The Spanish–Moro Conflict (Filipino: Sagupaang Kastila-Moro) was a series of wars lasting over several centuries from the beginning of Spanish colonization of the Philippines, to the Spanish–American War when Spain finally began to subjugate Moroland after centuries of failing to do so.
Christian Filipinos, who served under the Spanish Army in Mindanao, searching for Moro rebels c. 1887.
|Commanders and leaders|
Various Kings of Spain|
Various Governor-Generals of the Philippines
Various sultans of Sulu|
Various sultans of Maguindanao
|Spanish and Christian Filipino soldiers||Moro Fighters, Chinese rebels|
The Moros had a history of resistance against Spanish, American, and Japanese rule for over 400 years. The violent armed struggle against the Japanese, Filipinos, Spanish, and Americans is considered by current Moro(Muslim) leaders as part of the four-century-long "national liberation movement" of the Bangsamoro (Moro Nation). The 400-year-long resistance against the Japanese, Americans, and Spanish by the Moro Muslims persisted and morphed into their current war for independence against the Philippine state.
The Spanish initiated the conflict by conquering the Philippines and invading Moro territory in an effort to subjugate the region to their rule since the 1500s. When the Spanish conquered the Muslim Kingdom of Maynila, a vassal of the Sultanate of Brunei, the Islamic rajah, Rajah Sulayman resisted the Spanish. Manila then became the capital of the Spanish Philippines after the conquest, with the Spanish forcibly converting people to Catholicism. The Spanish–Moro Wars started with the Castille War, a war between Spaniards and the Sultanate of Brunei. (The term Moro at this time included Muslim Tagalogs who were ruled by the Sultanate of Brunei).
Following the reconquista, a period during which Spanish and Christian culture were restored to those areas of Spain invaded by the Umayyad Caliphate, the Inquisition required Jews and Muslims to convert to Roman Catholicism, or face exile or the death penalty. Thus, the Spaniards tried to suppress Islam in areas they conquered. To this end, they attacked the Moro Muslim sultanates in the south at Mindanao. The Moro Datus and sultans raided and pillaged Spanish towns in the northern Philippine islands in retaliation for Spanish attacks, and terrorized the Spanish invaders with constant piracy. The Spanish were prepared to conquer Mindanao and the Moluccas after establishing forts in 1635, but the Chinese threatened the Spanish with invasion, forcing them to pull back to defend Manila. Several thousand Chinese who were evicted by the Spanish joined the Moros.
The Moros(Muslims) were a people with a tradition of fighting called juramentados by the Spanish, battling Spanish invaders to the death.
Although the Spanish defeated the Sultanate of Brunei in 1578, the Spanish did not succeed against the fierce Moro sultanates until the late 19th century. The Chinese dominated the economy of the Moro sultanates in the 19th century, controlling trading centers and the shipping trade between other parts of South East Asia and Mindanao. The Chinese sold weapons to the Moro sultanates during this time and the Spanish imposed a blockade to try to stop the supply of rifles from the Chinese to the Moros. The Spanish also destroyed and burned Chinese property after their conquest of the Sulu sultanate due to the arms shipping.
The Moros maintained their independence up to the Spanish–American War, after which they fought the Americans in a long insurgency.
The Chinese had also rebelled several times against Spanish rule in the Philippines during this period, and the Spanish and Christian Filipinos engaged in massacres against the Chinese out of hatred of the Chinese economic dominance and their numbers.
In 1773, desiring to promote better relations between the Spaniards and the new sultan of Jolo, Anda proposed free trade and Spanish help to expel the British from the Moro territory without interference with the internal government of the sultan, but the Spanish officer failed to observe his instructions and nothing beneficial resulted except further irritation of the Moros. About 4,000 Chinese expelled from Manila in 1758 joined the Jolo Moros.
The Moros declared a jihad against the Spanish and Filipino Christians, to defend themselves against the Spanish invaders who tried to take over Moro territory. The Moros retaliated with major pillaging campaigns and enslaved Filipino Christians after totally razing their villages. Several Moro sultans led these jihads. They defeated Spanish attempts to conquer Mindanao. The Spanish had use their massive numbers to force the Moros to withdraw.
A "culture of jihad" emerged among the Moros due to the centuries long war against the Spanish invaders.
In 1662, Koxinga's Chinese forces raided several towns in the Philippines and demanded tribute from the Spanish colonial government, threatening to attack Manila if his demands were not met. The Spanish refused to pay the tribute and reinforced the garrisons around Manila, but the planned attack never took place due to Koxinga's sudden death in that year after expelling the Dutch on Taiwan.
Koxinga's threat to invade the Philippines and expel the Spanish resulted in the Spanish failure to conquer the Islamic Moro people in Mindanao. The threat of Chinese invasion forced the Spanish to stop their conquest of the Moros and withdraw their garrisons to Manila. Koxinga's death resulted in the invasion being cancelled. The Spanish retreated occurred in 1663. Zamboanga and Mindanao became devoid of Spanish soldiers after the Chinese threat against Manila. The Chinese threat effectively destroyed the Spanish plan to conquer and colonize the Moros in Zamboanga. Governor Bobadilla was the one who conducted the evacuation. Mindanao was just about to be colonised by Christians before Koxinga's planned conquest of the Philippines destroyed the entire Spanish plan to conquer Mindanao. Iligan and Zamboanga were given up by the Spanish.
Throughout 1656, 1657, 1660, and 1662, the Moros attacked and pillaged towns on Spanish-controlled islands, sailing around the area in order to raid. They defeated Spanish attempts to take the fort of Sultan Kudarat. The Spanish had been on the verge of victory over the Moros, before Koxinga's threat and the subsequent Chinese rebellion against the Spanish resulted in the Spanish forces fleeing from the battle with the Moros to defend Manila against the Chinese. The Spanish Governor General Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera brought soldiers from Peru and Mexico and had defeated the Moro Sultan Kudarat and built forts in Moro territory in Zamboanga, reversing previous Moro successes. The people of Manila were celebrating the victories of the Spanish. Koxinga's threat to the Spanish led to Spanish troops in Moro land being withdrawn by Governor Sebastian Manrique de Lara. After this, the Moros essentially had a free rein to attack the Spanish. Zamboanga became devoid of Spanish as they fled to Luzon to defend against the threatened invasion.
The Spanish and the Moros had signed the Jolo treaty to stop hostilities decades before renewed Spanish-Moro hostilities during Koxinga's planned invasion.
Despite the Jolo treaty, the Jolo dato, Salicala, and a dato from Borneo ravaged the Visayan coast. The force of the latter was defeated by Monforte near Masbate, and Salicala returned to Jolo. Monforte destroyed several towns and 300 boats in Borneo. In 1655 trouble again broke out between Corralat and the Spanish forces, the Moros sacking numerous towns in the Calamianes and one town near Zamboanga. In 1656 a fleet dispatched by De Sara, the new captain-general, burned Corralat's town and some Moro towns in Sibuguey Bay, destroying also a Dutch fleet allied with the Moros. The Moros at the same time were ravaging the coasts of Mindoro and Marinduque, and succeeded also in repulsing the attack on the fort at Corralat, forcing the Spaniards to return to Sabonilla and Zamboanga. In 1657 Salicala scoured the Philippine seas, capturing over 1,000 native prisoners, entering the Bay of Manila during the raid. In 1660 Moros from Jolo and Tawi-Tawi, taking advantage of an insurrection in Luzon, raided the costs of Bohol, Leyte, and Mindoro.
In 1662 a Chinese rebellion embarrassed the Spaniards, and at this time several datos from the Jolo and Tawi-Tawi islands sacked and burned a great many towns in the Visayas. Following these inroads, Bobadilla, governor of Zamboanga, was ordered to evacuate that station, which was done in January, 1663.
For the next half century Moro raids on the Mindanao and Visayan settlements marked each year, and many fights were chronicled between the fleets of praus and the Spanish fleet known as the "Armada de los Pintados". The Jesuits had endeavoured in 1666 and 1672 to have the fort of Zamboanga rebuilt, but it was not until 1712 that the Spanish king ordered its reestablishment, and even then the project was not realised until 1718,
While Governor-General Lara was in office another Chinese invasion threatened. A Chinese chieftain named Koxinga, who had been driven forth from his own country by the Tartars, was the leader of it. When the Tartars overran China, about the middle of the seventeenth century, Koxinga and many of his followers refused to submit. They went to Formosa, drove out the Dutch people, and settled there. Later Koxinga laid a plan to take the Philippine Islands and set up his kingdom there.
Koxinga's chief adviser was an Italian friar named Riccio. This friar he had appointed a high mandarin, or nobleman. He now sent him to Manila, dressed in the garb of his office, to demand tribute from the Philippine government.
Naturally this demand caused amazement and alarm in Manila. The Spaniards were aghast at the idea of a Catholic priest demanding tribute from a Catholic country, in the name of a heathen ruler. Later the authorities at Rome called the friar to account for his conduct. At this time, however, the Spanish were at a loss how to act. They did not dare send the priest-mandarin away, nor could they give him any answer. They therefore kept him waiting in Manila while they made up their minds what to do.
As was usual, when trouble arose, the government thought that the Chinese in Manila were plotting to take the city. They felt sure that these men would be ready to help Koxinga when he came, so everything was made ready for another attack upon the Chinese in Luzon.
All government troops, both Spanish and native, were collected at Manila. So great was the fear, that three important forts were torn down, and the soldiers stationed there were brought to Luzon. Only the fort at Caraga, Mindanao, was left standing. This one they did not dare to give up; the soldiers there were all that kept the Moros from destroying the settlements on that coast.
A massacre of the Chinese by the Spanish and Filipinos followed during the rebellion. About 5,000 Chinese remained in Manila after the rebellion and massacre.
After peace was made, Riccio was allowed to go back to Formosa, to tell Koxinga what had been done. He found the chieftain getting ready to come to Manila with an army to take the country, and Riccio told him what had happened.
Koxinga's rage was great when he heard his mandarin's story. He planned to go at once to the islands to punish this wicked cruelty to his countrymen. He fell ill, however, and died of fever before he could start. Thus Manila escaped the fate that must almost surely have fallen upon the city if the Chinese chief and his great army had reached the bay.
The foolish attack upon the Chinese took so many Spanish soldiers from the southern islands that the Moros now had free swing along the coasts of Mindanao and the Visayas.
Exalted by his success against European arms, Koxinga resolved upon the conquest of the Philippines. He summoned to his service the Italian Dominican missionary, Ricci, who had been living in the province of Fukien, and in the spring of 1662 dispatched him as an ambassador to the governor of the Philippines to demand the submission of the archipelago.
Manila was thrown into a terrible panic by this demand, and indeed no such danger had threatened the Spanish in the Philippines since the invasion of Limahong. The Chinese conqueror had an innumerable army, and his armament, stores, and navy had been greatly augmented by the surrender of the Dutch.
After Koxinga's ultimatum, the Spanish proceeded to order all Chinese to leave the Philippines. The Chinese suspected that the Spanish planned to massacre them, so the Chinese rebelled and assaulted Manila to fight the Spanish and Filipinos. The Chinese either died in battle or, escaping by frail boats, joined the Chinese colonists on Formosa. The Spanish razed their own churches and convents in Manila to prevent Chinese from taking shelter in them.
"During this period the raids of the Moros continued. These pirates did much damage. This led to efforts on the part of Spain to conquer these warlike people, which resulted in the conquest of Jolo and the establishment of a stronghold at Zamboanga. In 1662 Koxinga, a Chinese pirate, demanded the surrender of Manila. This danger was so great that the Spaniards concentrated all their efforts to resist the threatened invasions and abandoned some of their strongholds in the south. The Chinese in Manila were suspected of feeing in the plot. They assaulted Manila but many were slain and the remainder left the city. The threatened invasion never was carried out for Koxinga died. The effects of the events cited above left Spanish prestige at a low ebb. Manila was no longer the principal commercial centre of the East and never again recovered that position. The century that followed from 1663-1762 has been described as one of obscurity for the Philippines."
"Another event of importance during the seventeenth century resulted from the overthrow of the Ming Dynasty in China by the Manchus. During the change of power and consequent disorders there, a Chinese adventurer, Koxinga, raised a pirate army in south China and drove the Dutch out of Formosa. He then sent an ambassador to Manila demanding the surrender of the Islands to him. The colony was weak and unprepared for defense, and consequently terrified. There were twenty-five thousand Chinese living in Pari-an, north of the Pasig River, in Manila. Fearful lest these Chinese cooperate in the designs of Koxinga, they were all ordered to leave the Islands. Unable to do so at once, and fearful of massacre, they arose in rebellion and assaulted the city of Manila. The result was a terrible massacre, which cost the lives of twenty-two thousand of the Chinese; the remaining three thousand built frail boats and fled to Formosa. The death of Koxinga occurred before his expedition reached the Philippines."
Koxinga's threat to Spain effectively destroyed the Spanish plan to colonize and conquer Molo territory in Mindanao. It was only in 1718 when they came back to the fort which they evacuated. Mindanao was all Moro after the Spanish left. The Sulu Sultanate was also saved due to Koxinga, the Span ish had left La Caldera Fort.
In 1662 a Chinese rebellion embarrassed the Spaniards, and at this time several datos from the Jolo and Tawi-Tawi islands sacked and burned a great many towns in the Visayas. Following these iuroads, Bobadilla, governor of Zamboanga, was ordered to evacuate that station, which was done in January, 1663.
For three centuries, intermittent attempts were made by the Spaniards to destroy the homes of tihe Moro pirates, who, almost without exception, raided the Spanish colonies throughout the Philippine Islands, south of Luzon, and even occasionally on that island. Many reverses and some successes were met with by the Spanish expeditions against the JoJo ami Mindanao Moros. The names of some of the Spanish Captains-General who figured in these conflicts, and of the Moro chiefs, would convey no significance to those English-speaking people who have not, during the last six or seven years, participated in Moro campaigns. In 1637 Corcuero inaugurated a new conquest of Jolo and of Mindanao. His force consisted of 76b Europeans. He made a landing at Jolo. The following year, he landed at Zamboanga and proceeded past Cattobats up the Rio Grande against the Dato Corralat and the Datos of Buhayen and Basilan. The following year, Corcuero and Almonte built a fort at Sabonflla, now called Malabang, on Plana Bay. During 1639, Spanish soldiers and priests, under the warlike Recoleto friar, Augustin de San Pedro, led a party of 560 against the Lanao Moros, where Camps Vicars and Keithley now stand. In 1642, Generals Corcuero and Almonte made peace with Corralat, but piratical depredations by the Moros continued; Chinese rebellions embarrassed the Spaniards, who evacuated manv places, and many fights were chronicled between the Moro fleets of Praus and the Spanish fleets. Koxinga's son did not take up the task of invading the Philippines after Koxinga's death.
The Spanish built a fort called Real Fuerza de San Jose in Zamboanga under Captain Juan de Chavez in 1635 who led a Christian Spanish Filipino army. Construction started on June 23 of that year.
In 1662 a Chinese rebellion embarrassed the Spaniards, and at this time several datus from the Jolo and Tawi-Tawi islands sacked and burned a great many towns in the Visayas. Following these inroads, Bobadilla, governor of Zamboanga, was ordered to evacuate that station, which was done in January, 1663.
For the next half century Moro raids on the Mindanao and Visayan settlements marked each year, and many fights were chronicled between the fleets of praus and the Spanish fleet known as the "Armada de los Pintados".
The Jesuits had endeavored in 1666 and 1672 to have the fort of Zamboanga rebuilt, but it was not until 1712 that the Spanish King ordered its reestablishment, and even then the project was not realized until 1718, in which year the present fort, with four bastions, was built and the city walls protected. The place was defended by 61 pieces of artillery. The reestablishment of the Zamboanga station caused great discontent among the Moros. It was besieged for two months in 1720 and 1721 by 5,000 Moros under the dato of Butig. The resistance, directed by the governor, Amorrea, was successful, and the siege abandoned, the Moros turning their efforts to raids on Mindoro and the Calamianes, where great damage was done.
In 1724 the Jolo sultan made a treaty of peace with the Spaniards, ceding the island of Basilan. But this same year Manaol, in Mindoro, and Cateel, in Mindanao, were attacked. In 1730 Tay-Tay was sacked and burned by Tawi-Tawi Moros. and the fort at that place unsuccessfully attacked. In 1731 a punitive expedition was sent to Jolo and a number of Moro towns destroyed. In 1734 the Tawi-Tawi Moros attacked and nearly succeeded in capturing Zamboanga. In the same year, and again in 1735, Tay-Tay was again attacked, but the Moros were severely punished in these engagements. In the same year another surprise was attempted at Zamboanga. These actions were supplemented by numerous minor engagements, and were temporarily terminated by a new peace treaty in 1737 with the new sultan of Jolo.
In 1746 letters from King Philip V, addressed to the sultans of Jolo and Tamontaca (Mindanao), requesting that the Christian religion be allowed to be preached in their domains, were received, and upon sending embassies to the sultans the project was apparently well received. In 1748 two Jesuit priests took their station at Jolo, but on account of a family quarrel Bantilan. brother of the Sultan, proclaimed himself as ruler of Jolo during the absence of the sultan at Zamboanga. The deposed Sultan came to Manila in 1749, and in 1750 professed a desire to become a Christian. The archbishop of Manila did not believe in his sincerity, but he was baptized at Paniqui, in another diocese. In 1751 the sultan returned to Jolo, escorted by a Spanish force under Antonio de Abad, with the intention of overthrowing Bantilan. The expedition was unsuccessful and returned to Zamboanga. In the meantime a letter was intercepted from the Sultan of Sulu to the Sultan of Mindanao, and its contents established the infidelity and disloyalty of the Sultan Ali Mudin. He, his family, and his followers, numbering over 200, were imprisoned in Manila and Cavite, and a second expedition was sent against Jolo without result.
During the succeeding two years the Jolo Moros were unmerciful in their raids, which were most extensive. Paragua. Leyte, the north coast of Mindanao, Romblon, Tayabas, Ticao. Mindoro, Culion. and the Calamianes suffered severely. Two towns in Zambales Province were reached by the Moros. In 1754 the raids were repeated in Mindoro, Leyte, and Mindanao, and extended to Cebu. Negros, and Panay; this year Albay and Batangas provinces also were reached. The Spanish had success in these years. In 1753 a fleet of 150 praus was destroyed, with about 2,000 Moros, and 500 captives liberated. In 1754 the fort at Misamis was built. In 1756 it is reported that 2,500 Moros were killed in an attack on a Spanish galley off Batangas. In 1757 the Moros burned the town of Mariveles, in Manila Bay, as well as several towns in the southern islands and the Calamianes, but lost a fleet from Tuboc in an encounter with Spanish galleys.
During these five years the Moro attacks were so persistent and successful that in many of the Visayan towns 50 per cent of the inhabitants were killed or enslaved.
In 1762 the British captured Manila, and, due to this and the rising of the natives of the northern provinces, the Moros renewed their attacks on the southern islands. Continuing for several years, they sacked and burned towns in Sorsogon, Tablas, Sibnyan, Mindoro, Bataan, and Leyte, and in Surigao and Misamis provinces in Mindanao. Even Manila suffered from the raids during this period, 20 captives being secured in Malate. Malabon and Paranaque were also attacked.
In 1771 de Anda, the new captain-general, reorganized the Armada de los Pintados, but the incursions continued. In this year a Spanish friar was captured by a Moro fleet at Aparri, Cagayan. About this time Israel, the son of Ali Mudin, was established in the sultanate of Jolo by the British.
In 1773 Anda,desiring to promote better relations between the Spaniards and the new sultan of Jolo, proposed free trade and Spanish help to expel the British from the Moro territory without interference with the internal government of the sultan, but the Spanish officer failed to observe his instructions and nothing beneficial resulted, save further irritation of the Moros. About 4.000 Chinese expelled from Manila in 1758 joined the Jolo Moros; also a number of Englishmen, the leader of whom, named Brun, was put in charge of the defense. In 1775 the Moros destroyed the British colony on Balambangan, led by the dato, Teteng, who later in the year made an attempt against Zamboanga and, upon its being frustrated, committed great ravages upon the coast of Cebu, and continued this for two years. From 1776 to 1778, during the rule of Governor Pedro Sarrio, the Moros harassed the coast as never before. At this time the Sultan Israel, of Jolo was poisoned by AH Mudin, his cousin. In 1778 the " Light Fleet" dislodged theMoros from their fort at Mamburao, Mindoro, and traffic between Luzon and the southern islands, which had been practically paralyzed for ten years, began to revive. The Sultan of Jolo asked for peace in 1781. In 1781. also, the Mindanao Moros invaded the Visayan Islands, but were defeated.
In 1785 the Moros burned several towns in the Visayas and captured a prau in Bulacan Province, near Manila.
In 1789 the captain-general, Mariquina, informed the King that constant war with the Moros was an evil without remedy. The governor of Iloilo reported more than 400 persons made captives in two towns. In 1792 Boljoon in Cebu and another town in Leyte were burned and 120 of the inhabitants made prisoners. In 1794 expeditions visited Mindoro. and the Jolo Moros became more peaceful, but the Illanaos, living on the bay of Tubug, in Mindanao, and the natives of Tampassooc, on the west coast of Borneo, made constant raids, not only in the Philippines, but also upon the Dutch islands of Banca and Malacca. In 1794 Siroma, in the Camarines, was attacked and many natives of Daet, in the same province, were carried off.
In 1796 the shipyard of San Bias. Mexico, was transferred to Cavite for building the vessels required in the Moro campaigns. From this resulted the naval arsenal at Cavite.
In 1796 the naval lieutenant, Arcillos, was captured and put to death at Sibuguey, and the next year Caraga was attacked by the Moros.
In 1798 Zamboanga was attacked by the British fleet: and in the same year 500 Moros, with 25 praus, fell upon Baler, Casiguran, and Palanan, east coast of Luzon, capturing 450 people. The headquarters of the pirates for years was on Burias Island, from whence they descended upon the neighboring towns. The Spanish ship San Jose was also captured at Tawi-Tawi by the brother of the Sultan of Jolo. and part of its crew sacrificed.
In 1803 the Moros had so ravaged Mindoro that the greater part of the people abandoned the towns for the mountains.
In 1793 to 1794 no headway was made against the pirates, while some of their boats made a landing on the coast of Zambales, north of Manila Bay, and escaped without loss.
At a meeting of the authorities in Manila and persons of the southern islands, it was shown that each year the Moros captured and enslaved about 500 persons.
The expenses from 1778 to the end of 1793 amounted to 1,519,209 pesos fuertes. Six divisions were formed, each of six gunboats and one panco" or prau, and the forts of the Visayas, Mindoro, Tayabas, Batangas, and Zamboanga were repaired. Privateering against the Moros was also made permanent.
In 1805 a treaty was made between the Sultan of Jolo and the Spanish Government whereby it was agreed that no foreign resident would be permitted in Sulu without the consent of the Spanish Government, and that in case of war between Spain and any foreign country the Sultan's ports would be closed against Spain's enemies. From 1806 to 1815 detailed accounts of piratical raids are infrequent.
In 1813 a royal order incorporated the privateer fleet of the Philippines with the royal fleet. In 1815 the raiders took 1.000 natives prisoners and captured several Spanish, British, and Dutch vessels. In 1818 twenty-three Moro praus were captured or destroyed in a naval action off the coast of Albay. but later attacks were made by pirates upon Catanduanes Island and some towns of Albay and Camarines.
In 1824, at Pilas. 21 miles west of Basilan. a Moro fort was taken and severe losses inflicted upon its defenders, among the dead lying the Dato Ipoypo, called "the lash of the Visayas," who each year had carried off more than 500 persons. The expedition also destroyed piratical boats at Jolo, Illana Bay, Polloc, and other parts of Mindanao.
From 1827 to 1835 the records respecting Moro conflicts are meager. In 1836, under Salazar, a treaty (mainly commercial) was made with the Sultan of Jolo. In this same year hostile Moros were dislodged from Masbate.
In 1842 a fort was erected in Basilan. In April 1843, a convention between the Sultan and the French emissary was made. It stipulated for equal rights of trade between the French and Joloan ports, and a later treaty, dated February 20, 1845, ceded the island of Basilan to Franco for the sum of 100,000 pesos. In 1844 the French war ship Sabine arrived at Zamboanga, and the commander notified the Spanish governor, Figueroa, that he had come to investigate the capture of some of his crew by the Maluso Moros: and later three other French vessels, under Vice-Admiral Cecille, arrived and blockaded the island of Basilan, the offender being the Dato Usak. A Spanish force under Bocalan went immediately to Zamboanga, and soon the French raised the blockade. A Spanish fort was built at Pagsanjan, Basilan. Later the Davao country was ceded to the Spaniards by the Sultan of Mindanao. The Davao settlement was made by Jose Oyanguren, who, in 1849, took the fort of Hi jo.
In 1845 a Spanish frigate left Manila for Zamboanga, and from there proceeded to the island of Balanguingui, of the Samales group, where an anchorage was made at the principal port. Colonel Penaranda, secretary to the civil governor of the Philippines, tried to communicate with the dato of the island, but in place of this was ordered to leave at once, and the Moro fort fired upon the Spanish frigate. A landing was made, but the party was obliged to retire with the loss of some men and Commander Rodriguez. At this time this island was the center of piracy in the archipelago, and the visit of the Spanish vessel was to ascertain its means of defense.
In 1848 the English-built steam gunboats El Cano, Magallanes, and Reina de Castilla, with three barkentines, carrying three companies of troops, went to Balanguingui, which was still a center of piracy. The expedition, headed by Claveria in person, anchored off Balanguingui, and an attack was made. After a cannonade from the vessels, three companies and 150 Zamboanga volunteers assaulted the walls and carried the fort after a desperate resistance, the Moros losing 100 killed. The Spanish lost 7 killed and 50 wounded. The next day another fort was captured in the same manner. 340 Moros being killed and 150, mostly women and children, being taken prisoners. The Spaniards lost 1 officer and 15 men killed, 224 wounded, and 22 contused. Seventy-nine pieces of artillery were captured in the two forts and 30 captives rescued. Two smaller forts were also taken, and the towns of Buasugan, Suitan, Pahat, and Padanan destroyed.
In 1848 two Dutch corvettes, being denied the return of some captives by the Sultan of Jolo, cannonaded the forts there for twenty-four hours.
In 1849 the British war ship Meander, Captain Kepple, with Sir James Brooke, the founder of Sarawak, on board, made a treaty with the Sultan of Jolo in which the Sultan promised not to recognize any other power as his suzerain without the consent of Great Britain. Later in 1849, 3,000 Moros from Jolo attacked the fort of Isabela de Basilan, but were repulsed. The prisoners taken were conducted to Zamboanga and a notice was sent to the Sultan of Jolo concerning the capture and punishment of his subjects.
A Moro fleet from Tonquil, together with some praus, in 1850, raided the islands of Samar and Camiguin, carrying off 75 natives. The old and the children were thrown overboard as useless. A Spanish fleet then went to Jolo. The place was defended by five cotas or forts. It was also fortified by a wall and was well supplied with cannon. The population numbered some 7,000 people, of whom 500 were Chinese. Two officers sent to arrange an interview were fired upon by Moros after embarking. The place was deemed to be too strong for attack by the force present and the Spanish commander decided to return and await reinforcements: but the forts, without notice, opened a general fire upon the fleet at anchor, killing 7 and wounding 4 sailors. The fleet replied, but soon returned to Zamboanga.
The El Cano was sent to Manila with the news. Reinforcements arrived and the expedition returned to Jolo, capturing the place after a spirited action. The Spanish lost 3 killed and 92 wounded, while the Moros had 300 killed and lost over 100 cannon.
The fall of Jolo was not without effect. Numerous small expeditions to various Mindanao datos and sultans were well received. In April 1850, the governor of Zamboanga went to Jolo, and on the 19th the Spanish flag was raised. The same day, in a treaty, the Sultan acknowledged the sovereignty of Spain, and agreed not to make treaties, conventions, and alliances with European powers, companies, persons, corporations, nor with any sultan or chief, and all treaties previously made with other powers were declared null and void. The Sultan also agreed to use no flag but that of Spain, and the Spanish governor guaranteed to respect the religion of the Moros. Piracy was also declared to be prohibited. A salary of 1,500 pesos was allowed to the Sultan, 600 pesos to 3 datos, and 360 pesos to the "sheriff" for his services to the Spanish Government. This treaty was dated and signed April 19, 1851.
Notwithstanding the promises of the Sultan, pirate vessels continued to scour the remote parts of the archipelago. Five small Spanish vessels encountered a Moro fleet of 4 praus on the southwest coast of Paragna. One of the Spanish vessels was blown up, but the pirates were defeated with a loss of 100 dead. The Spaniards lost 14 killed and 12 wounded, but rescued 20 captives from the Moros.
In 1852 a general rebellion broke out in Sugut near Polloc. The Spanish attacked the fort and killed 50 of the Moros.
In January, 1854, a company of the Principe Regiment was ambuscaded in Basilan and nearly all killed. In this same year a town on Capul, near Jolo, was burned by the Spaniards from Basilan; but in 1855 the Moros from Sulu made a dash upon Zamboanga and burned the best part of the town.
In 1856 a Spanish expedition burned a town of Jolo for piracy, also one in the islands of Simisa and one on Basilan.
In 1857 the gunboat Reina de Castillo, 150 soldiers, and 50 Zamboanga volunteers destroyed 2 villages near Zamboanga. In 1858 General Norzagaray offered premiums to whomsoever should kill any pirate wherever found, but this was of no important result.
In this year the "light fleet" of Isabela de Basilan sailed for Simisa, where it surprised the Moros and after a hard fight put them to flight. Seventy-six captives were rescued and 116 prisoners taken, among them the families of two powerful datos. In view of the state of the island and the captivity of their people the two chiefs presented themselves at Basilan with 60 captives, one a priest and another a European woman, and in view of their submission the governor made an exchange of prisoners. In 1860 the Moros established themselves on the islands of Catanduanes and Biti and others belonging to the province of Albay, the governor of the province being unable to dislodge them. They also infested the straits of San Bernardino between Luzon and Samar, their number being between 400 and 500, where they killed some 16 persons, captured 10, and carried off a vessel. The same year two piratical datos of Dong-Dong in Tawi-Tawi were killed by the dato Alip and their heads carried to Zamboanga. In 1860 the Moros attempted to seize a vessel lying at anchor at Tuluyan, and in the attempt 3 of them were killed. The Spanish officer wrote an arrogant letter to the Sultan demanding the return of 2 Spaniards and 200 natives within six days, and the Sultan acceding Bent 12 vessels to Tawi-Tawi to repress some of the pirate datos.
In 1861, 18 steam gunboats were purchased in England, and it was due to these boats that the almost continued piracy which had existed up to that time was soon reduced to insignificance.
In 1862 Samales Moros made raids on the Zamboanga coast, but the raids ceased when a small gunboat sank a large prau with all of its crew. At the same time a small fleet forced the Sultan of Mindanao to hoist a Spanish flag at Polloc. The Moros met reverses in loss of fleets near Guimaras and Tugubanjan islands and in the destruction of the four towns Ponugan, Bugamputi, Patan, and Caneanga.
In September 1864 an expedition was sent from Polloc against the Rio Grande Moros, who had built defenses on that river from Cotabato to Tumbao. The fort at Pagalungan was captured, with a severe loss to the Moros. In the report of this assault honorable mention was made of Ensigns Cervera and Montijo, afterwards Spanish admirals. In this year the Talayan Moros were proceeded against, the Spanish being aided by a force under Dato Uto, son of the Sultan of Buhayan, but during the attack Uto joined the Talayan Moros, and the expedition failed. A second expedition also failed, and the outlying fort at Bongao was abandoned.
In 1866 the Moros of Supangan and Simuay rose in rebellion, and the governor of Mindanao, with a force and four gunboats, proceeded against the fortified towns of Supuangan, Dulugan, and Sanditan. The expedition was entirely successful, with but slight loss. In 1870 a raid was made by Tawi-Tawi Moros on the east coast of Paragua. The town of Santa Monica, or Batacalan, was destroyed and all of its inhabitants carried away. Two years later a garrison of native troops was placed at Puerto Princesa.
In this year a naval blockade of Jolo was established, and in 1873 two German vessels were seized while carrying contraband of war to the Jolo Moros. In 1874 this fleet did considerable damage to the Moros of the islands from Jolo to TawiTawi. Toward the close of the same year a large party of Moros attacked the garrison at Balabac, but were repulsed. In October, 1875, two gunboats in search of Moro pirates located their headquarters in the Bay of Areray and sank one large prau.
These operations practically terminated the long term of piracy under which the colonies had suffered for three centuries. The mobility of the steam gunboats and the subsequent blockade against introduction of arms and ammunition had in a dozen years practically removed the menace, though occasionally raids appeared in the years to follow. Most of the trouble in the succeeding years, however, took the form of more or less extensive campaigns against the three large groups of Moros (Sulu, Rio Grande, and Lanao) in the control of the fanatical running amuck, called by the Spaniards "juramentado."
In 1873 Spain had largely reorganized her Philippine forces, and in 1876 the forces included seven native regiments of infantry and one of artillery, two regiments of the civil guard, and some force of carbineers and marines. There were also troops at Balabac, Isabela de Basilan, and Cavite.
The relations between the Government and Di Amirul, the Sultan of Jolo, had been becoming more and more tense, and an extensive expedition was planned against the Sultan by the captain-general in 1876, in spite of Spain's political troubles at home and the depleted condition of the treasury. The projected expedition was received with great enthusiasm in the city of Manila and throughout Luzon, especially by the great religious orders. The fleet of 10 steamers leaving Manila early in February was reinforced at Zamboanga and proceeded with 11 additional transports and miscellaneous vessels under the escort of 12 gunboats to Bacungan, where anchorage was made on February 20. The captain-general was in command and was accompanied by the admiral in command of naval forces. On the 22d a landing was made at Paticolo, about a league northeast of Jolo, the fleet silencing the ineffectual Moro resistance. Malcampo, the captain-general, ordered a half brigade to remain at Paticolo with the engineer section and a mountain battery, with directions to march upon Jolo the following day in order to unite with the force which the captain-general would lead into the interior to flank the Moro stronghold. The plan proved nearly fatal to the turning column. It was lost in the thick woods and was unable, on a very hot day, to find water. The following afternoon, harassed by the Moros and nearly perishing from thirst, the column reached the shore at Tandu, where it united with that left at the beach, which had not been molested in the least.
The captain-general, loth to abandon his plan of attacking Jolo from the interior, finally decided to attack by the shore. The army advanced at daylight on the 29th, the fleet opening upon the forts at the same time. At 9 a heavy rain came on and lasted an hour, at the end of which time a brigade advanced against the forts of the datos Daniel and Ubico. The vanguard was led by the First Regiment, and the brigade commander was the first to set foot upon the enemy's works. After a sharp fight the forts were captured by the Spaniards, and the entire force advanced. The Moros in the forts of the Sultan and the Dato Tanquan made a fierce resistance, and two colonels fell wounded; but the last works were carried by an assault of the Spanish artillery battalion, Jolo remaining in undisputed possession of the Spaniards.
On the following day a half brigade, with 4 naval guns, took the fort of Panglima Arab, situated in a wood about 1 kilometer from the shore.
The town of Liang was also burned, and a small expedition destroyed 80 boats and burned 90 houses on Tapul Island, besides killing some Moros; and an expedition under General Sanchez destroyed the town of Lacul-Palac, 3 kilometers in the interior from Jolo. The "cota" at Parang was taken, and later Maibun was taken by a landing party from the fleet under Lieutenant Ordonez. A fort called Alphonso XII was erected on the site of the "cota" of the Dato Daniel, and a redoubt named "Princesa de Asturias" upon that of the "cota" of Panglima Arab. Between the two a camp was formed called "Our Lady of Victories." The fort of Alphonso XII was soon completed and 2 infantry regiments, one company Spanish artillery, another of engineers, the 2 disciplinary companies of Balabac and Puerta Princesa. and the "prisoners' brigade" were designated as the garrison of Jolo. Capt. Pascual Cervera was made politico-military governor of the island.
General Malcampo was given the title of "Count of Jolo" and " Viscount of M;ndan;io." many decorations were given, and a medal was struck for each participant in the campaign.
The Moros made frequent attacks in a small way and resented the occupation of the capital. These attacks were repeated in greater force in April and May, but were repulsed in both cases. Fevers decimated the garrison, and even in September the sick numbered 340.
In 1876 there began a series of diplomatic negotiations between Spain, on the one side, and Great Britain and the German Empire, on the other, respecting Spanish sovereignty in Jolo and on the north coast of Borneo, which was not concluded until the protocol of Madrid on March 7, 1885, by which the sovereignty of Spain relinquished any claim to the territories occupied by the British North Borneo Company. It is, however, of interest to note that the British North Borneo Company is the outgrowth of an American company founded in August, 1865, under the name of "The American Trading Company of Borneo," under a concession from the Sultan of Brunei.
Among the most important documents of this period may be cited the Madrid protocol of March 11, 1877, between Great Britain, Germany, and Spain, giving free trade and equal rights with Spaniards at Jolo to British and German subjects: the treaty of the Sultan of Jolo and his datos submitting to Spain, signed at Licup (Jolo) July 22, 1878; the letter of incorporation of the British North Borneo Company, dated London, November 7, 1881; and the Anglo-German Spanish protocol of 1885.
In September, 1877, a determined assault was made on the Jolo garrison by about 2,000 Moros. After three days of fighting, in which they destroyed some property, they were driven off.
The treaty above mentioned, establishing Spanish sovereignty in the Sulu Archipelago, was signed by the Sultan and Colonel Martinez, the governor, at Licup, Jolo, in 1878.
In this same year the Dato Uata Mama and his followers assassinated several Spaniards at Tamontaca, Mindanao, among them the judge of the first instance, an army surgeon, a lieutenant, and several soldiers. The act was treacherously carried out while the Spaniards were holding a conference with the Moros. This crime was never punished, the dato dying of cholera in 1882.
In 1878 was also recorded the first case of "juramentado." The fanatic attacked and wounded 6 men in the marine barracks at Jolo before he was dispatched. This was the first of a long list of similar attacks at this station, which are detailed briefly below to show the extent to which these outrages grew:
In 1878, 1 man in public square of Jolo killed 7 and wounded 6 natives, and then escaped.
Six men made an attack injuring 1 Chinaman and 2 Moros; 4 were killed, 2 escaped.
February 9, 1 Moro wounded 5 men, and was killed.
March 3, 1 Moro wounded 3 men, and was killed.
September 16, 1 Moro wounded 2 sentinels, and was killed.
September 29, 4 Moros wounded 2 missionaries, and 2 were killed.
November 25, 13 Moros entered Jolo with arms concealed in bamboo water tubes: 11 were killed by the troops, but not until 13 persons had been wounded.
In 1880, March 30, 40 Moros from Looc attacked a Spanish party, killing 2 soldiers and wounding 8. Twelve of the Moros were killed. This attack was punished by the Sultan, who was awarded the "Cross of Isabel" by the Spanish Government for the service.
In 1881, February 16, 2 Moros were killed in the Jolo trenches after killing a native soldier.
February 19, 4 Moros attacked the Jolo lines, wounding a Spanish ensign, and all were killed.
March 26–28, similar attacks were driven off without loss to the troops. August 29, 3 Moros lost their lives at an outpost, killing 1 soldier and wounding 4. September 19, 8 Moros killed 1 soldier and wounded several near Jolo, themselves escaping.
In 1882, September 12, 3 juramentados in the Jolo market wounded 11 soldiers and a native, being killed by the troops.
September 14, 3 Moros wounded a soldier and a native before being dispatched.
September 20, a small band lost 7 killed in an attack upon an outpost.
To suppress these outrages the settlements in which most of them originated, Looc and Boal, were destroyed in October and November, 1882, by expeditions from Jolo, and severe losses were inflicted on the Moros by the troops.
Nevertheless, in July, 1883, three juramentados in the square of Jolo killed 2 officers and a soldier and wounded an officer and 2 soldiers; 2 of them succeeded in escaping. Later 12 Moros attacked 8 soldiers who were cutting wood near Jolo, and all but two escaped.
In addition to these assassinations a well-organized attack on the garrison at Jolo was made in April, 1881, but it was successfully repulsed. On the death of the Sultan a few days later the attack was repeated with the same result.
The "juramentado" fanaticism was not confined to Jolo. The following cases are recorded among the Rio Grande Moros:
November, 1881, one Moro wounded 1 of the mothers of the Moro Orphan Asylum at Tamontaca; he was later beheaded by the Moro Raja Muda.
June 8, 1882, during a religious parade at Cotabato a juramentado beheaded a soldier and wounded another and 2 women before being dispatched by the troops. Soon after another killed 2 soldiers near the Taviran fort.
In 1882 Spanish detachments occupied the stations of Bongao, Siassi, and Tataan.
In 1884 a tour of the Southern Islands was made by the governor-general, de Jovellar, and he reported as follows to the colonial minister:
"The enterprise of occupation is completely paralyzed, and either on account of insufficient means or a badly followed system twenty years have been lost. There is nothing, in effect, further from signifying a proposition of permanence and improvements than the state of all our establishments. There hardly exist the ruins of the buildings formerly erected. At Polloc the old fort and barracks have both completely disappeared. The fort at Cotabato has also completely disappeared, not one stone remaining upon another, and the smaller forts of Libungan, Tumbao, Taviran, and Tamontaca, upon one side or the other of the two arms of the river, could not be more temporary. The troops are badly quartered at all places—in buildings either honeycombed by the white ants or threatening to fall in ruins. In Cotabato the ammunition has become useless on account of the lack of a magazine, and the ordnance supplies and commissaries of the military administration for the garrison are stored in a rented house. Nothing exists in that part of Mindanao to indicate a fixed occupation or thought of permanency except the continued renewal of the troops; each day under worse conditions."
On January 26 General Jovellar returned to Manila, and as a consequence of his representations 100,000 pesos were authorized in the budget of 1885-86 for the construction of a fort for one company, a storehouse, a hospital, and a magazine at Cotabato.
On February 22, 1884, Badurudin, the Sultan of Jolo, died at Maibun without issue. The council at once divided on the succession, the factions favoring Raja Muda Amilol, a youth of 14, and Dato Aliubdin, respectively legitimate son and brother of Diamarol, the preceding sultan. Each faction proclaimed its candidate sultan, at the same time notifying General Parrado, governor of Jolo. The latter preserved a neutral attitude, informing the captain-general of the condition. The proposition from the captain-general that Amilol should be sultan, but under the regency of Aliubdin until his majority, was refused by both factions, and two sultans reigned in Jolo, the boy Amilol, under his mother at Maibun, and his uncle, Aliubdin, at Paticolo. In April of the same year a similar condition of affairs followed the death of the Sultan of Mindanao. Dato Utto having proclaimed his protege, Mamuku, the new sultan, the other datos protested, favoring Mamucpun, of Sibuguey, brother of the late sultan's widow. Following the protest, the Spanish influence favored Mamucpun. In June of this year a royal order conferred on the sultans of Jolo and of Mindanao the honors of a lieutenant general, without command, and the title of "Very Excellent," and salutes were decreed them upon visiting warships.
In Mindanao, Datu Uto had gradually become the most powerful chief upon the Rio Grande. The datos of the lower Rio Grande were harassed continually, and Uto even appeared defiantly before Cotabato with 80 war canoes, an insult to which the garrison was obliged to submit in silence in compliance with a decree forbidding aggressions upon Moros except in self-defense. Later some slaves of Uto escaped to Cotabato, and as they were not returned to him by the Spanish authorities he sent one of his followers into the town to kill one of the fugitives, the order being carried out. The district judge endeavored to secure Uto for trial, but the governor was unable to bring the dato before the court, and upon referring the matter to Manila the captain-general desired the judge to quash the case. When the judge refused he declared martial law and had the judge ordered to Manila, and later abolished the judicial district of Cotabato. Uto became more inimical to and defiant of the Spanish power, and a small expedition was sent against him composed of disciplinarios and troops, the former by land and the latter by gunboats, but the result was unfavorable to the Spanish. Then the Moros burned the Jesuit mission house at Tamontaca, the town of Amadeo, the infantry barracks, the coal sheds of the navy, and other buildings of the garrison of Cotabato, also other buildings on the Rio Grande. Notwithstanding these troubles, General Julian Serina, governor of Mindanao, had an interview with Uto and made an effort to arrange matters peaceably with him, but without satisfactory result, although some escaped slaves were returned to him and he was also paid for alleged losses sustained. Serina then decided to use force, and cited Uto for an interview at Bacat, but receiving no answer troops were ordered to Bacat and the place occupied.
The strategic position of Bacat, situated at the junction of the Bacat and Rio Grande rivers, was such that its permanent occupation would control the entire delta. A force was then formed to occupy the forest of Buhayen; small garrisons were left at Polloc and Tamontaca and 300 men at Cotabato. Two columns of about 300 men each were formed for the advance, moving up the river by steam vessels, no resistance being encountered except at ineffective long range. A landing was made near the wood of Kinodal, where several "juramentado" attacks were made on the troops. A sharp fire being opened from the woods, the Spanish replied, and in the resulting engagement lost one killed and seven wounded, the Moros losing fifty killed and wounded. The expedition returned to Bacat, where the Moros attacked from the right bank of the river. A force crossed and dispersed them, leaving a detachment to protect the crossing. Moro houses in the vicinity of Bacat were destroyed, and, leaving a garrison of 500 to hold Bacat, the remaining troops were withdrawn to Cotabato.
On March 30 a small column left Cotabato and defeated the Moros at Tamontaca with a loss of 15 killed, and a few days later sank four Moro armed vessels in the backwater of Sapacan, 10 others escaping, but leaving 20 dead, among them the Dato Ladialam.
The approach of the rainy season made it impossible to carry out further operations, and General Serina reported what had been accomplished to the captaingeneral. The latter, upon receiving the report, resolved upon an immediate campaign in person, and so advised Serina, at the same time hiring several vessels, whose arrival at Zamboanga in the rainy season with troops, supplies, commissaries, and forage filled the garrison with astonishment. General Serina, seeing that the greater part of the supplies would be lost by the wet weather, and that a campaign during the rainy season would only result in heavy losses for the Spanish forces, left Zamboanga late in September, 1886, for Manila, where he persuaded General Terrero to wait until the end of January or the beginning of February before making an advance.
Upon his return to Zamboanga, Serina transferred his headquarters to Cotabato, where he arrived November 14. On the 15th he sailed in the Bacolod for a trip up the Rio Grande, preceded by a gunboat, 130 soldiers, and some 20 officers as guard. The steamers, joined by 2 gunboats, continued the voyage to Bacat. They were fired upon several times during the trip up and once while returning. On the 20th it was learned that the Dato Sanhuan, an ally of the Spaniards, had been assassinated by partisans of Uto, and that the latter was preparing forts and defenses against the threatened campaign. On December 6, 300 men reinforced Bacat. On the same day the followers of Dato Ayunan revenged themselves at Talayan for the killing of his brother Sanhuan, killing 7 of Uto's followers, 2 of whom were datos. On December 10, 500 men reinforced Cotabato.
On January 1, 1887, Tumbao was occupied by Lieutenant-Colonel Matos with about 300 men from Cotabato and a company of engineers from Libungan. A few days later Lieutenant-Colonel Holguin followed with troops from Zamboanga and Cotabato, and two forts were constructed at a bend in the Rio Grande, 10 miles from Tumbao and 3 from Bacat.
Meanwhile, General Terrero had prepared his expedition, and early in January sailed from Manila with a force composed of 5 infantry regiments, 3 companies of artillery, 2 squadrons of cavalry, 300 disciplinarios, and 8 field and 2 siege guns. After a short stop at Zamboanga the expedition sailed for Polloc, where several gunboats had assembled. On the 14th three transports were sent with troops to Forts Bacat, Liong, and Piramide without a single Moro being seen. On the 19th the cavalry, marines, and some artillery were also taken to Bacat. To compose the expedition ships and troops had been drawn from throughout the archipelago, less than 1,000 men remaining to guard Manila, and not a gunboat or a soldier, except of the civil guard, being left in the Visayas. In Jolo. where hostilities were commencing. Colonel Arolas had but 320 men. Considerable discontent was apparent in Manila from this situation.
The field forces were organized into two columns, the first under General Serina and the second under Colonel San Felin. Serbia's force numbered 1,182 men, with 6 field pieces and 4 siege guns; the column of San Felin was 1,129 strong, with 4 field pieces; 1.100 men were retained to garrison the ten forts or stations of Cotabato, Polloc, Libungan, Tumbao, Taviran. Tamontaca, Liong, Piramide, Bacat, and Kudaranga, a total of 3,411 men in the Rio Grande region. On the 26th two columns advanced along the " estero" of Bacat, one numbering 320 men and the other 330. The launch of the Aragon, towing two boats filled with soldiers, steamed along the stream, and many obstacles were removed from the channel. Like work was also done on the 27th and the 28th. On the afternoon of the 28th General Terrero directed a force of 460 men. with 3 guns, to bombard the forts of Saliling from the estero of Buhayen. The Moros replied with cannon, "lantacas," and rifles, but without effect. On the 29th two columns opened a road for 7 Whitworth guns, which opened fire on the forts on the 30th, the bombardment continuing on the 31st. On February 2 a general advance was made by three columns under General Terrero and Colonels San Felin and Matos, that under the captain-general being composed almost entirely of Spaniards, the others being composed largely of native troops. These forces arrived within sight of the forts of Saliling almost without resistance from the enemy, but about 4 p. m. a torrential rain turned the camp into a swamp.
As the torrents of rain continued, the troops were obliged to take refuge at the camp of Reina Regente, the supplies being considerably damaged. A sand battery was built, guarded by 2 guns, and remained garrisoned by 1 company and 20 disciplinarios. Although up to this time the losses had been but 1 artilleryman killed and 2 wounded by the explosion of a gun charge, the hospitals were filled with sick owing to the exposure. On the 9th, the storm having ceased, the captain-general advanced and made his headquarters at the wood of Kinodal, the front being covered by the column of Matos and the left by that of San Felin. Eleven cotas (forts) at Lintunkan impeded the march and on the 11th were bombarded by 5 Krupp and 4 Plasencia guns, a general advance being made by daylight on the 12th.
The vanguard was formed of 2 companies and 120 disciplinarios, under Major Villabrille; the left by General Serina, a column of 3 regiments and the sailors from the Aragon; the right by Colonel San Felin's column of portions of 2 regiments and sailors f 'om the gunboats, General Terrero's headquarters being escorted by a section of engineers and a squadron of cavalry. The condition of the ground greatly retarded the column by delaying the cavalry.
Upon arriving at the backwater or "estero" of Lintunkan 16 forts or "cotas" were discovered, but as the greater number were without defenders they were occupied after a very slight resistance from a few forts. The Spanish loss was 1 killed, 1 drowned, and several native soldiers wounded in the feet by bamboo stakes.
On the 13th the sacred grove was occupied, the troops wading to the waist in water the greater part of the time and driving the Moros before them at the grove. The Spanish loss was 6 killed and 17 wounded. The forces returned to Camp Reina Regente. A white flag was hoisted on the first fort of the Dato Kabalo, and after more than two weeks of negotiations the Dato Silungan, paternal uncle of Uto, presented himself to Terrero in the name of Uto, and on the 10th of March returned with the conditions of peace signed by Uto, his wife Radja Putri, the Sultan of Bacat, and others.
General Terrero then returned to Manila, arriving on March 21, where he was received with great honors and congratulated by the Madrid Government. The expedition is said to have cost over 1,000,000 pesos, part of the funds being taken from the fund of 3,000,000 pesos set aside for the harbor works of Manila, which were greatly crippled thereby. The number of sick was very great, some 680 having been sent to Zamboanga or Manila.
The situation in regard to the Jolo sultanate, previously described, was further complicated in January, 1885, by the application at Manila of the Dato Harun, of Paragua, uncle of Amilol and cousin of Alinbdin, and the only living Moro signatory of the 1878 treaty, for support in his candidacy for the sultanate. He was informed by the governor-general that his full and spontaneous election by the council of Jolo datos would be recognized, whereupon he returned to Paragua, promising that it should be so. The early part of 1886 passed quietly at Jolo, Colonel Arolas having become governor of that station, In September General Terrero resolved to intervene actively in the disputed sultanate question, and announced Dato Harun as the Sultan or Jolo at a reception at the Malacanan palace in Manila, the reasons given for this action being that Amilol. aided by his mother, was gaining the ascendancy and that his accession had been rendered possible by his mother's crime of poisoning both her husband and the late Sultan Badarudin. In October Harun sailed for Jolo, where he was received by Colonel Arolas. Not being supported by the Jolo datos, it was necessary, under General Terrero's order, for the Spanish troops to give him active support. Accordingly, an expedition of 200 men, with a gunboat, escorted Harun to Parang, where he was received as sultan, but he soon retired to Jolo. Later it was learned that the Moros of the rancheria of Maibun were attacking those of Parang, and Arolas, in company with Harun, made another expedition to Parang on November 2, where several more datos swore allegiance to him; but on December 18 it became necessary to send a gunboat, with 150 men, against the rancheria of Bauisang. which was taken by the troops, the Moro leader, Ambut, being killed in the fight. Tajil, a partisan of Harun, was relieved and the fort of Bauisang destroyed.
Early in January 1887, an expedition was sent with a launch and 40 soldiers against Maibun, where two Moros were killed, and against the settlements of Tamparan and Tuyat, which were destroyed. In this same month an expedition destroyed the settlement of Tumahan and Taudic Bunha. Both of these expeditions were accompanied by the new sultan.
At Siassi the governor, Rossi, attacked and destroyed Dato Gran's fort, about 3 miles from Siassi, on January 22; 14 Moros were killed in this fight.
By 1 February, the Jolo situation was critical. More than half the garrison had been withdrawn for the Rio Grande expedition, leaving less than 300 men to garrison the town and Fort Alphonso XII.
The most important datos had joined Amilol Quiram, and about 3,000 hostile Moros infested the neighborhood of Jolo, making it almost impossible for the garrison to rest day or night. During the first week in February five nights were spent by the Spaniards in momentary expectation of an attack, and the situation became most critical. The Moros of Tawi-Tawi, Tatang, Bongao, and Tapul were also in arms, as well as those of Siassi. In the latter island the fort was attacked on the 10th and 12th, but the assailants were driven off with a loss in both cases. At Torre Resina, on the Island of Lapac, opposite Siassi, a small garrison of 9 men was attacked by a large force of Moros on the 13th, one being killed and another wounded in the first attack, and later sustaining a siege of three days from 300 Moros, until relieved by a force of 56 men from Siassi, under Capt. Fernandez. In the siege the Moros lost 30 killed; the garrison 1 wounded.
The Mindanao campaign was terminated in March, and the Jolo garrison returned, and on March 12 the strength was about 400. A further reenforcement arrived from Zaniboanga in April. It was ordered that the troops should embark at midnight for an expedition. The artillery started with the expedition, but a deep ravine made its return to Jolo necessary. At daybreak the Moros commenced to fire upon the troops, and in turn the Spaniards burned the houses along the trail, both in order to signal their advance to the fleet and to repress the activity of the Moros. At noon the expedition arrived in sight of Maibun, beyond which lay the Spanish fleet at anchor. The principal fort formed a quadrangle about 80 meters square. The north face, which was the one to be assailed, being of coral rock and 2.V meters in height. The south face fronted the sea and had been strengthened with a double parapet of tree trunks over 4 meters in height and five embrasures for cannon, each well protected. The east and west sides were protected fully by timber, swamp, and river and were weaker in construction, but an attack there was impracticable. In the interior of the fort was the sultan's palace, a ten-sided building upon high, wooden pillars, and two smaller buildings.
The Spanish advance formed in line at the river, some 300 meters from the fort; 2 companies of the Second Regiment, the rifle section, and second company of disciplinarios formed the head of the column, under Lieutenant-Colonel Novella, and forded the river. The firing then became general. The Moro fort had an American machine gun. which inflicted some losses upon the assailants, but after a fierce resistance to the Spanish charge, led by Colonel Arolas and Lieutenant-Colonel Novella, the fort was captured. The Moro loss was about 130 killed (of which about one-third were killed during the march): the Spanish lost 14 killed and 77 wounded. The Spanish casnalities included Lieutenant-Colonel Novella, wounded, while in the list of Moro killed were Naquid Pula, governor of Maibun. the Panglima Timbul, and four datos.
At the close of the fight the fleet landed the Sultan Harun with 50 men, the town and the Chinese quarter were burned, and the fort destroyed. On the 17th the expedition returned to Jolo.
On May 9 Arolas embarked 800 men on the fleet, disembarked at Parang, and marched upon the fort of Panglima Alimanaran, about 4 kilometers in the interior. Upon the approach of the troops the chief hoisted the Spanish flag and submitted to the Sultan Harun, who had accompanied the expedition.
The Panglima Sayari, chief leader of Tapul Island, still remained hostile to Harun, and on May 23 Arolas and the Sultan, with about 800 men, sailed for Tapul. At 7 in the morning the expeditionary forces disembarked, together with 100 men from the fleet; the gunboats then opened fire on the fort and also shelled the surrounding hills. A captain was sent with two companies of the disciplinarios to occupy the settlement of the friendly Dato Buloan, but either by the ignorance or the treachery of the Moro guide he encountered a force of some 300 Moros in a well-defended position, who were commanded by the Panglima Sayari in person. Arolas hurried to the scene, and realizing the danger of defeat sent back for two more companies and four Plasencia guns. A heavy fire was opened upon the Moros, and their leader Sayari, with great coolness, appeared from time to time upon the parapet encouraging his men to resist to the utmost. The fight lasted for four hours and a half and was only terminated by a desperate attack from the entire Spanish force led by Arolas in person, the Moro defense being taken in hand-to-hand fighting, the Panglima Sayari falling dead in the midst of the struggle, together with several of his chiefs. The total Moro dead numbered over 90, the Spanish loss being 13 killed and 115 wounded. The expedition returned to Jolo the following day.
As a result of these fights, many datos submitted to Harun, among them being Anislusin of Siassi and Janjari of Lati. Amilol Quiram and his mother had taken refuge at Talipao, while Aliubdin requested a conference. But the Panglima Sakilan, who governed the northwestern part of the island of Pata, situated south of Jolo, remained in a state of open hostility, and after an examination of the coasts of Pata in June, Arolas decided to lead an expedition to that island. For this purpose considerable reinforcements, especially the artillery and engineers, were sent to Jolo early in September, where the expedition was formed. It numbered some 1,500 men: the forces also had a battery of four Plasencia guns. The troops embarked on the gunboats on September 19, arriving off the " cota" of Sakilan on the morning of the 20th. The forces were disembarked and advanced against the fort, which was bombarded by the fleet and finally taken by assault between 2 and 3 o'clock in the afternoon. On the following day another encounter took place, resulting in the flight of the Moros. The Spanish losses were 21 wounded. Colonel Arolas was made a brigadier-general, but continued in command at Jolo.
On December 2, the Sultan Harun was obliged to return to Jolo from the island of Boal on account of the opposition of the inhabitants, and General Arolas found himself obliged to head a force of 7OO of the Second Regiment and disciplinarios, which embarked at once with 5 gunboats. Arriving off Boal the troops disembarked and carried the Moro forts after a short action in which 5 men were wounded. The Moro loss was 45 killed, 32 of whom were at the fort and 13 juramentados who had attacked the first landing party. On the 4th the troops returned to Jolo.
The beginning of 1888 witnessed several expeditions and combats, the first being against the Moros of Sariol. At dawn on February 19 two half brigades marched out of Jolo, the first under Lieutenant-Colonel Novella, the second under Capt. Victor Diaz, of the artillery. The headquarters and Sultan Harun also accompanied the forces. No opposition was encountered until the district of the Dato Yulcone was entered, but at that time a general fire was opened against the entire column. After some sharp fighting the Moros were driven off and the troops advanced. After a short interval the attack was renewed, an hour being consumed in gaining the plateau of Tambayang. After a short rest General Arolas decided to fall back to Jolo, and the column retired, harassed by the Moros until the territory of the friendly Dato Yau-Yali was reached. Jolo was reentered at '5 in the afternoon, the troops having suffered a loss of 2 killed and 18 wounded, 13 of the latter being disciplinarios. The Moro loss as reported was 7 killed and 16 wounded.
Another expedition to Paticolo on February 24 resulted in the death of some 11 Moros and the wounding of 60. The Spanish forces lost 1 officer and 19 men wounded. 15 from the disciplinarios.
On the 27th, four companies of artillery, a mountain section with two guns, a company of engineers, and 250 of the Fourth Regiment arrived at Jolo. On March 3 at daylight, an expedition nearly 2.000 strong left Jolo, under the command of General Arolas, for a march through the little-known district of Lati. On the afternoon of the same day the settlement of the Panglima Arosa was taken and destroyed, the Spanish having 7 wounded, the losses of the enemy being considerably greater.
On the 11th another expedition, numbering 1,500 men, left Jolo on 7 war vessels in the harbor and disembarked at the point of Pandanan, in the eastern part of the island. A vigorous campaign was then begun, the Moros being defeated at Paticolo, Porrion, Piquidapo, and Piqnidajo on the 15th, 16th, 19th, 22d, 26th, and 27 March, the dead Moros amounting to the number of 56. The Spanish losses were 7 killed and 84 wounded in the several fights.
Notwithstanding the apparent supremacy of Sukan Harun, the Moros of Jolo persisted in their allegiance to Amilol Quiram, and the Spanish Government gave up the attempt to force Harun upon the people. Amilol Quiram was then recognized as the Sultan of Jolo.
On January 5, 1888, Lieutenant-General Weyler became captain-general in succession to General Terrero. Upon his arrival the military forces of the Philippines numbered 12,800 men, of whom 1,400 were Spaniards (of the artillery regiment) and the balance natives. The years 1888 and 1889 were without important military operations, and in the latter year the infantry regiments were renumbered. The new names and numbers, dating from October 31, 1889, were as follows: Sixty-eighth, Sixty-ninth, Seventieth, Seventy-first, Seventy-second, Seventythird, and Seventy-fourth. The disciplinary battalion was also retained.
The fortified isthmus from Lintogup to Tucuran, begun by Terrero, was finished in 1890, the fort of Infanta Isabel being midway at Lubig. Posts were established at Parang-Parang, Tinancu, and Macar, the latter on the Bay of Sarangani. Relations with the Mindanao Moros, especially those of Lake Lanao, a region which had not been visited by Spanish forces since the days of Corcuera, two and a half centuries before, began to be strained through the establishment of those posts, and Weyler decided that operations were necessary against further aggressions. However, the outbreak in the Caroline Islands in June, 1890, made an expedition to that distant part of the colony necessary and delayed operations in Mindanao until April, 1891. On October 15, 1890, a band of Moros surprised the settlement of Monticao, near Iligan. killing 20 natives and carrying off 24. Other attacks of a minor nature also took place. On April 16, 1891, General Weyler sailed for Mindanao, and on the 20th arrived at Parang-Parang, where 4 companies of the Spanish artillery regiment, 3 companies of the Sixty-eighth, 3 companies of the Seventysecond regiment, a section of cavalry, and 2 mountain guns were assembled.
Two expeditionary columns were organized under Lieutenant-Colonels Marina and Hernandez and took the field on the 23d and 24 April, respectively. That of Marina, composed of the Spanish company and the three companies of the Sixty-eighth, marched from Parang upon the rancheria of Lipauan on the 23d, arriving at the place on the morning of the 24th, and discovered a fort garrisoned by 30 or 40 Moros. The place was attacked and captured, 1 Spaniard being severely wounded, and at 11 that night the return march for Parang was taken up, the latter place being reached in a sixteen-hour march of great difficulty.
The column under Lieutenant-Colonel Hernandez, composed of one Spanish company and three companies of the Seventy-second Regiment, left Parang on the 24th against the rancheria of Buldung. The first day six rivers had to be crossed, the column bivouacking, the march being resumed the next morning. The camp that night was beside the Rio Sumased, the advance being resumed at dawn on the 26th. At half past 8 the column arrived before the cota of Buldung, which was defended by about 200 Moros. The column immediately attacked and took the fort with a loss of 2 killed, 3 severely wounded, and 5 slightly wounded, one of the latter being Lieutenant-Colonel Hernandez. Six dead Moros were seen and many were wounded. The following day the column returned to its base.
On the 28th a force consisting of 6 companies left Parang for Baras, where a fort was constructed with a capacity of 200 men. Expeditions were also sent out through the country between Parang and Tucuran and to the lake called Lanao Chico by the Spaniards (now Dapao). The Lanao Moros. however, attacked the forces at Baras several times, in one of which attacks the Sultan of Bayat was wounded.
On April 30 a column composed of 8 companies, commanded by Colonel Hore, of the artillery, left Baras for Maladi. where a body of Malanao Moros were reported to be fortified, and after a few hours' march the vanguard, under Lieutenant-Colonel Hernandez, discovered the Moros in a fort strongly protected. Upon seeing the Spanish force, many Moros attacked the column, but Hernandez advanced and took the fort after a hard fight. No less than 85 dead Moros. including the Sultan Benidel and 11 datos, were found within the fort, and 21 prisoners were taken. The Spanish loss was but 2 killed and 3 severely wounded. This fight is deemed to have been one of the most brilliant between the Spanish and Moros.
But just at this time all operations were stopped by an epidemic of "la grippe," which so affected the troops that on June 24 but 250 men were fit for duty, not one of whom was a Spaniard. At Parang 450 were sick; at Cotabato, 150; at Zamboanga, 600, and 190 at Isabela de Basilan.
General 'Weyler occupied Malabang in July, 1891, with eight companies and commenced the erection of Fort Corcuera, which occupied nearly the site of Corcuera's Sabanilla. A column under Captain Pintos was also sent toward Ganassi and took two cotas. The Moros attacked Malabang but were repulsed, and Weyler left for the Rio Grande, where the construction of three forts was ordered. Communication was also opened with Cagayan de Misamis. the mail being sent by the Pulangi (Rio Grande) River to Catitnan and then via land through Linabo to Cagayan. The politico-military government of Cotabato was also divided, that part of the river Nituan to Punta de Firchas being erected in the "Comandancia de la Bahia Illana.
General Weyler then decided to attack the Lanao Moros from the north. To divert the attention of those living on the southern part of the lake, he ordered the commanding officer on Illana Bay to make a demonstration toward Ganassi about August 17, penetrating as far as possible into the enemy's territory. The troops for the main attack were organized into a "flying column" of 360 men, under Captain Pintos; the "first column" of 300 men, under Colonel Castilla, of the artillery; the "second column" of 522 men, under Lieutenant-Colonel Cortijo. The " first" and "flying " columns were landed at Linamon August 15, 1891, and marched up the left bank of the Agns River toward the lake, while the "second " colun n marched out of Iligan on the 16th, following the right bank of the Agus to the lake. Another force was landed at Galan to prevent the Moros of the rancheria of Manay from aiding those of Marantao, while a body of 160 men occupied Balud. The various columns returned on the 23d to their respective starting places, having severely punished the above-mentioned rancherias, killed their dates and the leader Amay Pac-Pac. together with many other Moros. and displayed the Spanish flag where it had not been seen for two hundred and fiftyone years. A fort was also erected near Momungan en route to Lake Lanao from Iligan, and another post was established on the river Liangan, near the point of Binuni, which was named Almonte, after the Spanish general of that name who fought the Moros more than a hundred years before. The Illana Bay column, which left on August 17, under Lieut. Col. Antonio Moras, for Ganassi, defeatad the Moros at Catalaluan, near the lake, killing 7.and then returning to Malabang with a loss of 1 wounded. As a consequence of this march many chiefs and datos. including the Sultan of Ganassi, presented themselves at Malabang and recognized the suzerainty of Spain.
General Weyler was relieved as captain-general of the Philippines on November 17, 1891, being succeeded by Despujol, who. on a visit to Momungan, narrowly escaped assassination at the hands of a Moro dato (Dato Timbul Ali), who killed several soldiers when he discovered his inability to find the captain-general. On May 4, 1891, Lieut. Gen. Ramon Blanco became captain-general. He conducted the last considerable Moro campaign in Mindanao.
Iligan was determined upon as the base of supplies, and Blanco arrived there in March, 1894, by which time 3.000 troops had been assembled there. The troops worked upon the road from Iligan to Momungan, and 250 convicts sent from Bilibid prison, Manila, were added to the road force.
On April 11a band of about 100 Moros made an attack upon the cattle guard at Malabang, consisting of 35 men, but were repulsed with a loss of 7 killed and several wounded. Upon hearing the firing other troops came out, accompanied by Capt. Manuel Prieto, the politico-military governor of the district, who was attacked by some of the wounded Moros whom he had ordered to be cared for, and wounded so badly that his left hand had to be amputated.
General Blanco left Iligan for Momungan April 22. On the 23d the Moros attacked a detachment of woodcutters at Cabasaran, wounding 23, including Lieutenant Salgado of the Seventy-fourth. The Moros, however, were driven off, leaving 9 dead on the ground and many wounded. In May reenforcements of 350 arrived at Iligan.
In May the Spanish advance lines were at Pantar, where General Parrado and Colonel Novella also had their headquarters, and Cabasaran was occupied. The greatest difficulty was experienced in the transportation of supplies, the carabao becoming useless through fatigue, and the trail being too rough for the supplies to be taken in baskets on poles. On May 8 a company of disciplinarios was attacked at Pagua, about 2 kilometers from Ulama, by some CO Moros, who wounded 2 men, 1 mortally. The Moros were repulsed with a loss of 8 killed and some 25 wounded.
On May 15 General Blanco published a general order by which the field forces were organized into a brigade, under command of Brig. Gen. Julian Gonzales Parrado, the politico-military governor of Mindanao, divided into two demibrigades. as follows: First demibrigade, 11 companies, Col. Federico Novella, commanding; second demibrigade, 10 companies, Col. Enrique Hore, commanding; troops attached to general headquarters, about 750 men.
On May 22 Moros near Momungan attacked a convoy guarded by 250 men and killed 4 and wounded 7 soldiers. They were driven off with a loss of 4 killed, one of whom was the Dato Sampiano, who had tried to kill Despujol on his visit to Iligan and Momungan (Now Baloi Lanao del Norte) about two years before. On June 2, while a convoy was being escorted to Camp Ulama from Momungan, 15 Moros attacked the convoy, killing 4 soldiers and wounding 2, but were driven off with loss of 8 or 10 killed.
On the 3d Colonel Novella, with his demibrigade, made a reconnaissance. After much hard work in the jungle and crossing ravines, the height of Tomarmol was climbed about 10 a. m., the Moros offering slight resistance. In the afternoon Pimba and Panco were taken without difficulty, and the column returned to camp. The Spanish loss was 1 killed and 3 wounded, that of the Moros being estimated at 16 killed and many wounded. On June 5 Colonel Novella captured the cota of Dato Noral Kakin at Mut Pu, with a loss of 2 wouniled, the Moros retreating without much resistance. The column returned to camp.
In June Blanco left Parrado in command of the operations in Mindanao, returning to Manila on the 19th.
On June 9 a band of 500 Moros attacked the troops working on the road near Pantar; 41 Moros were killed and about 50 wounded. June 26 the sick in hospital at Iligan numbered 147, of whom 46 were Spaniards and 101 natives; malarial fever and dysentery prevailing among the former and ulcers and intestinal catarrh prevailing among the latter. On July 9, 400 Moros from various rancherias. commanded by Juarna Mamasa Balabagan, of Maguindanao, attacked a road-working force under Captain Salazar, who was killed, as were also several of his men. After a hard fight the Moros were repulsed with a loss of 26 killed, 14 mortally and 46 others were wounded, among the latter being 5 datos and a pandita (priest).
On July 24 the advance arrived near the lake of Calanganan(Pantar Lanao del Norte), where more than 1,000 Moros under the Dato Amani Pac Pac and the sultans of Maciu, Ramain, and Tugaya had assembled. Here the Spaniards were attacked by more than 500 Moros, ambushed on each side of the road, and driven back in some confusion. A reenforcement of 200 arrived at this moment; an advance was ordered and the Moros were driven back, the Spanish loss being 2 killed and 9 wounded, while that of the Moros was reported as about 250 killed and 300 arms left on the field.
In September the Sultan Rumani, the reputed ruler of 18 towns on the lake, visited the Spanish commander at Ulama, to indicate his desire for peace with Spain. In October the work of building the suspension bridge across the Agus was begun.
About November 10 General Blanco returned to the scene of operations for a short time only. The Agus River bridge was finished and opened on February 27, 1895. The bridge consisted of a suspension span 40 meters long, with approaches of 21 meters and 12 meters, respectively, and was intended to bear the weight of railway trains.
In February General Blanco again visited Iligan, and on March 10, at noon, the cota of Amani Pac Pac at Marahui was attacked by Spaniards. After a fight of four hours the fort was taken and the army gained the desired position on Lake Lanao; Generals Blanco, Parrado, and Aguirre were present and a cantonment was at once established.
On May 9 some 40 Moros attacked Las Piedras, killing 2 and wounding 3 soldiers, but themselves losing 9 killed. On July 12 some 40 Moros from the rancherias of Tugaya and Putud, bearing a Spanish flag, approached a working party and attacked the soldiers, escaping with several rifles, after killing 2 soldiers and wounding 38.
On August 18 the launch Lanao was launched at Marahui, the others being nearly finished.
Many Moro dignitaries gave in their adhesion to Spain about this time, among them being the Rajah Muda of Ganassi, the Dato Pranga-Rungan of Tugayas, and the Dato Uregan of Maciu, said to have been the councilor-general of the Lake of Lanao.
In October, 1895, the Spanish forces were again reorganized, a division of two brigades being constituted. The division was commanded by Gen. Gonzales Parrado, the Northern Brigade by General de los Rios, and the Southern Brigade by General Luis Huertas.
Divisional troops: Three companies engineers, mortar battery, cavalry squadron, and troops of the military administration.
First (Northern) Brigade: About 10 companies of infantry. 2 companies disciplinarios, and 1 mountain batten'.
Second (Southern) Brigade: About 10 companies of infantry, 2 companies diseiplinarios, 2 companies of engineers, 1 company of foot artillery, 1 mountain battery.
The garrisons were as follows: Two companies of infantry and 1 company of engineers at Iligan; 1 company of infantry at Las Piedras; 2 companies of infantry at Camp Maria Cristina; 2companiesof infantry at Momungan: one-half company of infantry at Fort Tiradores; 3 companies of infantry at Camp Victoria. At Fort Briones, one-half company infantry; Fort Salazar, 1 company engineers, 1 company infantry; Fort Lumbayanegui, one-third company of infantry: Fort Nuevo, one-half company of Infantry; camp at Marahui. lOcompaniesof infantry, 1 mountain battery, 1 company engineers, mortar battery, naval battery, and cavalry squadron.
WAR 1903—VOL 3- 26
For escort purposes each branch of the service was to furnish an eighth of its force, except the cavalry, which was to furnish only a noncommissioned officer and 4 soldiers. Garrisons of forts mentioned above were exempted from furnishing escorts. Troops from Iligan were to convoy trains through to Marahui. Troops of the Seventy-third and Seventy-fourth to return to Sungut and Victoria the following morning and while resting were only to be employed in instruction and rifle practice.
The cargadores (bearers) were not to be employed in any other labor whatever.
From the report of General Blanco, dated Marahui, October 19, 1895, to the Spanish minister of war, the following is gleaned:
Both horses and carabao are unsuitable for work on the road, the former on account of lack of strength and the latter on account of slowness and inability to work without very frequent water or mud baths. In consequence half of the army was compelled to work at keeping the road in repair.
Material for 35 kilometers of the railway was at Iligan, which was enough to complete the same to the suspension bridge of Alphonso XIII over the Agus.
The railway route would have to deviate from the road slightly to the west in the first 10 or 12 kilometers from Iligan in order to ascend the passes of Tominubo and Nonucan, Fort Maria Cristina being 450 meters above the sea at the head of the Nonucan. From Maria Cristina to the bridge the railway could follow the wagon road. From Iligan to Fort de las Piedras was 11 kilometers: from the latter fort to the river Nonucan was 2 kilometers. The bridge over this river is commanded by Fort Maria Cristina, which also covers several trails leading to important Moro rancherias. From the river Nonucan to the fort at Momungan on Agus River, which is of considerable width at this point, was 4 kilometers. From Momungan to Fort Tiradores at Banar 3 kilometers. This fort commanded the approaches to some rancherias, and also the ascent to the cota of Bulut on the same hill, while 4 kilometers distant was the lake of Calaganan, near which were Fort Victoria and Fort Salgado, the latter near the wood of Balete. To this succeeds the plateau of Ulama, dominated by Fort Briones, which is in sight of Fort Salazar, 2 kilometers distant. This latter fort, situated 40 meters above the bridge of Alphonso XIII across the Agus, together with the Fort of Sungut, on the opposite bank, commanded the crossing and also guarded Linanan. For 5 kilometers beyond Sungut the country was rolling, open, and cultivated, and protected by the small fort of Lumbayanaqui, which also guarded the nearby wood of Vito. Here the road ascended a precipitous hill to the extensive and elevated plateau in which Lake Lanao is situated at a level of about 800 meters above the sea. At the summit of the hill was Fort Nuevo, 2 kilometers from Marahui, the station on the lake. Marahui was also flanked by the redoubts of Aranda and Allanegui, which defended the landing place.
On February 17, 1896, about a thousand reenforcements arrived at Iligan from Manila. General Blanco and General Aguirrealso visited Iligan on March 6. The road was found in bad condition on account of eight days'rain. On March 12 the captain-general arrived at Marahui. The water supply from Lake Lanao was found to be as satisfactory as that from a spring at Fort Nuevo.
Two Moros seized the rifles of 2 native soldiers, and on the night of the 12th Fort Nuevo, garrisoned by 50 men, was attacked by the Moros, who were repulsed with a loss of several killed.
The maximum temperature of Marahui is stated to have been 27 °C., and minimum 12 °C. (April and May).
On February 25 Fort Reina Regente, on the hills of Tinuncup, in the Rio Grande Valley, 18 meters about the sea, was garrisoned. The commanding officer, Col. Ricarto Perez, is said to have been asked by Dato Uto if 10,000 men could take the fort, to which the Spanish officer replied that all the Moros in Mindanao could not take it. At this time the most advanced post of the Spaniards was Fort Picit, 34 miles above Reina Regente, but another at Catituan, 8 leagues beyond Picit, was contemplated.
On March 20 a company of disciplinarios under Capt. Felipe Garde was attacked by a number of Moros while clearing ground near the new fort of Corcnera at Malabang, losing 5 rifles and having 7 men wounded. Later these Moros were surprised at Baqui, near old Fort Corcuera, 18 being killed and 12 wounded. On March 30 a detachment of Spanish troops, together with 180 Moro allies, left Corcuera for the source of the river Mataling in search of a hostile force from the rancherias of Pualas, Bacolod, Gadungan, Boras, and Dinaposas, but without result.
In the latter part of March the gunboat Panay shelled some Moros at the mouth of the river Macklin.
On April 1 General Blanco left Marahni for Iligan, where he embarked for Zamboanga and the Rio Grande region. At this time the military organizations in Mindanao were as follows: The division of Mindanao, with headquarters at Zamboanga; First Brigade, Gen. F. Castilla. comprising second, third, and seventh districts, headquarters Iligan or Marahni; Second Brigade, headquarters ParangParang, Col. C. Lasala, comprising first, fourth, fifth, and sixth districts. Colonel Hereidla, count of Terra Alta, was politico-military governor of Lanao, the actual command, however, being under Colonel del Real. Gen. Luis Huerta was politico-military governor of Jolo and Gen. Diego de losRios was politico-military governor of Eoilo.
On April 12 General Blanco arrived in Illana Bay and inspected the new fort of Malabang on the 13th. During his visit some Moros attacked the place, but were repulsed, leaving 22 dead on the field. On the following day a Spanish force on a scout was attacked, General Aguirre and Lieutenant-Colonel Soro being wounded. General Aguirre returned to Manila on May 10, and General Blanco also returned after visiting the forts of Polloc and Cotabato.
In April, 1896, some piratical vessels robbed a boat on the coast of Occidental Negros, but pursuit of them was not effective.
On April 29 the garrison of Marahui consisted of 1,700 men, with 40 sick.
Near Baras, 6 miles west of Malabang, 40 men, under a captain, away from the fort, were attacked by Moros, but after a sharp fight the latter were repulsed with a loss of 5 datos and 11 others killed. The Spaniards had 1 soldier mortally and 3 severely wounded.
On July 1.1896, the city of Manila presented a sword of honor to General Blanco as a memorial of his campaign in Mindanao.
On July 9 a juramentado" killed a soldier at Cotabato and was himself killed by soldiers of the garrison.
On August 7 the Sultan of Tugaya presented himself at Marahui with a request for peace.
On August 9 a Moro attacked and wounded a lieutenant in the Lanao country, but was killed by the latter.
The outbreak of the Tagalog insurrection in August, 1896. evidently influenced the disciplinarios, of whom some 300 belonging to the Third and Fourth companies deserted late in September from the Lanao country, making for Misamis Province. They were pursued and defeated near Opol and Agusan in Misamis. A sergeant killed Lieut. Bueno Espanosa at Lintogup on September 16. He was afterwards shot at Iligan.
On November 12, 80 Moros from a rancheria near Taraca attacked a convoy escorted by some marine infantry near Aparicolo, killing 1 soldier and wounding 3. The Moros were driven off with a loss of 3 killed and 23 wounded.
On November 19 the lake gunboats General Blanco, Coreuera, and Almonte, near Bayan, were fired upon by the Moros. After returning the fire the vessels returned to Marahui. where two companies and some marines embarked for Bayan, which was bombarded and a loss of 100 killed inflicted upon the Moros. Later the cota of Bacolod was bombarded and destroyed, and 3 deserters from the disciplinarios were shot at Marahui.
In December a so-called insurgent governor was captured and shot at Misamis. On December 24 a force of deserters was defeated near Cagayan Misamis, and the leader, a former Corporal Bravo, was killed. On the same day Major San Martin, with 60 soldiers, attacked and defeated another band of deserters who were in possession of the Church at Milagros Viejo (Butuan Valley), killing 4 and wounding many, while 2 soldiers (natives—Tagalogs) were executed at Iligan on the 29th for complicity in the uprising; and during January 2 corporals and 5 soldiers were shot at Tucuran and Cotabato for the same crime.
On April 11, 1897, a plot was discovered at Jolo implicating many of the deported Tagalog insurgents and some of the men of the Sixty-eighth Regiment, the plan being to overthrow the Spanish rule at Jolo. As a result of the plot 13 former insurgents were sentenced to death, together with 3 corporals of the Sixth-eighth Regiment.
General Polavieja was relieved on April 23, 1897, by General Primo de Rivera as captain-general of the Philippines.
On May 15, 8 juramentados from the rancheria of Boal, Jolo, went to Bus-Bus, a suburb of Jolo, and attacked some soldiers of the Sixty-eighth Regiment, who were landing in a small boat. The soldiers fired on them, killing 6 of the number in the water and 2 on shore.
During the spring of 1897 expeditions were made by the lake gunboats from Marahui against the cotas of Bayan, Binadayan, and Bacolod. Later operations were carried on against the rancherias of Sugut, Molundum, and Lipo. On May 15 two companies and the lake launches attacked the settlements of Uato and Malaig, near Marahui. In July, 1897, Fort Corcuera, built by the military engineer, Galvez, was garrisoned by one company of infantry, and Fort Baras by one company. There was also one company guarding the isthmus, with posts at Tucuran, Lnbig, and Lintogup; headquarters at Parang. The posts on Illana Bay were visited about every ten days by the gunboats Panay and Mariveles, which had their headquarters at Polloc.
In July other deserters from the disciplinarios were being pursued by troops from Iligan.
On August 7, 1897, the third squadron of Thirty-first Cavalry left Manila for Iligan to relieve the cavalry serving in that district.
In July. 1897, the forts on the Rio Grande de Mindanao were Cotabato, Reina Regente, Picit, Kudarangan, Taviran, Tamontat a, and Labungan. The gunboats Gardoqui and Urdaneta were also in the vicinity.
In October, 1897, Moros attacked the Spanish fort near Las Piedras, wounding 2 soldiers. One Moro was killed, and later the rancheria of the assailants was destroyed and 3 Moros killed.
On November 13 nearly all the buildings at Marahui were destroyed by fire, which the prevalence of a strong wind facilitated. Almost at the same time Iligan was inundated by the rivers at that place and much damage done.
On December 15 a small force from Iligan, in pursuit of some escaped deported natives of Luzon, was attacked by Moros. Four Moros and 4 of the deported natives were killed in the fight, the Spaniards also losing 1 man killed.
On February 4.1898, General Buil directed 4 columns under Lieutenant-Colonels Brandeis, Iturriaga, Torres-Ascarza. and Ruiz Toledo from Marahui, which, together with the 3 gunboats on Lake Lanao, destroyed the rancherias of Bonto, Buayan, Ragayan, Minbalay, and Macro.. The Moro losses were 32 killed, 80 wounded, and 25 prisoners; Spanish losses not given.
General Primo de Rivera was succeeded in April by General Agustin; and the destruction of the fleet, on May 1, cut off the Southern Islands from Manila until the middle of August, at which time General Jaudenes represented the Spanish power at Manila and General delos Rios at Iloilo. In December General de los Rios evacuated Iloilo. the Spanish troops being concentrated at Zamboanga from all parts of Mindanao under the command of General Montero. The last Spanish politico-military governor of Iligan was probably Capt. Ricardo Carnicero Sanchez, who was appointed to that position on November 1, 1898.
Note By Translator.—The four Spanish gunboats were scuttled in the deeper part of Lake Lanao. The post of Marahui was abandoned, and the Moros assert that the bridge over the Agus River was destroyed by the Spanish troops.
The dates of the occupation of the country by the American forces was as follows:
Sulu Archipelago May —, 1899
Zamboanga Dec. 7,1899
Cotabato Dec. 12,1899
Davao. Dec. 20,1899
Polloc Dec. 21,1899
Matti ..Dec. 22,1899
Parang Jan. 5,1900
Surigao .Mar. 29,1900
Cagayan Mar. 31,1900
Iligan ...Apr. 1,1900
Misamis Dapitan Apr. 1,1900
Oroquieta July 11, 1900
Camp Vicars. May 2, 1902
Nonucan Nov. —, 1902
Pantar Mar.—, 1903
Chinese who lived in Sulu ran guns across a Spanish blockade to supply the Moro Datus and Sultanates with weapons to fight the Spanish, who were engaging in a campaign to subjugate the Moro sultantes on Mindanao. A trade involving the Moros selling slaves and other goods in exchange for guns developed. The Chinese had infiltrated the economy of the sultante, taking control of the Sultanate's economies in Mindanao and dominating the markets. Though the Sultans did not like the fact that the Chinese had a monopoly over the economy, they did business with them. The Chinese set up a trading network between Singapore, Zamboanga, Jolo and Sulu.
The Chinese sold small arms like Enfield and Spencer Rifles to the Buayan Datu Uto. They were used to battle the Spanish invasion of Buayan. The Datu paid for the weapons in slaves. The population of Chinese in Mindanao in the 1880s was 1,000. The Chinese ran guns across a Spanish blockade to sell to Mindanao Moros. The purchases of these weapons were paid for by the Moros in slaves in addition to other goods. The main group of people selling guns were the Chinese in Sulu. The Chinese took control of the economy and used steamers to ship goods for exporting and importing. Opium, ivory, textiles, and crockery were among the other goods which the Chinese sold.
The Chinese on Maimbung sent the weapons to the Sulu Sultanate, who used them to battle the Spanish and resist their attacks. A Chinese-Mestizo was one of the Sultan's brothers-in-law, the Sultan was married to his sister. He and the Sultan both owned shares in the ship (named the Far East) which helped smuggled the weapons.
The Spanish launched a surprise offensive under Colonel Juan Arolas in April 1887 by attacking the Sultanate's capital at Maimbung in an effort to crush resistance. Weapons were captured and the property of the Chinese were destroyed while the Chinese were deported to Jolo. 
The Moros maintained their independence from the Spanish, battling them constantly, it took until the final 2 decades of the presence of the Spanish in the Philippines for them to launch an extensive conquest of Mindanao.
Kris were used by the Moros. The Moros tortured shrieking Spanish troops.
Muslim Raids in the Visayas. The series of invasions waged by the Spaniards was countered with the Filipino Muslim war called jihad. The Filipino Muslim's wrath was struck not only upon the Spaniards but also on their brother Filipino Christians. They attacked the Christian settlements in the islands of Cebu, Negros, and Panay. Houses and churches were destroyed, villages flattened down to the ground, with many lives lost. The Christian Filipinos who had been captured were sold. Among the Muslim leaders who waged the most deadly counterattacks were Sultans Sali and Salonga. From mid- 1599 to the 1600s, the two Muslim leaders carried out the jihad. Among the victims of the Muslim attacks was Captain Garcia de Sierra, the Spanish alcalde mayor of Panay. Although he was killed in the battle, the Spaniards succeeded in preserving their colonized territories in the Visayas. 4. Zamboanga Spanish conquests in Mindanao were intensified in 1602, 1627, 1628- 1629 but all failed due to the all-out resistance, particularly in Jolo. Because of the suicidal offensives of the Muslim Filipinos, the Spaniards branded them as juramentados...On February 2, 1637 Governor-General Hurtado de Corcuera sent a military expedition to Mindanao. From Rio Grande de Mindanao, the Spanish fleet attacked Lamitan (near Lanao) ruled by Sultan Kudarat, the most influential sultan warrior in the Moro land. Due to the overwhelming number of Spanish forces, Kudarat had to retreat to Lanao.
Moro depredations and enabled the Spaniards to take the offensive against the Moro base at Jolo and on Lake Lanao in northern Mindanao. Neither side, however, could win an outright victory, and when the Chinese leader Koxinga, having ousted the Dutch from Formosa in 1661, went on to threaten Manila in the following year, Zamboanga was evacuated by the Spaniards and(Original from the University of Michigan)
1 12 CONFLICT OF SUCCESSION AND RIVALRY The withdrawal of Spanish forces in Zamboanga and other outposts in Mindanao for Manila in 1663 to meet the threat of a Chinese attack by Koxinga left Mindanao all to the Moros, to the internal dissensions among the ranks of its covetous nobility who harbored every ambition to royal paramountcy(the University of Michigan)
and the speedy colonization of Moroland. Spain abandoned Zamboanga in 1663 to reinforce Manila against the threat of Chinese Koxinga, and they returned in 1718 to occupy again the settlement. In 1720-1721, Iranun and M'ranao Moros numbering 3000 warriors led by the King of Butig stormed and laid siege to the Fort for five months but the Fort stood its defenses. A saga of their race, the event is recorded and preserved in the salsila of the M'ranaos by their lyricists, and it is sung and recited in rhapsody during important occasions.(the University of Michigan)
The Christian occupation of the north coast of Mindanao was just being consolidated when, in 1662, a new threat to the whole Philippine enterprise brought the labours to a halt. Koxinga, the Chinese war-lord who had taken over Formosa, threatened Manila, and Governor Bobadilla sent out orders calling in all the Spanish forces in Mindanao, including those of Iligan and Zamboanga, to defend the capital. 38 This ... and furtive expeditions of our Jesuits," who were prevented from doing more by the "bloody piracies of the Moros(the University of Michigan)
The Spaniards retaliated the following year, 1656, burning Kudarat's town and some Moro towns in Sibugay Bay and destroying a Dutch fleet allied with the Moros. Kudarat's fort stood and repulsed Spanish offensive even while the Moros were raiding the coasts of Mindoro and Marinduque. Datu Salicula scoured the Philippine seas, entering Manila Bay in 1657 and capturing over 1,000 natives. In 1660, Jolo and Tawi-Tawi Moros raided the coasts of Bohol, Leyte and Mindoro and, in 1662, sacked and burned a great many towns in the Visayas. 1 12 CONFLICT OF SUCCESSION AND RIVALRY The withdrawal of Spanish forces in Zamboanga and(the University of Michigan)
In 1635, Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera arrived as the new Governor General of the Philippines. He was a soldier, and he decided to look into the Moro problem. He personally led a military expedition to the Pulangi in 1637 and successfully took Sultan Kudarat's fort at ...In 1639, he sent troops to overrun the area around Laka Lanao, erecting a fort near Iligan, the northern entrance to the Maranao country. It was a dramatic revanche. In three short years, this veteran of the Spanish wars turned the tables on the Moros. A festive Manila accorded him a jubilant triumph on his return from the campaigns. Boys soon fell to playing Espanoles and Magindanaos, with a Corcuera, wooden sword in air, leading the charge against the defiant ranks of a Kudarat. It was from such games (at least it seems so) that the traditional moro-moro developed into an early art form in the Philippines. Such triumphs did not last. Governor Sebastian Manrique de Lara (1635-1663) recalled the Spanish garrisons in the south. What happened? In May 1662, Chen Cheng-kung (hispanized into Koxinga) delivered a dire warning to the Governor that, having captured Formosa Island, he was now ready to take the Philippines, unless the Spaniards paid the tribute he demanded. Manrique just as boastfully refused to honor the threat, but he decided to bolster the defenses of the colony. He recalled all the southern forces, leaving the outposts at Caraga and Zamboanga bereft of men. The Sulus and Magindanaos lost no time and resumed their hostile operations. As it turned out, Koxinga never made good on his threat. He died. But the garrisons were not restored. And so, emboldened, the Moros resumed their raids. They sailed the Philippine seas freely, reaching as far north as Cagayan(the University of Michigan0
In order to protect their share in the China trade, the Spanish came to Zamboanga in 1635. ... In 1663 Manila, the Spanish capital, was under threat from a Chinese attack, and all Spanish resources in Zamboanga were withdrawn to Luzon...With the American arrival in the Philippines in 1898, many aspects of life in Zamboanga and its neighbouring regions changed...Muslims began to be outnumbered by Christian immigrants; today the Muslim population of Mindanao and Sulu accounts for only 23 percent of the region's total.
---- Despite the Jolo treaty, the Jolo dato, Salicala, and a dato from Borneo ravaged the Visayan coast. The force of the latter was defeated by Monforte near Masbate, and Salicala returned to Jolo. Monforte destroyed several towns and 300 boats in Borneo. In 1655 trouble again broke out between Corralat and the Spanish forces, the Moros sacking numerous towns in the Calamianes and one town near Zamboanga. In 1656 a fleet dispatched by De Sara, the new captaingeneral, burned Corralat's town and some Moro towns in Sibuguey Bay, destroying also a Dutch fleet allied with the Moros. The Moros at the same time were ravaging the coasts of Mindoro and Marinduque, and succeeded also in repulsing the attack on the fort at Corralat, forcing the Spaniards to return to Sabonilla and Zamboanga. In 1657 Salicala scoured the Philippine seas, capturing over 1,000 native prisoners, entering the Bay of Manila during the raid. In 1660 Moros from Jolo and Tawi-Tawi, taking advantage of an insurrection in Luzon, raided the costs of Bohol, Leyte, and Mindoro. In 1662 a Chinese rebellion embarrassed the Spaniards, and at this time several datos from the Jolo and Tawi-Tawi islands sacked and burned a great many towns in the Visayas. Following these inroads, Bobadilla, governor of Zamboanga, was ordered to evacuate that station, which was done in January, 1663. For the next half century Moro raids on the Mindanao and Visayan settlements marked each year, and many fights were chronicled between the fleets of praus and the Spanish fleet known as the "Armada de los Pintados," The Jesuits had endeavoured in 1666 and 1672 to have the fort of Zamboanga rebuilt, but it was not until 1712 that the Spanish King ordered its reestablishment, and even then the project was not realised until 1718, in which year the present fort, with four bastions, was built and the city walls protected. The place was defended by 61 pieces of artillery. The reestablishment of the Zamboanga station caused great discontent among the Moros. It was besieged for two months in 1720 and 1721 by 5,000 Moros under the dato of Butig. The resistance, directed by the governor, Amorrea, was successful, and the siege abandoned, the Moros turning their efforts to raids on Mindoro and the Calamianes, where great damage was done.(Princeton University)
While Governor-General Lara was in office another Chinese invasion threatened. A Mongol chieftain named Koxinga, who had been driven forth from his own country by the Tartars, was the leader of it. When the Tartars overran China, about the middle of the seventeenth century, Koxinga and many of his followers refused to submit. They went to Formosa, drove out the Dutch people, and settled there. Later Koxinga laid a plan to take the Philippine Islands and set up his kingdom there. Koxinga's chief adviser was an Italian friar named Riccio. This friar he had appointed a high mandarin, or nobleman. He now sent him to Manila, dressed in the garb of his office, to demand tribute from the Philippine government. Naturally this demand caused amaze and alarm in Manila. The Spaniards were aghast at the idea of a Catholic priest demanding tribute from a Catholic country, in the name of a heathen ruler. Later the authorities at Rome called the friar to account for his conduct. At this time, however, the Spanish were at a loss how to act. They did not dare send the priest-mandarin away, nor could they give him any answer. They therefore kept him waiting in Manila while they made up their minds what to do. As was usual, when trouble arose, the government thought that the Chinese in Manila were plotting to take the city. They felt sure that these men would be ready to help Koxinga when he came, so everything was made ready for another attack upon the Chinese in Luzon. All government troops, both Spanish and native, were collected at Manila. So great was the fear, that three important forts were torn down, and the soldiers stationed there were brought to Luzon. Only the fort at Caraga, Mindanao, was left standing. This one they did not dare to give up; the soldiers there were all that kept the Moros from destroying the settlements on that coast. When the Chinese saw the Spaniards making ready for war, they knew from past experience that it meant trouble for them. As usual, therefore, they began the trouble themselves. They attacked the Spanish, and the latter at once began fighting the Chinese wherever they found them. This time the Spanish meant to kill every Chinaman in the country. They hunted out all who hid, and cut them down. Not one whom they caught was spared. Not one of all in the islands would have been spared if the country could have gotten along without them. Someone remembered, however, before it was too late, that if all the Chinese were killed there would be no one left to carry on the small trades of the country. Because bootmakers and tailors and small shopkeepers were needed, therefore about 5,000 Chinamen were spared, and these were permitted to remain in Manila. , After peace was made, Riccio was allowed to go back to Formosa, to tell Koxinga what had been done. He found the chieftain getting ready to come to Manila with an army to take the country, and Riccio told him what had happened. Koxinga's rage was great when he heard his mandarin's story. He planned to go at once to the islands to punish this wicked cruelty to his countrymen. He fell ill, however, and died of fever before he could start. Thus Manila escaped the fate that must almost surely have fallen upon the city if the Chinese chief and his great army had reached the bay. The foolish attack upon the Chinese took so many Spanish soldiers from the southern islands that the Moros now had free swing along the coasts of Mindanao and the Visayas. Other troubles came up in Manila, and soon evil and sorrow were as active and as real as though the islands had never been cleansed by book and ceremony. Not even these can stay the results of cruelty and evil in men's lives.(Harvard University)
His son was the notorious Kue-Sing, or Koxinga, who for years resisted the armies of the Manchus, and maintained an independent power over the coasts of Fukien and Chekiang. About 1660 the forces of the Manchus became too formidable for him to longer resist them upon the mainland, and Koxinga determined upon the capture of Formosa and the transference of his kingdom to that island. For thirty-eight years this island had been dominated by the Dutch, whose fortresses commanded the channel of the Pescadores. The colony was regarded as an important one by the Dutch colonial government at Batavia. The city of Tai-wan, on the west coast, was a considerable center of trade. It was strongly protected by the fortress of Zealand, and had a garrison of twentytwo hundred Dutch soldiers. After months of fighting, Koxinga, with an overpowering force of Chinese, compelled the surrender of the Hollanders and the beautiful island passed into his power. A Threatened Invasion of the Philippines-—Exalted by his success against European arms, Koxinga resolved upon the conquest of the Philippines. He summoned to his service the Italian Dominican missionary, Ricci, who had been living in the province of Fukien, and in the spring of 1662 dispatched him as an ambassador to the governor of the Philippines to demand the submission of the archipelago. Manila was thrown into a terrible panic by this demand, and indeed no such danger had threatened the Spanish in the Philippines since the invasion of Limahong. The Chinese conqueror had an innumerable army, and his armament, stores, and navy had been greatly augmented by the surrender of the Dutch. The Spaniards, however, were united on resistance. The governor, Don Sabiano Manrique de Lara, returned a defiant answer to Koxinga, and the most radical measures were adopted to place the colony in a state of defense. All Chinese were ordered immediately to leave the Islands. Fearful of massacre, these wretched people again broke out in rebellion, and assaulted the city. Many were slain, and other bands wandered off into the mountains, where they perished at the hands of the natives. Others, escaping by frail boats, joined the Chinese colonists on Formosa. Churches and convents in the suburbs of Manila, which might afford shelter to the assailant, were razed to the ground. More than all this, the Moluccas were forsaken, never again to be recovered by Spaniards; and the presidios of Zamboanga and Cuyo, which served as a kind of bridle on the Moros of Jolo and Mindanao, were abandoned. All Spanish troops were concentrated in Manila, fortifications were rebuilt, and the population waited anxiously for the attack. But the blow never fell. Before Ricci arrived at Tai-wan, Koxinga was dead, and the peril of Chinese invasion had passed. Effects of These Events. — But the Philippines had suffered irretrievable loss. Spanish prestige was gone. Manila was no longer, as she had been at the commencement of the century, the capital of the East. Spanish sovereignty was again confined to Luzon and the Bisayas. The Chinese trade, on which rested the economic prosperity of Manila, had once again been ruined. For a hundred years the history of the Philippines is a dull monotony, quite unrelieved by any heroic activity or the presence of noble character.1(Harvard University)
The conflict between the Dutch and Spanish for possession of the East ended in the loss to Spain of most of the possessions to the south in the hands of the Dutch, although efforts of the latter to gain possession of the Philippines were without success. In 1640 Portugal freed herself from Spain and Spain lost the remainder of her possessions to the south. During this period the raids of the Moros continued. These pirates did much damage. This led to efforts on the part of Spain to conquer these warlike people, which resulted in the conquest of Jolo and the establishment of a stronghold at Zamboanga. In 1662 Koxinga, a Chinese pirate, demanded the surrender of Manila. This danger was so great that the Spaniards concentrated all their efforts to resist the threatened invasions and abandoned some of their strongholds in the south. The Chinese in Manila were suspected of ibeing in the plot. They assaulted Manila but many were slain and the remainder left the city. The threatened invasion never was carried out for Koxinga died. The effects of the events cited above left Spanish prestige at a low ebb. Manila was no longer the principal commercial centre of the East and never again recovered that position. The century that followed from 1663-1762 has been described as one of obscurity for the Philippines. It was filled with conflicts between the civil and Church authorities. Corruption and violence went unrebuked. Efforts made by Spain to correct the abuses were for the most part without success. One of the courageous governors was killed by Church authorities. Commerce between South America and the Philippines was forbidden and that with Mexico greatly restricted for the benefit of the merchants of Spain. This economic policy nearly paralyzed trade. Moro piracy again became active. In 1762 the English captured Manila, but made no attempt to extend their conquest. By the Treaty of Paris in 1763, the Philippines were restored to Spain.(Harvard University)
The conflict between the Dutch and Spanish for possession of the East ended in the loss to Spain of most of the possessions to the south in the hands of the Dutch, although efforts of the latter to gain possession of the Philippines were without success. In 1640 Portugal freed herself from Spain and Spain lost the remainder of her possessions to the south. During this period the raids of the Moros continued. These pirates did much damage. This led to efforts on the part of Spain to conquer these warlike people, which resulted in the conquest of Jolo and the establishment of a stronghold at Zamboanga. In 1662 Koxinga, a Chinese pirate, demanded the surrender of Manila. This danger was so great that the Spaniards concentrated all their efforts to resist the threatened invasions and abandoned some of their strongholds in the south. The Chinese in Manila were suspected of feeing in the plot. They assaulted Manila but many were slain and the remainder left the city. The threatened invasion never was carried out for Koxinga died. The effects of the events cited above left Spanish prestige at a low ebb. Manila was no longer the principal commercial centre of the East and never again recovered that position. The century that followed from 1663-1762 has been described as one of obscurity for the Philippines. It was filled with conflicts between the civil and Church authorities. Corruption and violence went unrebuked. Efforts made by Spain to correct the abuses were for the most part without success. One of the courageous governors was killed by Church authorities. Commerce between South America and the Philippines was forbidden and that with Mexico greatly restricted for the benefit of the merchants of Spain. This economic policy nearly paralyzed trade. Moro piracy again became active. In 1762 the English captured Manila, but made no attempt to extend their conquest. By the Treaty of Paris in 1763, the Philippines were restored to Spain.(Harvard University)
Another event of importance during the seventeenth century resulted from the overthrow of the Ming Dynasty in China by the Manchus. During the change of power and consequent disorders there, a Chinese adventurer, Koxinga, raised a pirate army in south China and drove the Dutch out of Formosa. He then sent an ambassador to Manila demanding the surrender of the Islands to him. The colony was weak and unprepared for defense, and consequently terrified. There were twenty-five thousand Chinese living in Pari-an, north of the Pasig River, in Manila. Fearful lest these Chinese cooperate in the designs of Koxinga, they were all ordered to leave the Islands. Unable to do so at once, and fearful of massacre, they arose in rebellion and assaulted the city of Manila. The result was a terrible massacre, which cost the lives of twenty-two thousand of the Chinese; the remaining three thousand built frail boats and fled to Formosa. The death of Koxinga occurred before his expedition reached the Philippines.(the University of Michigan)
In 1597, Spain built a fort at La Caldera (now Recodo, Zamboanga City) and abandoned it later. They reoc- cupied the city in 1635 and built therein the Nuestra Senor del Pilar Fort with support flotilla to check Moro sorties to Visayas and Luzon and effect speedy colonization of Moroland. Spain abandoned Zamboanga in 1663 to reinforce Manila against the threat of Chinese Koxinga, and they returned in 1718 to occupy again the settlement. In 1720-1721, Iranun and M'ranao Moros numbering 3000 warriors led by the King of Butig stormed and laid siege to the Fort for five months but the Fort stood its defenses. A saga of their race, the event is recorded and preserved in the salsila of the M'ranaos by their lyricists, and it is sung and recited in rhapsody during important occasions.(the University of Michigan)
The Spaniards retaliated the following year, 1656, burning Kudarat's town and some Moro towns in Sibugay Bay and destryoying a Dutch fleet allied with the Moros. Kudarat's fort stood and repulsed Spanish offensive even while the Moros were raiding the coasts of Mindoro and Marinduque. Datu Salicula scoured the Philippine seas, entering Manila Bay in 1657 and capturing over 1000 natives. In 1660, Jolo and Tawi-Tawi Moros raided the coasts of Bohol, Leyte and Mindoro and, in 1662, sacked and burned a great many towns in the Visayas. 1 12 CONFLICT OF SUCCESSION AND RIVALRY The withdrawal of Spanish forces in Zamboanga and other outposts in Mindanao for Manila in 1 663 to meet the threat of a Chinese attack by Koxinga left Mindanao all to the Moros, to the internal dissensions among the ranks of its covetous nobility who harbored every ambition to royal paramountcy.(the University of Michigan)
which culminated in the construction Fort Pillar in Zamboanga (La Caldera); 4. The efforts to subjugate Mindanao and Sulu from 1635 to 1663 when the Spanish garrison at the La Caldera was abandoned on account of Koxinga's threat in Luzon(the University of California)
spite the Jolo treaty, the Jolo dato, Salicala, and a dato from Borneo ravaged the Visayan coast. The force of the latter was defeated by Monforte near Masbate, and Salicala returned to Jolo. Monforte destroyed several towns and 300 boats in Borneo. In 1655 trouble again broke out between Corralat and the Spanish forces, the Moros sacking numerous towns in the Calamianes and one town near Zamboanga. In 1656 a fleet dispatched by De Sara, the new captaingeneral, burned Corralat's town and some Moro towns in Sibuguey Bay, destroying also a Dutch fleet allied with the Moros. The Moros at the same time were ravaging the coasts of Mindoro and Marinduque, and succeeded also in repulsing the attack on the fort at Corralat, forcing the Spaniards to return to Sabonilla and Zamboanga. In 1657 Salicala scoured the Philippine seas, capturing over 1,000 native prisoners, entering the Bay of Manila during the raid. In 1660 Moros from Jolo and Tawi-Tawi, takmg advantage of an insurrection in Luzon, raided the costs of Bohol, Leyte, and Mindoro. In 1662 a Chinese rebellion embarrassed the Spaniards, and at this time several datos from the Jolo and Tawi-Tawi islands sacked and burned a great many towns in the Visayas. Following these inroads, Bobadilla, governor of Zamboanga, was ordered to evacuate that station, which was done in January, 1663. For the next half century Moro raids on the Mindanao and Visayan settlements marked each year, and many fights were chronicled between the fleets of praus and the Spanish fleet known as the "Armada de los Pintados,(Harvard University)
Despite the Jolo treaty, the Jolo dato, Salicala. and a dato from Borneo ravaged the Visayan coast. The force of the latter was defeated by Monforte near Masbate, and Salicala returned to Jolo. Monforte destroyed several towns and 300 boats in Borneo. In 1655 trouble again broke out between Corralat and the Spanish forces, the Moros sacking numerous towns in the Calamianes and one town near Zamboanga. In 1656 a fleet dispatched by De Sara, the new captaingeneral, burned Corralat's town and some Moro towns in Sibugney Bay, destroying also a Dutch fleet allied with the Moros. The Moros at the same time were ravaging the coasts of Mindoro and Marindnque, and succeeded also in repulsing the attack on the fort at Corralat, forcing the Spaniards to return to Sabonilla and Zamboanga. In 1657 Salicala scoured the Philippine seas, capturing over 1,000 native prisoners, entering the Bay of Manila during the raid. In 1660 Moros from Jolo and Tawi-Tawi, taking advantage of an insurrection in Luzon, raided the costs of Bohol, Leyte, and Mindoro. In 1662 a Chinese rebellion embarrassed the Spaniards, and at this time several datos from the Jolo and Tawi-Tawi islands sacked and burned a great many towns in the Visayas. Following these iuroads, Bobadilla, governor of Zamboanga, was ordered to evacuate that station, which was done in January, 1663. For the next half century Moro raids on the Mindanao and Visayan settlements marked each year, and many fights were chronicled between the fleets of praus and the Spanish fleet known as the "Armada de los Pintados,"(the University of Michigan)
For three centuries, intermittent attempts were made by the Spaniards to destroy the homes of tihe Moro pirates, who. almost without exception, raided the Spanish colonies throughout the Philippine Islands, south of Luzon, and even occasionally on that island. Many reverses and some successes were met with by the Spanish expeditions against the JoJo ami Mindanao Moros. The names of some of the Spanish Captains-General who figured in these conflicts, and of the Moro chiefs, would convey no significance to those English-speaking people who have not, during the last six or seven years, participated in Moro campaigns. In 1637 Corcuero inaugurated a new conquest of Jolo and of Mindanao. His force consisted of 76b Europeans. He made a landing at Jolo. The following year, he landed at Zamboanga and oroceeded past Cattobats up the Rio Grande against the Datto Corralat and the Da*tos of Buhayen and Basilan. The following year, Corcuero and Almonte built a fort at Sabonflla, now called Malabang, on Plana Bay. Purine 1639, Spanish soldiers and priests, under the warlike Recoleto friar, Augustin de San Pedro, led a party of 560 against the Lanao Moros, where Camps Vicars and Keithley now stand. In 1642. Generals Corcuero and Almonte made peace with Corralat, but piratical depredations by the Moros continued; Chinese rebellions embarrassed the Spaniards, who evacuated manv places, and many fights were chronicled between the Moro fleets of Praus and the Spanish fleets. The priests egged on the Spanish, and the Spanish King re-established, and then abandoned, many stations in Mindoro, Basilon, Mindanao ami Jolo. Treaties were made and unmade. Expeditions intended to be punitive were undertaken. The Tawi-Tavvi Moros nearly captured Zamboanga. Engagements were constant with varying success until 1737. King Philip V. of Spain, pestered the Sultans of Jolo and Tomantaca (Mindanao) about not being Christians, but expeditions were as frequent as baptisms.(the New York Public Library)
1603. A conflagration destroyed a third part of Manila. Uprising of 20,000 Chinese. Spaniards, nativ. and Japanese unite and completely overcome the Chinese. 160f>. Fortunate expedition to the Moluccas. First mission of Recoleta monks arrived. Uprisliu; the Japanese; were conquered and prohibited from living in future together in one ward. Dutch corsair, Rlancariio, defeated and captured by I>on Pedro de Heredia..ISt Moro pirates numbering 15,000 lay waste the Visayan Islands, and sacked the capital of Tayabas, Luzon. 1S5. Foundation of the fort of Zamboanga, Mindanao, to hold in check the piracy of the Moros..S Uprising of the Chinese at Calamba. Laguna. Their forays against San Pedro Macate.Taytay, and Antipolo and ultimate defeat and submission. College of San Juan de Letran founded under the Dominicans. Don Francisco de A tienza conquered the Moros of Lanao and took possession of the celebrated lake bearing this name. Victories of Don Pedro de Almonte over the Moros In Mindanao and Sulu...'Uprising in the provinces of Pampanga and Pangasinan, Luzon, quelled without bloodshed, "tt Chinese pirate Koseng demanded the submission of the archipelago, with serious threats. Upris, tag of the Chinese in the suburbs of Manila and their subsequent submission. Koseng died.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)(the University of California)
Construction of the Fort In 1635 Captain Juan de Chavez landed at Zamboanga with 300 Spaniards and 1000 Visayans to commence building the fort. He was accompanied by Pedro Gutierez, who had established the Jesuit mission at Dapitan to the north in Mindanao and by Melchior de Vera, an experienced Jesuit engineer and military architect. The fort was built under de Vera's direction and the cornerstone laid on June 23, 1635. Accounts are incomplete as to the actual length of time required to build the fort (cf. Diaz-Trechuelo 1959: 363). It was named Real Fuerza de San Jose(the University of Michigan) Issue 1 of Ethnology monographs
proved ineffectualy to suppress the scourge, and it was not until the introduction of gunboats that the Spaniards succeeded in getting the upper hand. The Moros were never, however, subdued by the Spaniards. Some of the chiefs made nominal submission while retaining actual independence, and several campaigns were conducted in Mindanao during the last twenty years of Spanish occupancy of the Philippines." ... Twenty years later, the Chinese in turn took possession, under the leadership of Koxinga
The Angono Petroglyphs are petroglyphs carved into a rock wall in Angono, Rizal, Philippines. It consists of 127 human and animal figures engraved on the rockwall probably carved during the late Neolithic, or before 2000 BC. They are the oldest known work of art in the Philippines. These inscriptions clearly show stylized human figures, frogs and lizards, along with other designs that may have depicted other interesting figures but erosion may have caused it to become indistinguishable. The engravings are mostly symbolic representations and are associated with healing and sympathetic magic. The site is sacred for indigenous Tagalog folk religion and is believed to be a home for anitos.The site has been declared by the National Museum of the Philippines as a National Cultural Treasure in 1973. It is also included in the list of the World Inventory of Rock Art in 1985 and historic sites of the World Monuments Watch and World Monuments Funds and part of the Philippines' tentative list of the UNESCO World Heritage Site.Batarah Shah Tengah
Sultan Batara Shah Tengah (also known as Pangiran Tindig or Pangiran Tengah) was the 8th Sultan of Sulu. He reigned from 1596 to 1608 (Some other Sulu Tarsilas or genealogical records say he reigned from 1585 to 1600). He was the son of the previous Sultan Muhammad ul-Halim, also known as Pangiran Buddiman.The title "Batara" in his name is a reference to Brunei annals, which used the title "Batara" to identify rulers of Sulu as there were numerous cases of intermarriage between the 2 royal houses. "Shah" may have been his actual given name or another royal title, referencing the Persian royal title. "Tengah" on the other hand, was another title, or an indication of birth order, as this meant he was in between an older brother and a younger brother.During his reign, he was known for being an intelligent and respectable ruler of Sulu, as well as an advocate of the Sharia Law in his domains. His reign also marked the end of the first phase of the Spanish-Moro Conflict, a conflict to span 3 centuries, throughout the Spanish colonisation of the Philippines. Moro raids began to frequent during his reign, with slave-raiding parties from many of his subjects across Sulu beginning to terrorise and ravage the coasts of the Philippines and its environs.Battle of Manila (1500)
The Battle of Manilla (1500s) (Filipino: Labanan sa Maynila) was fought in Manila between forcess of the Kingdom of Tondo led by their Senapati, Lakan Sukwo, and the soldiers of the Sultanate of Brunei led by Sultan Bolkiah, the singing captain. The aftermath of the battle was the formation of an alliance between the newly established Kingdom of Maynila (Selurong) and the Sultanate of Brunei, to crush the power of the Kingdom of Tondo and the subsequent installation of the Pro-Islamic Rajah Sulaiman into power. Furthermore, Sultan Bolkiah's victory over Sulu and Seludong (modern day Manila), as well as his marriages to Laila Mecanai, the daughter of Sulu Sultan Amir Ul-Ombra (an uncle of Sharifa Mahandun married to Nakhoda Angging or Maharaja Anddin of Sulu), and to the daughter of Datu Kemin, widened Brunei's influence in the Philippines.Brunei Civil War
The Brunei Civil War was a civil war fought in the Bruneian Empire from 1660 to 1673.Florante at Laura
Florante at Laura ("Florante and Laura") (full title: Pinagdaanang Buhay nina Florante at Laura sa Kahariang Albanya Kinuha sa madlang "cuadro histórico" o pinturang nagsasabi sa mga nangyari nang unang panahon sa Imperyo ng Gresya at tinula ng isang matuwain sa bersong Tagalog; English: "The History of Florante and Laura in the Kingdom of Albania: Adapted from some "historical pictures" or paintings that tell of what happened in early times in the Greek Empire, and were set to rhyme by one delighting in Tagalog verse"), written by Francisco Balagtas, is considered as one of the masterpieces of Philippine literature. Balagtas wrote the epic during his imprisonment. He dedicated it to his sweetheart María Asuncion Rivera, whom he nicknamed "M.A.R." and is referenced to as "Selya" in the dedication "Kay Selya" ("For Celia").
This is obligatory to read for Grade 8 students in the Philippines.Igorot society
The Igorot Society is the term for the collection of several ethnic groups in the Philippines that come from the Cordillera Administrative Region of Luzon. They inhabit the six provinces of Abra, Apayao, Benguet, Kalinga, Ifugao, and Mountain Province, as well as Baguio City. They are a pre-Hispanic highland society that has survived through Spanish colonization. This Prehispanic state is the oldest in the Philippines. This society predates the other pre-Hispanic states in the Philippines (Sultanates of Sulu, Lanao & Maguindanao; Rajahnates of Butuan & Cebu; Kingdoms of Maynila, Tondo & Namayan; the State of Ma-i & the Confederation of Madja-as) which are maritime civilizations, in contrast to this society which is a mountainous high-land society. This society is composed of many tribes, mainly the Bontoc, Ibaloi, Isnag (or Isneg/Apayao), Kalinga, and the Kankanaey.La Liga Filipina
La Liga Filipina (lit. The Philippine League) was a progressive organization created by Dr. José Rizal in the Philippines in the house of Doroteo Ongjunco at Ilaya Street, Tondo, Manila in 1892.
The organization derived from La Solidaridad and the Propaganda movement. The purpose of La Liga Filipina is to build a new group sought to involve the people directly in the reform movement.
The league was to be a sort of mutual aid and self-help society dispensing scholarship funds and legal aid, loaning capital and setting up cooperatives, the league became a threat to Spanish authorities that they arrested Rizal on July 6, 1892 on Dapitan.
During the exile of Rizal, The organization became inactive, though through the efforts of Domingo Franco and Andres Bonifacio, it was reorganized. The organization decided to declare its support for La Solidaridad and the reforms it advocated, raise funds for the paper, and defray the expenses of deputies advocating reforms for the country before the Spanish Cortes. Eventually after some disarray in the leadership of the group, the Supreme Council of the League dissolved the society.
The Liga membership split into two groups when it is about to be revealed: the conservatives formed the Cuerpo de Compromisarios which pledged to continue supporting the La Solidaridad while the radicals led by Bonifacio devoted themselves to a new and secret society, the Katipunan.La solidaridad
La Solidaridad (The Solidarity) was an organization created in Spain on December 13, 1888. Composed of Filipino liberals exiled in 1872 and students attending Europe's universities, the organization aimed to increase Spanish awareness of the needs of its colony, the Philippines, and to propagate a closer relationship between the Philippines and Spain.Headed by José Rizal's cousin, Galicano Apacible, it also issued a newspaper of the same name which was published in Barcelona, Spain on February 15, 1889. It was edited by Graciano López Jaena and later on by Marcelo H. del Pilar. The social, cultural, and economic conditions of the colonial Philippines was published in La Solidaridad. Speeches of the Spanish liberals about the Philippines was also featured in the newspaper.List of conflicts in the Philippines
This list of conflicts in the Philippines is a timeline of events that includes pre-colonial wars, Spanish–Moro conflict, Philippine revolts against Spain, battles, skirmishes, and other related items that have occurred in the Philippines' geographical area.Moro War
Moro War may refer to:
Moro insurgency in the Philippines (1969–present)
Moro War for Secession from Philippines (1935–1968)
Moro–American War (1899–1913)
Moros during World War II (1941–1945)
Spanish–Moro conflict (16th century-1904)Moro conflict
The Moro conflict was an insurgency in the Mindanao region of the Philippines, which lasted between 1969 and 2019.Due to marginalisation produced by continuous Resettlement Policy sustained at start of Mindanao and Sulu inclusion to the Philippine Commonwealth territory of 1935, by 1969, political tensions and open hostilities developed between the Government of the Philippines and Moro Muslim rebel groups. The developing Moro Insurgency was ultimately triggered by the Jabidah massacre, which saw the killing of 60 Filipino Muslim commandos on a planned operation to reclaim the eastern part of the Malaysian state of Sabah. In response, the University of the Philippines professor Nur Misuari established the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF), an armed insurgent group that was committed to establishing an independent entity composed of Mindanao, Sulu, and Palawan. Over the successive years, the MNLF has splintered into several different groups including the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF), which wanted to establish an Islamic state within the Philippines. The Moro Insurgency is rooted in a long history of resistance by the Bangsamoro people against foreign rule, dating back to the American annexation of the Philippines in 1898 even as they are not part of Spain's Act of War. Since then, Moro resistance has persisted against the Philippine government.
Casualty statistics vary for the conflict; however, the conservative estimates of the Uppsala Conflict Data Program indicate that at least 6,015 people were killed in armed conflict between the Government of Philippines and ASG, BIFM, MILF, and MNLF factions between 1989 and 2012.Piracy in the Sulu Sea
Piracy in the Sulu Sea historically occurred in the vicinity of Mindanao, where frequent acts of piracy were committed against the Spanish. Because of the continual wars between Spain and the Moro people, the areas in and around the Sulu Sea became a haven for piracy which was not suppressed until the beginning of the 20th century. The pirates of that period should not be confused with the naval forces or privateers of the various Moro tribes. However, many of the pirates operated under government sanction during time of war. Following the end of World War II, piracy in the Sulu Sea reemerged as a phenomenon that persists to this day.Propaganda Movement
The Propaganda Movement was a period of time when native Filipinos were calling for reforms, lasting approximately from 1880 to 1886 with the most activity between 1880 and 1895.The word "propaganda" in English has acquired a pejorative connotation that is absent from the original Latin word. One can
see its true meaning in the Roman institution called "Congregatio de
propaganda fide" - the Secretariate for the Spread of the Faith (or, as the
modern translation has it, For the Evangelization of Peoples). It was in the
latter sense that the word was used by the Filipino group that sent
Marcelo H. del Pilar to Spain to continue the "propaganda" on behalf of
the Philippines. It was essentially a campaign of information, as well as a
bid for sympathy. Dr. Domingo Abella, the learned Director of the National
Archives, has made the suggestion that the so-called Propaganda Movement
was misnamed. It should have been called the Counterpropaganda Movement
because its essential task was to counteract the campaign of
misinformation that certain Spanish groups were disseminating in Spain
and later in Rome.Prominent members included José Rizal, author of Noli Me Tangere (novel) and El Filibusterismo, Graciano López Jaena, publisher of La Solidaridad, the movement's principal organ, Mariano Ponce, the organization's secretary and Marcelo H. del Pilar.
Specifically, the Propagandists aims were the following:
Representation in the Philippines in the Cortes Generales, the Spanish parliament
Secularization of the clergy
Legalization of Spanish and Filipino equality
Creation of a public school system independent of Catholic friars
Abolition of polo y servicios (labor service) and the bandala (forced sale of local products to the government)
Guarantee of basic freedoms
Equal opportunity for Filipinos and Spanish to enter government serviceQuito School
The Quito School (Escuela Quiteña) is a Latin American artistic tradition that constitutes essentially the whole of the professional artistic output developed in the territory of the Royal Audience of Quito — from Pasto and Popayán in the north to Piura and Cajamarca in the south — during the Spanish colonial period (1542-1824). It is especially associated with the 17th and 18th centuries and was almost exclusively focused on the religious art of the Catholic Church in the country. Characterized by a mastery of the realistic and by the degree to which indigenous beliefs and artistic traditions are evident, these productions were among of the most important activities in the economy of the Royal Audience of Quito. Such was the prestige of the movement even in Europe that it was said that King Carlos III of Spain (1716–1788), referring to one of its sculptors in particular, opined: "I am not concerned that Italy has Michelangelo; in my colonies of America I have the master Caspicara".Republic of Negros
The Republic of Negros (Hiligaynon: Republika sang Negros; Cebuano: Republika sa Negros; Filipino: Republika ng Negros; Spanish: República de Negros) was a short-lived cantonal revolutionary republic in the eponymous Visayan island, and later, an administrative division, which existed while the Philippines was under Spanish and American sovereignty.Republic of Zamboanga
The Republic of Zamboanga was a short-lived sovereign republic, founded by General Vicente Alvarez with his Zamboangueño Revolutionary Forces after the Spanish government in Zamboanga officially surrendered and turned over Real Fuerza de Nuestra Señora La Virgen del Pilar de Zaragoza to Gen. Vicente Álvarez in May 1899. On 28 May 1899, Gen. Vicente Álvarez proclaimed independence and became the first and last genuinely elected president of the republic.Sulu Archipelago
The Sulu Archipelago (Tausug: Sūg, Malay: Kepulauan Sulu, Filipino: Kapuluan ng Sulu) is a chain of islands in the Pacific Ocean, in the southwestern Philippines. The archipelago forms the northern limit of the Celebes Sea and southern limit of the Sulu Sea. The Sulu Archipelago islands are within the Mindanao island group, consisting of the provinces of Basilan, Sulu, and Tawi-Tawi.
The archipelago is not, as is often supposed, the remains of a land bridge between Borneo and the Philippines. Rather, it is the exposed edge of small submarine ridges produced by tectonic tilting of the sea bottom. Basilan, Jolo, and other islands in the group are extinct volcanic cones rising from the southernmost ridge. Tawi-Tawi, the southernmost island of the group, has a serpentine basement-complex core with a limestone covering. This island chain is an important migration route for birds.
The largest municipalities in the area are on Maimbung and Jolo. The larger island of Palawan to its north, the coastal regions of the westward-extending Zamboanga Peninsula of Mindanao, and the north-eastern part of the island of Borneo were formerly parts of the thalassocratic Sultanate of Sulu.
The archipelago is the home of the indigenous Tausug people; various group of Samal (or Sama) people including the semi-nomadic Badjaw; the land-based Sama; the related Yakan people; and the Jama Mapun people. The Tausug language is spoken widely in the Sulu Archipelago as both first and second languages throughout these islands. The Yakan language is spoken mainly in Basilan Island. Numerous dialects of Sinama are spoken throughout the archipelago, from the Tawi-Tawi Island group, to the Mapun island group (Mapun), to the coast of Mindanao and beyond.Tawalisi
Tawalisi (ca. 1350 C.E - 1400 C.E.) is a Southeast Asian kingdom described in the journals of Ibn Battuta. Ibn Battuta said he reached Tawalisi after a sea voyage of 71 days, 34 of which were spent rowing due to no wind. He said he reached China from Tawalisi after a voyage of 17 days. The commentators have never been able to decide the port of departure for the 71-day voyage, and so have concentrated on the 17-day voyage from Tawalisi to China.A long list of guesses to the location of Tawalisi have included Pangasinan, Luzon, Sulu, Celebes (Sulawesi), Cambodia, Cochin-China, the mainland Chinese province of Guangdong, and practically every island in South Asia beginning with ta. The most known location, however, is Pangasinan in the Philippines.Zamboanga Peninsula
Zamboanga Peninsula (Chavacano: Peninsula de Zamboanga; Cebuano: Lawis sa Zamboanga) is an administrative region in the Philippines, designated as Region IX. The region consists of three provinces (Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga Sibugay and Zamboanga del Sur) and two cities (Isabela City and Zamboanga City; the former being part of Basilan province and the latter a highly urbanized city). The region was previously known as Western Mindanao before the enactment of Executive Order No. 36 on September 19, 2001. The city of Zamboanga was designated as the regional center until Pagadian City was designated as its new regional center, although Zamboanga City remains the region's cultural, economic, and educational center.