an intermediate region temporarily beyond Spanish control.[49] Spanish colonial towns were founded according to the whim of individual conquistadors, with no formal planning of their location or of communication routes between them, often leaving them isolated. In 1548, El Salvador was formally placed within the jurisdiction of the Audiencia Real of Guatemala, which extended along the Central American isthmus from Chiapas, now in southern Mexico, to Costa Rica.[52]

First expeditions, 1524–1528

Pedro de Alvarado entered El Salvador from Guatemala in the rain season of 1524, leading an army of 250 Spaniards, 100 of which were mounted, and 5000 Guatemalan allies. The invaders overcame the natives in pitched battles and fought off guerrilla attacks on their forces.[49] Alvarado crossed the Río Paz from Guatemala on 6 June 1524,[53] and arrived at Mopicalco, in what is now the department of Ahuachapán, to find it abandoned.[54] They continued to Acatepeque, where the inhabitants had also fled the approaching Spanish expedition.

Battle of Acajutla, 1524

Acajutla, El Salvador - panoramio (8)
Acajutla is located on El Salvador's coastal plain.

From Acatepeque, the Spanish expedition proceeded to Acajutla, on the Pacific coast. On 8 June 1524,[55] they met with a massed native force, arrayed for battle half a league (approximately 2 kilometres (1.2 mi)) beyond the settlement. Alvarado's army initially approached close to the waiting warriors, before feigning a retreat towards a nearby hill. The native forces pursued for a quarter of a league, arriving within bow-shot of the invaders, at which point Alvarado ordered both cavalry and infantry to charge. In the battle that followed, the defending natives were killed to a man.[56] Alvarado described how the natives were so encumbered by their thick cotton armour and their weapons, that when they fell they were unable to stand back up to defend themselves. Many Spaniards were wounded in the battle, and Alvarado was seriously injured by an arrow that passed through his leg, he needed much time to recover and was left with a permanent limp.[20] The Spanish rested in Acajutla for five days after the battle, in order to rest and recover from their wounds.[57]

Battle of Tacuzcalco, 1524

Six days after the battle, Alvarado marched northeast searching for the city of Tacuzcalco,[58] some 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) from Acajutla,[59] in the modern department of Sonsonate.[60] Pedro de Portocarrero led a group of mounted scouts that managed to capture two native lookouts, from whom they learned that a large native army had gathered near the city, with forces gathered from the surrounding area. The Spanish scouts advanced until they found the enemy, then waited for the vanguard of forty cavalry led by Gonzalo de Alvarado. Pedro de Alvarado was travelling in the rearguard, slowed by his wounds. Alvarado watched the battle unfold from a nearby viewpoint, and left command in the hands of his brothers. He sent Gómez de Alvarado with twenty cavalry to attack the left flank, and Gonzalo de Alvarado with thirty cavalry against the right flank. He sent Jorge de Alvarado with the rest of his men against a mass of warriors that was still distant but they stood off for a time, believing that the two forces were separated by a swamp. As soon as the Spanish discovered that the apparent swamp was in fact solid ground, they charged the enemy and routed them, killing a great many.[61] After this battle, the Pipil refused to confront the Spanish upon an open battlefield, and resorted to guerilla tactics.[59]

Retreat to Guatemala, 1524

Alvarado rested two days at Tazuzcalco, before proceeding to Miahuaclan, which had been abandoned by its inhabitants, then on to Atehuan (modern Ateos, near the Pipil city of Cuscatlan, capital of the province of the same name). Messengers from the lords of Cuscatlan brought promises of submission to the King of Spain, but when Pedro de Alvarado's army arrived at the city, he found that the majority of the inhabitants had fled.[21] Alvarado sent messengers to them, ordering them to return and submit, but they refused.[62] Alvarado tried them in their absence, and condemned them to death; he branded all the Pipil prisoners as slaves.[63]

Although the Spanish had won decisive victories at Sonsonate and Acajutla, they failed to take the fortified Pipil cities of Cuscatlan and Izalco.[49] Alvarado was informed that extensive lands lay ahead, with difficult terrain, many cities, and large populations.[63] Frustrated by the lack of progress, Alvarado withdrew to Guatemala to regroup, with the intention of returning in the dry season;[49] He had been in the province of Cuscatlan for seventeen days,[63] and left it at the end of June 1524.[64]

Founding of San Salvador

Gonzalo de Alvarado founded the settlement of Villa de San Salvador in early 1525,[16] before May of that year,[65] but it was attacked and destroyed by natives in 1526,[16] during a general Pipil uprising that engulfed the province of Cuscatlan.[66] Diego de Alvarado, who was Pedro de Alvarado's cousin, was sent to reconquer Cuscatlan in the same year;[67] he was accompanied by 300 Indian auxiliaries from Soconusco, 160 of whom died in the campaign.[68] He was joined by Pedro de Alvarado after the latter returned from an expedition to Chiapas.[65] By 1526, the territory of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras was racked by indigenous wars against the Spanish invaders.[69] Izalco did not join the general uprising, having been militarily exhausted by the battles of Acajutla and Tacuzcalco.[59] The campaign that followed lasted two years, during which the Spanish battled continually against indigenous resistance.[70] During this time, the natives defended themselves from fortified mountain strongholds.[71] Pedro de Alvarado undertook further expeditions to El Salvador in 1526 and 1528.[16] In 1528, the conquest of Cuscatlan was completed,[71] with the aid of a significant body of Nahua allies from central and southern Mexico.[72] On 1 April 1528,[73] Diego de Alvarado reestablished San Salvador, and distributed encomienda rights among his supporters.[16] This site is now known as Ciudad Vieja, and is situated 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) south of Suchitoto.[73] The location may have been chosen because it occupied a no-man's-land between the territory of the Pipil to the west, the Lenca to the east, and the Ch'orti' to the north.[74] For the first few years, San Salvador was a frontier town under the constant threat of indigenous attack.[69] Soon after the town was re-founded, a Spaniard and some indigenous auxiliaries were killed when visiting a nearby settlement.[75]

Battle of Cinacantan, 1528

16th century El Salvador
Map of the principal settlements and battles of the conquest of El Salvador

The uprising around San Salvador was put down about a month later, when the Spanish stormed the mountaintop stronghold at Cinacantan,[75] 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) south of the modern town of Tamanique.[76] The hostile natives had retreated to their stronghold after their earlier attack.[77] The uprising was considered the first native rebellion in Cuscatlan, since the initial invasion had already taken place, and San Salvador founded as a Spanish town. A Spanish column was despatched from San Salvador, led by Diego de Alvarado and supported by indigenous auxiliaries.[78] They found three or four allied native groups had set up a defensive position upon the strongly-fortified Peñol de Cinacantan ("Rock of Cinacantan", now known as Cerro Redondo);[77] at least one of the groups was Pipil, and possibly all of them.[40] The sides of the fortress were shear, except for a single approach that was strongly defended.[77] As the Spanish party attempted to storm the fortress, the natives threw rocks down upon them, and showered them with arrows and spears.[79] On the first day, Spanish assaults were twice beaten back.[77] Seeing that the fortress could not easily be taken, the Spanish built a wooden siege engine, which greatly impressed the defenders.[79] One of the native lords called a truce and asked the Spanish to return to San Salvador, and promised that the rebellious Indians would arrive to swear loyalty to the King of Spain. The attackers believed this to be a trick, and launched a new attack using their newly-built siege tower. They breached the fortifications and killed many of the defenders, while many others fled in terror.[40] Once the fortress had fallen, the defeated Pipil defenders were given in encomienda to the inhabitants of San Salvador; the inhabitants were probably reduced to Tamanique.[80]

Inter-Spanish rivalry, 1529–1530

In 1529, Pedrarias Dávila sent an expedition led by Martín de Estete to annex the territory of El Salvador to his domains in neighbouring Nicaragua,[16] going so far as to distribute the unconquered natives of the Gulf of Fonseca in encomienda to his followers. At the time, Diego de Rojas was in command of the Spanish forces attempting to pacify indigenous resistance centred on Popocatepet. In January or February 1530, Martín de Estete captured Rojas, and marched on San Salvador, but was unable to gain the support of the residents there, and set up camp at Perulapan (modern San Martín Perulapán), just to the south, which he called Ciudad de los Caballeros ("City of the Knights").[66] The acting governor of Guatemala, Francisco de Orduña, sent his captain Francisco López at the head of an expedition to drive out the interlopers.[81] López left Santiago de los Caballeros de Guatemala in March 1530 with thirty cavalry, and an unspecified body of infantry. The residents of San Salvador rose up in arms to join the relief force; Estete abandoned his camp and retreated towards Nicaragua, taking with him 2000 enslaved Cuzcatlecos. López pursued Estete and caught up with his forces after crossing the Lempa River. Estete and his second-in-command fled for Nicaragua, and his soldiers surrendered to López. Diego de Rojas was freed, and the slaves recovered. This intervention put an end to Pedrarias Dávila's hopes of securing El Salvador as part of Nicaragua.[82]

Eastern El Salvador, 1530–1538

In order to defend against further rival Spanish incursions from the southeast, Pedro de Alvarado established the Spanish town of San Miguel, which he also used as a base of operations for attacks against the Lenca.[16] A Spanish force commanded by Luis de Moscoso Alvarado, consisting of about 120 Spanish cavalry, accompanied by infantry and Indian auxiliaries, crossed the Lempa River and founded San Miguel on 21 November 1530.[83] In addition to the Spanish colonists, the settlement included Mexica and Tlaxcalan allies, among other Indian auxiliaries.[84] Most of the Spanish population of San Miguel abandoned El Salvador with Pedro de Alvarado when he set out on his expedition to Peru.[16]

Cristóbal de la Cueva, under orders from Jorge de Alvarado in Guatemala, had entered Honduras with about forty men to establish a new port and road to Guatemala, and to put down a native uprising there. He was challenged by Andrés de Cerezeda, governor of Honduras, and eventually marched south to San Miguel with his men,[85] bringing an urgently needed influx of new colonists.[86] San Miguel was refounded as San Miguel de la Frontera by Cristóbal de la Cueva on 15 April 1535.[84] De la Cueva brought the area back within the jurisdiction of Guatemala, although the governor of Honduras vigorously protested.[85] Eastern El Salvador, centred on the town of San Miguel, became the Province of San Miguel,[87] which included the territory of the pre-Columbian province of Chaparrastique.[55]

In early 1537, San Miguel was isolated by a general Lenca uprising that spread south from Honduras.[84] A native army laid siege to San Miguel over the course of three days from 27 March. Their surprise attack caught many of the inhabitants defenceless, and 50–60 Spanish colonists were killed, more than half of the Spaniards then resident in the town. After three days the attackers were repulsed by reinforcements that were passing through from Guatemala en route to Peru, with the help of a detachment from San Salvador under the command of Antonio de Quintanilla.[88] This uprising enveloped the territory of El Salvador, led by the Lenca ruler Lempira, and focused upon the Peñol de Cerquín, about 80 kilometres (50 mi) north of San Salvador, within Honduras.[75] Francisco de Montejo, then governor of Honduras, urgently appealed to San Salvador for reinforcements and supplies.[89] Montejo sent twenty Spaniards supported by native auxiliaries south towards the Valley of Xocorro,[89] within the jurisdictional claim of San Miguel, but a scouting party was captured by the Spaniards resident there, and Montejo's column withdrew back to Honduras;[90] en route to Comayagua they were attacked by a Lenca force, and killed almost to a man.[91]

The inhabitants of San Salvador, alarmed by the uprising engulfing the region, responded by sending a great quantity of weapons, armour, gunpowder, and other supplies to Montejo in Honduras. One hundred Indian auxiliaries were also sent, with one thousand native porters.[92] Further supplies were forthcoming from the embattled residents of San Miguel.[93] By the end of 1538, Lempira's stronghold had been taken by the Spanish,[94] and Montejo crossed from Honduras to San Miguel to assist in putting down continued indigenous resistance in the district.[95]

Colonial organisation

By 1539, the Spanish advances in El Salvador were sufficient that Cuscatlan was considered fully pacified.[96] In the immediate aftermath of the Spanish conquest, the conquistadors sought wealth through slaving and mining, but both of these industries soon faltered, and the colonists instead turned to agriculture.[47] In 1545, San Salvador was moved to its current location,[73] and on 27 September 1546, it was elevated in status to a city. El Salvador originally formed three administrative divisions, those of Sonsonate (Izalcos), San Salvador (Cuscatlan), and San Miguel. Sonsonate was an alcaldía mayor, while San Salvador, San Miguel, and Choluteca (now in Honduras) formed the alcaldía mayor of San Salvador. From 1524, all of these fell within the jurisdiction of Santiago de los Caballeros de Guatemala. In 1542, this jurisdiction was reorganised as the Real Audiencia de Guatemala, and later the Captaincy General of Guatemala. Ecclesiastically, all of El Salvador fell within the Roman Catholic diocese of Guatemala.[96] The native inhabitants of the Izalco region of El Salvador, famed for its prodigious production of cacao, were among the most heavily exploited in the whole Spanish Empire.[97] By the end of the 16th century, this had led to the collapse of cacao production in the province.[98]

Historical sources

The Annals of the Cakchiquels, an indigenous document from the Guatemalan Highlands, contains an account of Pedro de Alvarado's initial incursion into El Salvador.[99] Pedro de Alvarado wrote four letters to Hernán Cortés describing his conquest of Guatemala and El Salvador, of which two survive. One of these relates his expedition into El Salvador, with an eye to military detail. It is of particular use in its description of tactics and weaponry, although it is disdainful of the native culture.[100]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Sharer and Traxler 2006, p. 766.
  2. ^ a b Pérez 2016, p. 5.
  3. ^ Peréz 2016, p. xi.
  4. ^ Boland 2001, p. 3.
  5. ^ a b c Peréz 2016, p. 1.
  6. ^ Peréz 2016, pp. 1–2.
  7. ^ a b c Peréz 2016, p. 2.
  8. ^ Boland 2001, p. 5.
  9. ^ Boland 2001, p. 6.
  10. ^ a b c Peterson 1997, p. 25.
  11. ^ White 2009, p. 27.
  12. ^ Boland 2001, pp. 12–13.
  13. ^ a b c Boland 2001, p. 13.
  14. ^ Fowler 1993, p. 182.
  15. ^ White 2009, p. 28.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h Olson and Shadle 1991, p. 199.
  17. ^ Boland 2001, p. 13. Rivas 1993, 2000, p. 42.
  18. ^ Boland 2001, p. 13. Fowler 1988, pp. 113, 115.
  19. ^ White 2009, p. 31. Recinos 1952, 1986, pp. 89–90.
  20. ^ a b Recinos 1952, 1986, pp. 89–90.
  21. ^ a b Recinos 1952, 1986, p. 92.
  22. ^ Gallardo 2014, pp. 74–75.
  23. ^ Feldman 2000, p. xix.
  24. ^ Nessler 2016, p. 4.
  25. ^ a b Smith 1996, 2003, p. 272.
  26. ^ Barahona 1991, p. 69.
  27. ^ Deagan 1988, p. 199.
  28. ^ Smith 1996, 2003, p. 276.
  29. ^ Coe and Koontz 2002, p. 229.
  30. ^ Barahona 1991, pp. 69–70.
  31. ^ Polo Sifontes 1986, pp. 57–58.
  32. ^ Polo Sifontes 1986, p. 62.
  33. ^ a b Gallardo 2013, p. 107.
  34. ^ Stone 1990, p. 51.
  35. ^ Gallardo 2013, pp. 105, 109.
  36. ^ Restall and Fernández Armesto 2012, location 1576.
  37. ^ Pohl and Hook 2008, pp. 26, 62. Gallardo 2014, p. 77.
  38. ^ Wise and McBride 1980, 2008, pp. 9–10.
  39. ^ Johnson 2009, p. 76. Pohl and Robinson 2005, pp 95–96. Restall and Fernández Armesto 2012, location 1585.
  40. ^ a b c Gallardo 2014, p. 77.
  41. ^ a b Pohl and Hook 2008, p. 26.
  42. ^ Pohl and Hook 2008, pp. 26–27.
  43. ^ Pohl and Hook 2008, p. 27.
  44. ^ Pohl and Hook 2008, p. 23.
  45. ^ Pohl and Hook 2008, p. 16, 26.
  46. ^ a b c d White 2009, p. 32.
  47. ^ a b c Fowler 1993, p. 185.
  48. ^ White 2009, pp. 32–33.
  49. ^ a b c d e White 2009, p. 33.
  50. ^ Coe 1999, p. 231.
  51. ^ White 2009, p. 32. Barahona 1991, p. 70. Newson 1986, 2007, p. 144.
  52. ^ Giusto and Iuliano 1989 p. 9.
  53. ^ Recinos 1952, 1986, pp. 88–89. Boland 2001, p. 14.
  54. ^ Recinos 1952, 1986, pp. 88–89.
  55. ^ a b Boland 2001, p. 14.
  56. ^ Recinos 1952, 1986, p. 89.
  57. ^ Recinos 1952, 1986, p. 90.
  58. ^ Recinos 1952, 1986, pp. 90–91.
  59. ^ a b c Fowler 1993, p. 184.
  60. ^ Tous i Mata 1997, p. 205.
  61. ^ Recinos 1952, 1986, p. 91.
  62. ^ Recinos 1952,1986, pp. 92–93.
  63. ^ a b c Recinos 1952,1986, p. 93.
  64. ^ Recinos 1952, 1986, p. 97.
  65. ^ a b Matthew 2012, p. 84.
  66. ^ a b Vallejo García-Hevia 2008, p. 206.
  67. ^ Amaroli 1991, p. 61.
  68. ^ Matthew 2012, pp. 84–85.
  69. ^ a b Gallardo 2013, p. 109.
  70. ^ Amaroli 1991, pp. 61–62.
  71. ^ a b Amaroli 1991, p. 62.
  72. ^ Matthew 2012, p. 87.
  73. ^ a b c Gallardo 2013, p. 106.
  74. ^ Gallardo 2013, pp. 109–110.
  75. ^ a b c Gallardo 2013, p. 110.
  76. ^ Gallardo 2014 p. 62.
  77. ^ a b c d Gallardo 2014, p. 76.
  78. ^ Gallardo 2014, p. 75.
  79. ^ a b Gallardo 2014, pp. 76–77.
  80. ^ Gallardo 2014, pp. 79–80.
  81. ^ Vallejo García-Hevia 2008, pp. 204–206.
  82. ^ Vallejo García-Hevia 2008, p. 207.
  83. ^ Vallejo García-Hevia 2008, pp. 207, 380.
  84. ^ a b c Vallejo García-Hevia 2008, p. 380.
  85. ^ a b Chamberlain 1953, 1966, p. 33.
  86. ^ Chamberlain 1953, 1966, p. 34.
  87. ^ Vallejo García-Hevia 2008, pp. 161, 380.
  88. ^ Vallejo García-Hevia 2008, p. 381.
  89. ^ a b Chamberlain 1953, 1966, p. 83.
  90. ^ Chamberlain 1953, 1966, p. 84.
  91. ^ Chamberlain 1953, 1966, pp. 84–85.
  92. ^ Gallardo 2013, p. 110. Chamberlain 1953, 1966, p. 87.
  93. ^ Chamberlain 1953, 1966, pp. 87–88.
  94. ^ Chamberlain 1953, 1966, pp. 89–90.
  95. ^ Chamberlain 1953, 1966, p. 95.
  96. ^ a b Dalton 1989, 1997, p. 26.
  97. ^ Fowler 1993, p. 181.
  98. ^ Fowler 1993, p. 197.
  99. ^ Fowler 1985, p. 41.
  100. ^ Fowler 1985, pp. 42-43.

References

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Barahona, Marvin (1991) Evolución histórica de la identidad nacional (in Spanish). Tegucialpa, Honduras: Editorial Guaymuras. ISBN 99926-28-11-1. OCLC 24399780.
Boland, Roy C. (2001) Culture and Customs of El Salvador. Westport, Connecticut, US and London, UK: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-30620-6. (Full text via Questia.)
Chamberlain, Robert Stoner (1966) [1953] The Conquest and Colonization of Honduras: 1502–1550. New York, US: Octagon Books. OCLC 640057454.
Coe, Michael D. (1999). The Maya. Ancient peoples and places series (6th ed.). London, UK and New York, US: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-28066-5. OCLC 59432778.
Coe, Michael D.; with Rex Koontz (2002). Mexico: from the Olmecs to the Aztecs (5th ed.). London, UK and New York, US: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-28346-X. OCLC 50131575.
Dalton, Roque (1997) [1989]. El Salvador (monografía) (in Spanish). 9th edition. San Salvador, El Salvador: UCA Editores. OCLC 53932968.
Deagan, Kathleen (June 1988). "The Archaeology of the Spanish Contact Period in the Caribbean". Journal of World Prehistory Vol. 2, No. 2: 187–233. Springer. JSTOR 25800541.  – via JSTOR (subscription required).
Feldman, Lawrence H. (2000). Lost Shores, Forgotten Peoples: Spanish Explorations of the South East Maya Lowlands. Durham, North Carolina, US: Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-2624-8. OCLC 254438823.
Fowler, William R. Jr. (Winter 1985). "Ethnohistoric Sources on the Pipil-Nicarao of Central America: A Critical Analysis". Ethnohistory. Duke University Press. 32 (1): 37–62. ISSN 0014-1801. JSTOR 482092. OCLC 478130795. Retrieved 2017-06-27.
Fowler, William R. Jr. (1988). "La población nativa de El Salvador al momento de la conquista española" (in Spanish). Mesoamérica 15 (June 1988): 79–116. Antigua Guatemala, Guatemala and South Woodstock, Vermont, US: El Centro de Investigaciones Regionales de Mesoamérica (CIRMA) in conjunction with Plumsock Mesoamerican Studies.
Fowler, William R. (1993). "The Living Pay for the Dead: Trade, Exploitation, and Social Change in Early Colonial Izalco, El Salvador". In J. Daniel Rogers, Samual M. Wilson (eds.) Ethnohistory and Archaeology: Approaches to Postcontact Change in the Americas.
Gallardo, Roberto (2013). "El origen de la identidad salvadoreña. Etnicidad en la antigua Villa de San Salvador" (in Spanish). Revista de Museología "Kóot" 1: 101–116. San Salvador, El Salvador: Universidad Tecnológica de El Salvador. ISSN 2307-3942.
Gallardo Mejía, Francisco Roberto (2014). "El sitio arqueológico Cinacantan: Primer levantamiento indígena en Cuscatlán" (in Spanish). Revista de Museología "Kóot" 5: 61–85. San Salvador, El Salvador: Universidad Tecnológica de El Salvador. ISSN 2307-3942.
Giusto, Vicente Jorge; and Rolando Iuliano (1989). "Aportes Para Una Historia Socio-economica De El Salvador: Desde La Colonia Hasta La Crisis Del Mercado Comun Centroamericano" (in Spanish). Revista de Historia de América, no. 108: 5–71. Mexico City, Mexico: Pan American Institute of Geography and History. (Full text via JSTOR.)
Johnson, S. E. (2009) ""You Should Give them Blacks to Eat": Waging Inter-American Wars of Torture and Terror." American Quarterly, vol. 61 no. 1, pp. 65–92. doi:10.1353/aq.0.0068. (Full text via Project MUSE.)
Matthew, Laura E. (2012). Memories of Conquest: Becoming Mexicano in Colonial Guatemala (hardback). First Peoples. Chapel Hill, North Carolina, US: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-8078-3537-1. OCLC 752286995.
Nessler, Graham T. (2016). An Islandwide Struggle for Freedom: Revolution, Emancipation, and Reenslavement in Hispaniola 1789–1809. Chapel Hill, North Carolina, US: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-1-4696-2687-1. OCLC 945632920.
Newson, Linda (2007) [1986]. El Costo de la Conquista (in Spanish). Tegucigalpa, Honduras: Editorial Guaymuras. ISBN 99926-15-57-5.
Olson, James S.; and Robert Shadle (1991). Historical Dictionary of European Imperialism. Westport, Connecticut, US: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-415-08836-4. (Full text via Questia.)
Pérez, Orlando J. (2016) Historical Dictionary of El Salvador. Lanham, Maryland, US and Plymouth, Devon, UK: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9780810880191. OCLC 942611084
Peterson, Anna L. (1997) Martyrdom and the Politics of Religion: Progressive Catholicism in El Salvador's Civil War. Albany, New York, US: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-3182-7. OCLC 34150172
Pohl, John; and Adam Hook (2008) [2001]. The Conquistador 1492–1550. Warrior. 40. Oxford, UK and New York, US: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84176-175-6. OCLC 47726663.
Pohl, John; and Charles M. Robinson III (2005). Aztecs & Conquistadors: The Spanish invasion & the collapse of the Aztec Empire. Oxford, UK and New York, US: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-934-7.
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Recinos, Adrian (1986) [1952]. Pedro de Alvarado: Conquistador de México y Guatemala (in Spanish) (2nd ed.). Guatemala City, Guatemala: CENALTEX Centro Nacional de Libros de Texto y Material Didáctico "José de Pineda Ibarra". OCLC 243309954.
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Rivas, Ramón D. (2000) [1993]. Pueblos Indígenas y Garífuna de Honduras: Una caracterización (in Spanish). Tegucigalpha, Honduras: Editorial Guaymuras. Colección CÓDICES (Ciencias Sociales). ISBN 99926-15-53-2. OCLC 30659634
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Tous i Mata, Meritxell (1997). "El patrimonio arquitectónico histórico-artístico de Santa Ana y Sonsonate, El Salvador" (in Spanish). Boletín americanista 47: 203–214. Barcelona, Spain: Universitat de Barcelona. ISSN 0520-4100.
Vallejo García-Hevia (2008). Juicio a un conquistador: Pedro de Alvarado: su proceso de residencia en Guatemala (1536–1538) (in Spanish). Volume 1. Madrid, Spain: Marcial Pons, Ediciones de Historia. ISBN 978-84-96467-68-2. OCLC 745512698.
White, Christopher M. (2009). The History of El Salvador. Greenwood histories of the modern nations. Westport, Connecticut, US and London, UK: Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-34928-7. OCLC 428700291. ISSN 1096-2905. (Full text via Questia.)
Wise, Terence; and Angus McBride (2008) [1980]. The Conquistadores. Men-at-Arms. 101. Oxford, UK and New York, US: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-0-85045-357-7. OCLC 12782941.

Further reading

Fowler, William R. (2007). The End of Pre-Columbian Pipil Civilization, Ciudad Vieja, El Salvador. Los Angeles, US: Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies (FAMSI), Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA). Archived from the original on 2015-05-31.
Salgado Zelaya, Róger Antonio (2008). "Defensa territorial y maritima de Nicaragua en el mar Caribe: efectos de la resolución de la Corte Centroamericana de Justicia en el marco del Sistema de la Integración Centroamericana" (in Spanish) pp. 8, 28. Doctoral dissertation. León, Nicaragua: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Nicaragua – León.
Battle of Acajutla

The Battle of Acajutla was a battle on June 8, 1524, between the Spanish conquistador Pedro de Alvarado and the standing army of Cuscatlan Pipils, an indigenous state, in the neighborhood of present-day Acajutla, near the coast of western El Salvador.

San Miguel Department (El Salvador)

San Miguel is a department in the eastern part of El Salvador. The capital is San Miguel. The department is 2,077 km² in area and has a population of over 678,000.

Before the Spanish conquest of El Salvador, the territory that now consists of the departments of San Miguel, La Unión and Morazán was the Lenca kingdom of Chaparrastique (Place of Beautiful Orchids).San Miguel was first known as San Miguel de la Frontera. The city was founded by Luis de Moscoso on May 8, 1530, where it is now Santa Elena. On July 11, 1812 the city was given the title of "Noble y Leal Ciudad" (noble and loyal city). It was made a department on June 12, 1824.

It is the location of Ciudad Barrios, the birthplace of Archbishop Óscar Romero.

Spanish colonization of the Americas

The overseas expansion under the Crown of Castile was initiated under the royal authority and first accomplished by the Spanish conquistadors. The Americas were incorporated into the Spanish Empire, with the exception of Brazil, Canada, the eastern United States and several other small countries in South America and The Caribbean. The crown created civil and religious structures to administer the region. The motivations for colonial expansion were trade and the spread of the Catholic faith through indigenous conversions.

Beginning with the 1492 arrival of Christopher Columbus in the Caribbean and continuing control of vast territory for over three centuries, the Spanish Empire would expand across the Caribbean Islands, half of South America, most of Central America and much of North America (including present day Mexico, Florida and the Southwestern and Pacific Coastal regions of the United States). It is estimated that during the colonial period (1492–1832), a total of 1.86 million Spaniards settled in the Americas and a further 3.5 million immigrated during the post-colonial era (1850–1950); the estimate is 250,000 in the 16th century, and most during the 18th century as immigration was encouraged by the new Bourbon Dynasty. In contrast, the indigenous population plummeted by an estimated 80% in the first century and a half following Columbus's voyages, primarily through the spread of Afro-Eurasian diseases. This has been argued to be the first large-scale act of genocide in the modern era, although this claim is largely disputed due to the unintended nature of the disease introduction, which is considered a byproduct of Columbian exchange. Racial mixing was a central process in the Spanish colonization of the Americas, and ultimately led to the Latin American identity, which combines Hispanic, native American and often African ethnicities.

Spain enjoyed a cultural golden age in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries when silver and gold from American mines increasingly financed a long series of European and North African wars. In the early 19th century, the Spanish American wars of independence resulted in the secession and subsequent balkanization of most Spanish colonies in the Americas, except for Cuba and Puerto Rico, which were finally given up in 1898, following the Spanish–American War, together with Guam and the Philippines in the Pacific. Spain's loss of these last territories politically ended the Spanish rule in the Americas.

Spanish conquest of Honduras

The Spanish conquest of Honduras was a 16th-century conflict during the Spanish colonization of the Americas in which the territory that now comprises the Republic of Honduras, one of the five states of Central America, was incorporated into the Spanish Empire. In 1502, the territory was claimed for the king of Spain by Christopher Columbus on his fourth and final trip to the New World. The territory that now comprises Honduras was inhabited by a mix of indigenous peoples straddling a transitional cultural zone between Mesoamerica to the northwest, and the Intermediate Area to the southeast. Indigenous groups included Maya, Lenca, Pech, Miskito, Sumu, Jicaque, Pipil and Chorotega. Two indigenous leaders are particularly notable for their resistance against the Spanish; the Maya leader Sicumba, and the Lenca ruler referred to as Lempira (a title meaning "Lord of the Mountain").

In March 1524, Gil González Dávila became the first Spaniard to arrive in what is now Honduras with the intention of conquest. He founded the first Spanish port upon the Caribbean coast, Puerto de Caballos, which became an important staging post for later expeditions. The early decades of the Spanish conquest of Honduras were beset by jurisdictional disputes between different Spanish colonies attempting to invade the territory, which resulted in conflict between rival expeditions launched from Mexico, Hispaniola, and Panama. The Spanish territory was reorganised as Higueras in the west, and Honduras in the east. As the Spanish became established throughout Central America, the colony of Honduras-Higueras became involved in territorial disputes with neighbouring colonies in Nicaragua, Guatemala and El Salvador.

From 1530, the colonists became the arbiters of power, installing and deposing governors. Spanish government in Honduras was riven by factionalism. As a response to the growing anarchy, the colonists requested that Pedro de Alvarado intervene. Alvarado arrived in 1536, put an end to the political infighting, and gained an important victory over Sicumba, a Maya leader in the Ulúa valley. Alvarado founded two towns that later became important, San Pedro de Puerto Caballos (later to become San Pedro Sula) and Gracias a Dios.

In 1537, Francisco de Montejo was appointed governor. As soon as he arrived in Honduras, he cancelled the land distribution carried out by Alvarado. In that year, a great native uprising spread throughout Honduras, led by the Lenca ruler Lempira. Lempira held out for six months at his formidable stronghold at the Peñol de Cerquín ("Rock of Cerquín") before he was killed, during which time the uprising across Honduras threatened the existence of the Spanish colony. After Lempira's death, Montejo and his captain Alonso de Cáceres rapidly imposed Spanish dominion across most of Honduras; the main phase of the Spanish conquest was complete by 1539, although Olancho and the east were not brought within the Spanish Empire for some decades to come.

Spanish conquest of Nicaragua

The Spanish conquest of Nicaragua was the campaign undertaken by the Spanish conquistadores against the natives of the territory now incorporated into the modern Central American republic of Nicaragua during the colonisation of the Americas. Before European contact in the early 16th century, Nicargua was inhabited by a number of indigenous peoples. In the west, these included Mesoamerican groups such as the Chorotega, the Nicarao, and the Subtiaba. Other groups included the Matagalpa and the Tacacho.

Gil González Dávila first entered what is now Nicaragua in 1522, with the permission of Pedrarias Dávila, governor of Castilla de Oro (modern Panama) but was driven back to his ships by the Chorotega. In 1524, a new expedition led by Francisco Hernández de Córdoba founded the Spanish towns of León and Granada. The western portions of Nicaragua along the Pacific littoral plain received the brunt of the Spanish activity in the territory for the next three decades. Within a century of the conquest, the native inhabitants had been all but eliminated due to war, disease, and exportation as slaves.

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