Space Shuttle Discovery (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-103) is one of the orbiters from NASA's Space Shuttle program and the third of five fully operational orbiters to be built. Its first mission, STS-41-D, flew from August 30 to September 5, 1984. Over 27 years of service it launched and landed 39 times, gathering more spaceflights than any other spacecraft to date. The shuttle has three main components: the orbiter (the plane part, and the only part that goes orbit), a huge fuel tank, and two rocket boosters. Nearly 25,000 heat resistant tiles cover the orbiter to protect it from high temperatures on re-entry. 
Discovery became the third operational orbiter to enter service, preceded by Columbia and Challenger. It embarked on its last mission, STS-133, on February 24, 2011 and touched down for the final time at Kennedy Space Center on March 9, having spent a cumulative total of almost a full year in space. Discovery performed both research and International Space Station (ISS) assembly missions. It also carried the Hubble Space Telescope into orbit. Discovery was the first operational shuttle to be retired, followed by Endeavour and then Atlantis.
|Contract award||January 29, 1979|
|Named after||Discovery (1602),|
HMS Discovery (1774),
HMS Discovery (1874),
RRS Discovery (1901),
|Status||Retired, on display at the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, Virginia|
August 30, 1984 – September 5, 1984
February 24, 2011 – March 9, 2011
|No. of missions||39|
|Time spent in space||1 year (365 days), 22 hours, 39 minutes, 33 seconds|
|Distance travelled||148,221,675 mi (238,539,663 km)|
|Satellites deployed||31 (including Hubble Space Telescope)|
The name Discovery was chosen to carry on a tradition based on ships of exploration, primarily HMS Discovery, one of the ships commanded by Captain James Cook during his third and final major voyage from 1776 to 1779, and Henry Hudson's Discovery, which was used in 1610–1611 to explore Hudson Bay and search for a Northwest Passage. Other ships bearing the name have included HMS Discovery of the 1875–1876 British Arctic Expedition to the North Pole and RRS Discovery, which led the 1901–1904 "Discovery Expedition" to Antarctica.
Discovery launched the Hubble Space Telescope and conducted the second and third Hubble service missions. It also launched the Ulysses probe and three TDRS satellites. Twice Discovery was chosen as the "Return To Flight" Orbiter, first in 1988 after the loss of Challenger in 1986, and then again for the twin "Return To Flight" missions in July 2005 and July 2006 after the Columbia disaster in 2003. Project Mercury astronaut John Glenn, who was 77 at the time, flew with Discovery on STS-95 in 1998, making him the oldest person to go into space.
Had plans to launch United States Department of Defense payloads from Vandenberg Air Force Base gone ahead, Discovery would have become the dedicated US Air Force shuttle. Its first West Coast mission, STS-62-A, was scheduled for 1986, but canceled in the aftermath of Challenger.
Discovery was retired after completing its final mission, STS 133 on March 9, 2011. The spacecraft is now on display in Virginia at the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, an annex of the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum.
|1979 January 29||Contract Award to Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division in Downey, California|
|1979 August 27||Start long lead fabrication of Crew Module|
|1980 June 20||Start fabrication lower fuselage|
|1980 November 10||Start structural assembly of aft-fuselage|
|1980 December 8||Start initial system installation aft fuselage|
|1981 March 2||Start fabrication/assembly of payload bay doors|
|1981 October 26||Start initial system installation, crew module, Downey|
|1982 January 4||Start initial system installation upper forward fuselage|
|1982 March 16||Midfuselage on dock, Palmdale, California|
|1982 March 30||Elevons on dock, Palmdale|
|1982 April 30||Wings arrive at Palmdale from Grumman|
|1982 April 30||Lower forward fuselage on dock, Palmdale|
|1982 July 16||Upper forward fuselage on dock, Palmdale|
|1982 August 5||Vertical stabilizer on dock, Palmdale|
|1982 September 3||Start of Final Assembly|
|1982 October 15||Body flap on dock, Palmdale|
|1983 January 11||Aft fuselage on dock, Palmdale|
|1983 February 25||Complete final assembly and closeout installation, Palmdale|
|1983 February 28||Start initial subsystems test, power-on, Palmdale|
|1983 May 13||Complete initial subsystems testing|
|1983 July 26||Complete subsystems testing|
|1983 August 12||Completed Final Acceptance|
|1983 October 16||Rollout from Palmdale|
|1983 November 5||Overland transport from Palmdale to Edwards Air Force Base|
|1983 November 9||Delivery to Kennedy Space Center|
|1984 June 2||Flight Readiness Firing|
|1984 August 30||First Flight (STS-41-D)|
Discovery weighed roughly 3600 kg (3.6t) less than Columbia when it was brought into service due to optimizations determined during the construction and testing of Enterprise, Columbia and Challenger. Discovery weighs 6 pounds (2.7 kg) heavier than Atlantis and 363 pounds (165 kg) heavier than Endeavour.
Part of the Discovery weight optimizations included the greater use of quilted AFRSI blankets rather than the white LRSI tiles on the fuselage, and the use of graphite epoxy instead of aluminum for the payload bay doors and some of the wing spars and beams.
Upon its delivery to the Kennedy Space Center in 1983, Discovery was modified alongside Challenger to accommodate the liquid-fueled Centaur-G booster, which had been planned for use beginning in 1986 but was cancelled in the wake of the Challenger disaster.
Beginning in late 1995, the orbiter underwent a nine-month Orbiter Maintenance Down Period (OMDP) in Palmdale, California. This included outfitting the vehicle with a 5th set of cryogenic tanks and an external airlock to support missions to the International Space Station. As with all the orbiters, it could be attached to the top of specialized aircraft and did so in June 1996 when it returned to the Kennedy Space Center, and later in April 2012 when sent to the Udvar-Hazy Center, riding piggy-back on a modified Boeing 747.
After STS-105, Discovery became the first of the orbiter fleet to undergo Orbiter Major Modification (OMM) period at the Kennedy Space Center. Work began in September 2002 to prepare the vehicle for Return to Flight. The work included scheduled upgrades and additional safety modifications.
NASA offered Discovery to the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum for public display and preservation, after a month-long decontamination process, as part of the national collection. Discovery replaced Enterprise in the Smithsonian's display at the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Virginia. Discovery was transported to Washington Dulles International Airport on April 17, 2012, and was transferred to the Udvar-Hazy on April 19 where a welcome ceremony was held. Afterwards, at around 5: 30 pm, Discovery was rolled to its "final wheels stop" in the Udvar Hazy Center.
By its last mission, Discovery had flown 149 million miles (238 million km) in 39 missions, completed 5,830 orbits, and spent 365 days in orbit over 27 years. Discovery flew more flights than any other Orbiter Shuttle, including four in 1985 alone. Discovery flew all three "return to flight" missions after the Challenger and Columbia disasters: STS-26 in 1988, STS-114 in 2005, and STS-121 in 2006. Discovery flew the ante-penultimate mission of the Space Shuttle program, STS-133, having launched on February 24, 2011. Endeavour flew STS-134 and Atlantis performed STS-135, NASA's last Space Shuttle mission. On February 24, 2011, Space Shuttle Discovery launched from Kennedy Space Center's Launch Complex 39-A to begin its final orbital flight.
|#||Date||Designation||Notes||Length of journey|
|1||August 30, 1984||STS-41-D||First Discovery mission: Judith Resnik became second American woman in Space. Three communications satellites were put into orbit, including LEASAT F2.||6 days, 00 hours,|
56 minutes, 04 seconds
|2||November 8, 1984||STS-51-A||Launched two and rescued two communications satellites including LEASAT F1.||7 days, 23 hours,|
44 minutes, 56 seconds
|3||January 24, 1985||STS-51-C||Launched DOD Magnum ELINT satellite.||3 days, 01 hours,|
33 minutes, 23 seconds-
|4||April 12, 1985||STS-51-D||Launched two communications satellites including LEASAT F3. Carried first incumbent United States member of Congress into space, Senator Jake Garn (R–Utah)||6 days, 23 hours,|
55 minutes, 23 seconds
|5||June 17, 1985||STS-51-G||Launched two communications satellites, Sultan Salman al-Saud becomes first Saudi Arabian in space.||7 days, 01 hours,|
38 minutes, 52 seconds
|6||August 27, 1985||STS-51-I||Launched two communications satellites including LEASAT F4. Recovered, repaired, and redeployed LEASAT F3.||7 days, 02 hours,|
17 minutes, 42 seconds
|7||September 29, 1988||STS-26||Return to flight after Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, launched TDRS.||4 days, 01 hours,|
00 minutes, 11 seconds
|8||March 13, 1989||STS-29||Launched TDRS.||4 days, 23 hours,|
38 minutes, 52 seconds
|9||November 22, 1989||STS-33||Launched DOD Magnum ELINT satellite.||5 days, 00 hours,|
06 minutes, 49 seconds
|10||April 24, 1990||STS-31||Launch of Hubble Space Telescope (HST).||5 days, 01 hours,|
16 minutes, 06 seconds
|11||October 6, 1990||STS-41||Launch of Ulysses.||4 days, 02 hours,|
10 minutes, 04 seconds
|12||April 28, 1991||STS-39||Launched DOD Air Force Program-675 (AFP-675) satellite.||8 days, 07 hours,|
22 minutes, 23 seconds
|13||September 12, 1991||STS-48||Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS).||5 days, 08 hours,|
27 minutes, 38 seconds
|14||January 22, 1992||STS-42||International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1).||8 days, 01 hours,|
14 minutes, 44 seconds
|15||December 2, 1992||STS-53||Department of Defense payload.||7 days, 07 hours,|
19 minutes, 47 seconds
|16||April 8, 1993||STS-56||Atmospheric Laboratory (ATLAS-2).||9 days, 06 hours,|
08 minutes, 24 seconds
|17||September 12, 1993||STS-51||Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS).||9 days, 20 hours,|
11 minutes, 11 seconds
|18||February 3, 1994||STS-60||First Shuttle-Mir mission; Wake Shield Facility (WSF). First Russian launched in an American spacecraft (Sergei Krikalev).||8 days, 07 hours,|
09 minutes, 22 seconds
|19||September 9, 1994||STS-64||LIDAR In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE).||10 days, 22 hours,|
49 minutes, 57 seconds
|20||February 3, 1995||STS-63||Rendezvous with Mir space station. First female shuttle pilot Eileen Collins.||8 days, 06 hours,|
29 minutes, 36 seconds
|21||July 13, 1995||STS-70||7th Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS).||8 days, 22 hours,|
20 minutes, 05 seconds
|22||February 11, 1997||STS-82||Servicing Hubble Space Telescope (HST) (HSM-2).||9 days, 23 hours,|
38 minutes, 09 seconds
|23||August 7, 1997||STS-85||Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes (CRISTA).||11 days, 20 hours,|
28 minutes, 07 seconds
|24||June 2, 1998||STS-91||Final Shuttle/Mir Docking Mission.||9 days, 19 hours,|
55 minutes, 01 seconds
|25||October 29, 1998||STS-95||SPACEHAB, second flight of John Glenn, who was 77 years of age at that time, the oldest man in space and third incumbent member of Congress to enter space. Pedro Duque became the first Spaniard in space.||8 days, 21 hours,|
44 minutes, 56 seconds
|26||May 27, 1999||STS-96||First Orbiter Shuttle and first mission flight to dock with the International Space Station||9 days, 19 hours,|
13 minutes, 57 seconds
|27||December 19, 1999||STS-103||Servicing Hubble Space Telescope (HST) (HSM-3A).||7 days, 23 hours,|
11 minutes, 34 seconds
|28||October 11, 2000||STS-92||International Space Station Assembly Flight (carried and assembled the Z1 truss); 100th Shuttle mission.||12 days, 21 hours,|
43 minutes, 47 seconds
|29||March 8, 2001||STS-102||International Space Station crew rotation flight (Expedition 1 and Expedition 2)||12 days, 19 hours,|
51 minutes, 57 seconds
|30||August 10, 2001||STS-105||International Space Station crew and supplies delivery (Expedition 2 and Expedition 3)||11 days 21 hours,|
13 minutes, 52 seconds
|31||July 26, 2005||STS-114||First "Return To Flight" mission since Space Shuttle Columbia disaster; International Space Station (ISS) supplies delivery, new safety procedures testing and evaluation, Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) Raffaello.||13 days, 21 hours,|
33 minutes, 00 seconds
|32||July 4, 2006||STS-121||Second "Return To Flight" mission since the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster; International Space Station (ISS) supplies delivery, test new safety and repair techniques.||12 days, 18 hours,|
37 minutes, 54 seconds
|33||December 9, 2006||STS-116||ISS crew rotation and assembly (carries and assembles the P5 truss segment); Last flight to launch on pad 39-B;
First night launch since Space Shuttle Columbia disaster.
|12 days, 20 hours,|
44 minutes, 16 seconds
|34||October 23, 2007||STS-120||ISS crew rotation and assembly (carries and assembles the Harmony module).||15 days, 02 hours,|
23 minutes, 55 seconds
|35||May 31, 2008||STS-124||ISS crew rotation and assembly (carries and assembles the Kibō JEM PM module).||13 days, 18 hours,|
13 minutes, 07 seconds
|36||March 15, 2009||STS-119||International Space Station crew rotation and assembly of a fourth
starboard truss segment (ITS S6) and a fourth set of solar arrays and batteries. Also replaced a failed unit for a system that converts urine to drinking water.
|12 days, 19 hours,|
29 minutes, 33 seconds
|37||August 28, 2009||STS-128||International Space Station crew rotation and ISS resupply using the Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module. Also carried the C.O.L.B.E.R.T treadmill named after Stephen Colbert||13 days 20 hours, 54 minutes, 40 seconds|
|38||April 5, 2010||STS-131||ISS resupply using the Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module. The mission also marked the first time that four women were in space and the first time that two Japanese astronauts were together on a space station. Longest mission for this Orbiter.||15 days 2 hours, 47 minutes 11 seconds‡|
|39||February 24, 2011||STS-133||The mission launched at 4:53 pm EST on February 24, was carrying the Permanent Multipurpose Module (PMM) Leonardo, the ELC-4 and Robonaut 2 to the ISS. Final flight of Discovery.||12 days 19 hours,|
4 minutes, 50 seconds
‡ Longest shuttle mission for Discovery
– shortest shuttle mission for Discovery
|Mission insignias for Discovery flights|
The Flow Director was responsible for the overall preparation of the shuttle for launch and processing it after landing, and remained permanently assigned to head the spacecraft's ground crew while the astronaut flight crews changed for every mission. Each shuttle's Flow Director was supported by a Vehicle Manager for the same spacecraft. Space Shuttle Discovery's Flow Directors were:
|The launch of STS-41-D, Discovery's first mission.||STS-121 launched on July 4, 2006 – the only Shuttle to launch on Independence Day.||STS-119 on the night of March 11, 2009.||Discovery sits atop a modified Boeing 747 as it touches down.||Discovery lands after its first flight, STS-41-D.|
|Discovery performing the Rendezvous pitch maneuver prior to docking with the International Space Station.||The Space Shuttle Discovery soon after landing||Modified Boeing 747 carrying Discovery.||STS-124 comes to a close as Discovery lands at the Kennedy Space Center.||Discovery's final touchdown on Kennedy Space Center's runway, concluding the STS-133 mission and Discovery's 27-year career.|
Graphite epoxy has replaced some internal aluminum spars and beams in the wings and in the payload bay doors.
The air- and spacecraft duo landed at Washington Dulles International Airport at 11:05 am EDT (1505 GMT).
Expedition 17 was the 17th expedition to the International Space Station (ISS).
The first two crew members, Sergey Volkov, and Oleg Kononenko were launched on 8 April 2008, aboard the Soyuz TMA-12. Once aboard the station, they joined Garrett Reisman, who transferred from Expedition 16 to join the Expedition 17 crew.
Reisman was replaced by Gregory Chamitoff, who launched aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery mission STS-124 on 31 May 2008. Volkov and Kononenko landed safely on 24 October 2008, while Chamitoff remained aboard the station as an Expedition 18 crewmember.Inertial Upper Stage
The Inertial Upper Stage (IUS), originally designated the Interim Upper Stage, was a two-stage solid-fueled rocket upper stage developed by Boeing for the United States Air Force beginning in 1976 for raising payloads from low Earth orbit to higher orbits or interplanetary trajectories following launch aboard a Titan 34D or Titan IV rocket, or from the payload bay of the Space Shuttle.International Designator
The International Designator, also known as COSPAR designation, and in the United States as NSSDC ID, is an international naming convention for satellites. It consists of the launch year, a 3-digit incrementing launch number of that year and up to a 3-letter code representing the sequential identifier of a piece in a launch.
For example, 1990-037A is the Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-31, which carried the Hubble Space Telescope (1990-037B) into space. This launch was the 37th known successful launch worldwide in 1990. The number reveals that it was launched in 1990 and that it was the 37th launch made that year. Spacecraft which do not complete an orbit of the Earth, for example launches which fail to achieve orbit, are not usually assigned IDs.The designation system has been generally known as the COSPAR system, named for the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) of the International Council for Science.
COSPAR subsumed the first designation system, devised at Harvard University in 1958. That system used letters of the Greek alphabet to designate artificial satellites. For example, Sputnik 1 was designated 1957 Alpha 2. The Harvard designation system continued to be used for satellites launched up to the end of 1962, when it was replaced with the modern system. The first satellite to receive a new-format designator was Luna E-6 No.2, 1963-001B, although some sources, including the NSSDC website, anachronistically apply the new-format designators to older satellites, even those no longer in orbit at the time of its introduction.
The catalog is administered in the United States by the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), part of NASA.Magnum (satellite)
Magnum was a class of SIGINT spy satellites reportedly operated by the National Reconnaissance Office for the United States Central Intelligence Agency. The program remains classified, and the information that exists is speculative.
It is believed that two Magnum satellites were launched from Space Shuttle Discovery during the missions STS-51-C in 1985 and STS-33 in 1989. The satellites reportedly have a mass of 2,200–2,700 kg (4,900–6,000 lb), operating in near-geosynchronous orbits, using Inertial Upper Stages to get from the shuttle's orbit to the higher geosynchronous orbit.
According to Jim Slade of ABC News, the second satellite, USA-48, replaced the first, USA-8, which after more than 4 years in orbit was running out of maneuvering fuel required for keeping its station over the Indian Ocean. The mission of the two satellites was to listen in to military and diplomatic communications from the Soviet Union, China, and neighbouring countries.USA-67, launched aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis in November 1990 (the STS-38 mission), was initially identified as a third Magnum satellite owing to the presence of two upper stages in orbit after its deployment, suggesting that an IUS had been used to deploy it. It was later determined that the second upper stage was from the stealthy Prowler spacecraft, and that USA-67 was an SDS-2 communications satellite.The Magnum satellites, built by TRW, are rumored to have large (estimated 100 m (330 ft) diameter) umbrella-like reflecting dishes to collect RF signals from Earth. The Magnum/Orion satellites replaced the older Rhyolite/Aquacade series of SIGINT satellites, and have themselves been succeeded by the Mentor/Advanced Orion satellites.ODERACS 2A
ODERACS-2A (Orb Debris Rad Calib Sph 2A) was one of 6 spheres deployed from the shuttle mission STS-63. The purpose of the Orbital Debris Calibration Spheres experiment was to calibrate the radars and telescopes used for orbital debris measurements by putting objects of the size of interest into orbit for observation. One of the pair was polished, the other diffuse. The 3 pairs were 2, 4, and 6 inches in diameter.
ODERACS 2A was released on February 4, 1995 at 04:57 on the Launch Pad 39B at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, via the Space Shuttle Discovery, and was launched along with Spartan 204-F1.ODERACS 2B
ODERACS-2B (Orb Debris Rad Calib Sph 2B) was one of 6 spheres deployed from the shuttle mission STS-63. The purpose of the Orbital Debris Calibration Spheres experiment was to calibrate the radars and telescopes used for orbital debris measurements by putting objects of the size of interest into orbit for observation. One of the pair was polished, the other diffuse. The 3 pairs were 2, 4, and 6 inches in diameter.
ODERACS 2B was released on February 4, 1995 at 04:57 on the Launch Pad 39B at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, via the Space Shuttle Discovery, and was launched along with Spartan 204-F1.ODERACS 2C
ODERACS-2C (Orb Debris Rad Calib Sph 2A) was one of 6 spheres deployed from the shuttle mission STS-63. The purpose of the Orbital Debris Calibration Spheres experiment was to calibrate the radars and telescopes used for orbital debris measurements by putting objects of the size of interest into orbit for observation. One of the pair was polished, the other diffuse. The 3 pairs were 2, 4, and 6 inches in diameter.
ODERACS 2A was released on February 4, 1995 at 04:57 on the Launch Pad 39B at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, via the Space Shuttle Discovery, and was launched along with Spartan 204-F1.ODERACS 2D
ODERACS-2D (Orb Debris Rad Calib Sph 2A) was one of 6 spheres deployed from the shuttle mission STS-63. The purpose of the Orbital Debris Calibration Spheres experiment was to calibrate the radars and telescopes used for orbital debris measurements by putting objects of the size of interest into orbit for observation. One of the pair was polished, the other diffuse. The 3 pairs were 2, 4, and 6 inches in diameter.
ODERACS 2D was released on February 4, 1995 at 04:57 on the Launch Pad 39B at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, via the Space Shuttle Discovery, and was launched along with Spartan 204-F1.ODERACS 2E
ODERACS-2E (Orb Debris Rad Calib Sph 2A) was one of 6 spheres deployed from the shuttle mission STS-63. The purpose of the Orbital Debris Calibration Spheres experiment was to calibrate the radars and telescopes used for orbital debris measurements by putting objects of the size of interest into orbit for observation. One of the pair was polished, the other diffuse. The 3 pairs were 2, 4, and 6 inches in diameter.
ODERACS 2E was released on February 4, 1995 at 04:57 on the Launch Pad 39B at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, via the Space Shuttle Discovery, and was launched along with Spartan 204-F1.STS-102
STS-102 was a Space Shuttle mission to the International Space Station (ISS) flown by Space Shuttle Discovery and launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida. STS-102 flew in March 2001; its primary objectives were resupplying the ISS and rotating the Expedition 1 and Expedition 2 crews.STS-119
STS-119 (ISS assembly flight 15A) was a space shuttle mission to the International Space Station (ISS) which was flown by Space Shuttle Discovery during March 2009. It delivered and assembled the fourth starboard Integrated Truss Segment (S6), and the fourth set of solar arrays and batteries to the station. The launch took place on 15 March 2009, at 19:43 EDT. Discovery successfully landed on 28 March 2009, at 15:13 pm EDT.STS-124
STS-124 was a Space Shuttle mission, flown by Space Shuttle Discovery to the International Space Station. Discovery launched on 31 May 2008 at 17:02 EDT, moved from an earlier scheduled launch date of 25 May 2008, and landed safely at the Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility, at 11:15 EDT on 14 June 2008. The mission is also referred to as ISS-1J by the ISS program.STS-131
STS-131 (ISS assembly flight 19A) was a NASA Space Shuttle mission to the International Space Station (ISS). Space Shuttle Discovery launched on 5 April 2010 at 6:21 am from Kennedy Space Center's launch pad 39A, and landed at 9:08 am on 20 April 2010 on runway 33 at the Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility. The mission marked the longest flight for space shuttle Discovery.
The primary payload was a Multi-Purpose Logistics Module loaded with supplies and equipment for the International Space Station. The mission also removed and replaced an ammonia tank assembly outside the station on the S1 truss. STS-131 furthermore carried several on-board payloads; this mission had the most payloads since STS-107. It is also the last shuttle mission with a crew of 7.STS-42
STS-42 was a Space Shuttle Discovery mission with the Spacelab module. Liftoff was originally scheduled for 8:45 EST (13:45 UTC) 22 January 1992, but the launch was delayed due to weather constraints. Discovery successfully lifted off an hour later at 9:52 EST (14:52 UTC). The main goal of the mission was to study the effects of microgravity on a variety of organisms. The shuttle landed at 8:07 PST (16:07 UTC) on 30 January 1992 on Runway 22, Edwards Air Force Base, California.
STS-42 was the first of two flights in 1992 of Discovery, the second of which occurred during STS-53, which launched on 2 December 1992. The mission was also the last mission of the Space Shuttle Discovery to have a seven-member crew until STS-82, which was launched on 11 February 1997.STS-53
STS-53 was a Space Shuttle Discovery mission in support of the United States Department of Defense. The mission was launched on 2 December 1992 from Kennedy Space Center, Florida.STS-56
STS-56 was a Space Shuttle Discovery mission to perform special experiments. The mission was launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on 8 April 1993.STS-92
STS-92 was a Space Shuttle mission to the International Space Station (ISS) flown by Space Shuttle Discovery. STS-92 marked the 100th mission of the Space Shuttle. It was launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, 11 October 2000.Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center
The Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, also called the Udvar-Hazy Center, is the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum (NASM)'s annex at Washington Dulles International Airport in the Chantilly area of Fairfax County, Virginia, United States. It holds numerous exhibits, including the Space Shuttle Discovery and the Enola Gay.
The 760,000-square-foot (71,000 m2) facility was made possible by a $65 million gift in October 1999 to the Smithsonian Institution by Steven F. Udvar-Házy, an immigrant from Hungary and co-founder of the International Lease Finance Corporation, an aircraft leasing corporation. The main NASM building, located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C, had always contained more artifacts than could be displayed, and most of the collection had been stored, unavailable to visitors, at the Paul E. Garber Preservation, Restoration, and Storage Facility in Silver Hill, Maryland. A substantial addition to the center encompassing restoration, conservation and collection-storage facilities was completed in 2010. Restoration facilities and museum archives were moved from the museum's Garber facility to the new sections of the Udvar-Hazy Center.Telstar 302
Telstar 302 was a geostationary communication satellite built by Hughes, it was located at orbital position of 85 degrees west longitude and was operated by AT&T. The satellite was based on the HS-376 platform and its life expectancy was 10 years. Telstar 302 left service on September 5, 1997. The satellite was successfully launched into space on August 30, 1984, at 12:41:50 UTC, aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery during the STS-41D mission from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, United States, Along with the SBS 4 satellites and Leasat 2. It had a launch mass of 1,140 kg.Telstar 302 was equipped with 24 C band transponders to provide telecommunication service to North America (including U.S. state of Hawaii and Puerto Rico).