Soyuz TM-31

Soyuz TM-31 was the first Soyuz spacecraft to dock with the International Space Station (ISS).[1] This Soyuz-TM spacecraft carried the members of Expedition 1, the first long-duration ISS crew. It was launched from Russia at 07:52 UT on October 31, 2000 by a Soyuz-U rocket.

The crew consisted of Russian cosmonauts Yuri Gidzenko and Sergei Krikalev, and American William Shepherd. Gidzenko was Commander of the flight up, but once aboard the station, Shepherd became Commander of the long-duration mission Expedition 1.[2]

The spacecraft served as the crew's lifeboat while docked to the ISS. The Expedition 1 crew were returned to Earth via a Space Shuttle during STS-102 in March 2001, and the Soyuz TM-31 spacecraft stayed with the station for part of Expedition 2. In April 2001 another spacecraft, Soyuz TM-32, arrived at the station, and took over responsibilities as the station's lifeboat. The crew launched by Soyuz TM-32, which included the first paying space tourist Dennis Tito, were returned to Earth in May aboard Soyuz TM-31. The visiting mission of which Tito was a part is sometimes referred to as ISS EP-1.

Soyuz TM-31
Soyuz TM-31 launch
COSPAR ID2000-070A
Mission duration186 days, 21 hours, 48 minutes, 41 seconds
Orbits completed~3,040
Spacecraft properties
Spacecraft typeSoyuz-TM
ManufacturerRKK Energia
Crew size3
LaunchingYuri Gidzenko
Sergei Krikalev
William Shepherd
LandingTalgat Musabayev
Yuri Baturin
Dennis Tito
Start of mission
Launch dateOctober 31, 2000, 07:52:47 UTC
End of mission
Landing dateMay 6, 2001, 05:41:28 UTC
Landing site90 kilometres (56 mi) NE of Arkalyk
Orbital parameters
Reference systemGeocentric
RegimeLow Earth
Perigee190 kilometres (120 mi)
Apogee249 kilometres (155 mi)
Inclination51.6 degrees
Period88.6 minutes
Docking with ISS
Soyuz TM-31 patch
Soyuz programme
(Manned missions)
Soyuz tm-31 transported to launch pad
Soyuz TM-31 is transported to the Launch Pad at the Baikonur complex, 29 October 2000


Position Launching crew Landing crew
Commander Russia Yuri Gidzenko, RKA
Expedition 1
Second spaceflight
Russia Talgat Musabayev, RKA
Third and last spaceflight
Flight Engineer Russia Sergei Krikalev, RKA
Expedition 1
Fifth spaceflight
Russia Yuri Baturin, RKA
Second and last spaceflight
Flight Engineer/Spaceflight Participant United States William Shepherd, NASA
Expedition 1
Fourth and last spaceflight
United States Dennis Tito, SA
Only spaceflight

Docking with ISS

  • Docked to ISS: November 2, 2000, 09:21 UTC (to aft port of Zvezda)
  • Undocked from ISS: February 24, 2001, 10:06 UTC (from aft port of Zvezda)
  • Docked to ISS: February 24, 2001, 10:37 UTC (to nadir port of Zarya)
  • Undocked from ISS: April 18, 2001, 12:40 UTC (from nadir port of Zarya)
  • Docked to ISS: April 18, 2001, 13:01 UTC (to aft port of Zvezda)
  • Undocked from ISS: May 6, 2001, 02:21 UTC (from aft port of Zvezda)

Mission highlights

The Soyuz carried a crew of three to dock it with the Zvezda module of the International Space Station (ISS) at about 09:21 UT on November 2. The Progress M1-3 cargo craft that was docked with Zvezda was released to make way for the Soyuz. The crew of two Russian and one American spent over three months on the ISS, and returned to Earth in an American shuttle (STS-102) in February 2001. In the initial days, the crew brought a variety of life support systems on-line, and created a laptop computer network that helped run all systems in the ISS. The remaining months were allotted for exercise and space endurance practice. The crew was the group to launch the "permanent inhabitation" of the ISS. Since their launch, ISS and space are permanently occupied.


  1. ^ "Soyuz ISS Missions" (PDF). NASA. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-12-02.
  2. ^ "ISS: 10 Years of Human Space Mission". Russian Federal Space Agency. Archived from the original on 2012-03-01.
2000 in spaceflight

This article outlines notable events occurring in 2000 in spaceflight, including major launches and EVAs.

Dennis Tito

Dennis Anthony Tito (born August 8, 1940) is an American engineer and multimillionaire, most widely known as the first space tourist to fund his own trip into space. In mid-2001, he spent nearly eight days in orbit as a crew member of ISS EP-1, a visiting mission to the International Space Station. This mission was launched by the spacecraft Soyuz TM-32, and was landed by Soyuz TM-31.

Expedition 1

Expedition 1 was the first long-duration stay on the International Space Station (ISS). The three-person crew stayed aboard the station for 136 days, from November 2000 to March 2001. It was the beginning of an uninterrupted human presence on the station which continues as of April 2019. Expedition 2, which also had three crew members, immediately followed Expedition 1.

The official start of the expedition occurred when the crew docked to the station on 2 November 2000, aboard the Russian spacecraft Soyuz TM-31, which had launched two days earlier. During their mission, the Expedition 1 crew activated various systems on board the station, unpacked equipment that had been delivered, and hosted three visiting Space Shuttle crews and two unmanned Russian Progress resupply vehicles. The crew was very busy throughout the mission, which was declared a success.

The three visiting Space Shuttles brought equipment, supplies, and key components of the space station. The first of these, STS-97, docked in early December 2000, and brought the first pair of large U.S. photovoltaic arrays, which increased the station's power capabilities fivefold. The second visiting shuttle mission was STS-98, which was docked in mid-February 2001 and delivered the US$1.4 billion research module Destiny, which increased the mass of the station beyond that of Mir for the first time. Mid-March 2001 saw the final shuttle visit of the expedition, STS-102, whose main purpose was to exchange the Expedition 1 crew with the next three-person long-duration crew, Expedition 2. The expedition ended when Discovery undocked from the station on 18 March 2001.

The Expedition 1 crew consisted of an American commander and two Russians. The commander, Bill Shepherd, had been in space three times before, all on shuttle missions which lasted at most a week. The Russians, Yuri Gidzenko and Sergei K. Krikalev, both had previous long-duration spaceflights on Mir, with Krikalev having spent over a full year in space.

List of R-7 launches (2000–2004)

This is a list of launches made by the R-7 Semyorka ICBM, and its derivatives between 2000 and 2004. All launches are orbital satellite launches, unless stated otherwise.

List of Russian manned space missions

This is a list of the manned space missions conducted by the Russian Federal Space Agency since 1992. All Russian manned space missions thus far have been carried out using the Soyuz vehicle, and all visited either Mir or the International Space Station.

The Russian Federal Space Agency was the successor to the Soviet space program. Numeration of the Soyuz flights therefore continues from previous Soviet Soyuz launches. For previous flights of the Soyuz and other manned space vehicles, see List of Soviet manned space missions.

List of astronauts by name

This is an alphabetical list of astronauts, people selected to train for a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft.

For a list of everyone who has flown in space, see List of space travelers by name.

More than 560 people have been trained as astronauts. Until recently, astronauts were sponsored and trained exclusively by governments, either by the military or by civilian space agencies. However, with the advent of suborbital flight starting with privately funded SpaceShipOne in 2004, a new category of astronaut was created: the commercial astronaut.

While the term astronaut is sometimes applied to anyone who trains for travels into space—including scientists, politicians, journalists, and tourists—this article lists only professional astronauts, those who have been selected to train professionally. This includes national space programs, industry and commercial space programs which train and/or hire their own professional astronauts.

Names in italic are astronauts who have left Low Earth orbit, names in bold are astronauts who have walked on the moon. The flags indicate the astronaut's primary citizenship during his or her time as an astronaut. The symbol identifies female astronauts.

List of cosmonauts

This is a list of cosmonauts who have taken part in the missions of the Soviet space program and the Russian Federal Space Agency, including ethnic Russians and people of other ethnicities.

Soviet and Russian cosmonauts born outside Russia are marked with an asterisk and their place of birth is shown in an additional list.

For the full plain lists of Russian and Soviet cosmonauts in Wikipedia, see Category:Russian cosmonauts

Four female cosmonauts have flown on the Soviet/Russian program: Valentina Tereshkova, Svetlana Savitskaya, Elena V. Kondakova, and Elena O. Serova

List of human spaceflights to the International Space Station

This is a chronological list of spaceflights to the International Space Station (ISS), including long-term ISS crew, short term visitors, and mixed human/cargo missions. Unmanned visiting spacecraft are excluded (see List of unmanned spaceflights to the ISS for details). ISS crew members are listed in bold. "Time docked" refers to the spacecraft and does not always correspond to the crew.

As of 14 March 2019, 236 people from 18 countries had visited the space station, many of them multiple times. The United States sent 149 people, Russia sent 47, nine were Japanese, eight were Canadian, five were Italian, four were French, three were German, and there were one each from Belgium, Brazil, Denmark, Great Britain, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, the Netherlands, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, and Sweden.Note: U.S. space shuttle missions were capable of carrying more humans and cargo than the Russian Soyuz spacecraft, resulting in more U.S. short-term human visits until the space shuttle program was discontinued in 2011. Since 2011, Soyuz has been the sole means of human transport to the ISS, delivering mostly long-term crew. Russian cargo deliveries have been exclusively carried out by the unmanned missions of Progress spacecraft, requiring fewer human spaceflights.

NASA Astronaut Group 10

NASA Astronaut Group 10 (nicknamed "The Maggots") was a group of 17 astronauts that were selected in 1984 and consisted of seven pilots and ten mission specialists. Although selected in 1984, no member of the group would fly until 1988 (William Shepherd on STS-27) due to the Challenger disaster and the resulting grounding of the Space Shuttle fleet.

October 31

October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 61 days remain until the end of the year.

Progress M1-3

Progress M1-3, identified by NASA as Progress 1 or 1P, was the first Progress spacecraft to visit the International Space Station. It was a Progress-M1 11F615A55 spacecraft, with the serial number 251.Progress M1-3 was launched by a Soyuz-U carrier rocket from Site 1/5 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Launch occurred at 16:26:42 GMT on 6 August 2000. The spacecraft docked with the Aft port of the Zvezda module at 20:12:56 GMT on 8 August. It remained docked for three months before undocking at 04:04:49 GMT on 1 November to make way for Soyuz TM-31. It was deorbited at 07:05:00 GMT on the same day. The spacecraft burned up in the atmosphere over the Pacific Ocean, with any remaining debris landing in the ocean at around 07:53:20 GMT.Progress M1-3 carried supplies to the International Space Station. It was unloaded during the Space Shuttle missions STS-106 and STS-92, as the ISS did not yet have a permanent crew. The Expedition 1 crew arrived the day after Progress M1-3 departed the Station, using the docking port that it had vacated.

Sergei Krikalev

Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev (Russian: Серге́й Константинович Крикалёв, also transliterated as Sergei Krikalyov; born August 27, 1958) is a Russian cosmonaut and mechanical engineer. As a prominent rocket scientist, he is a veteran of six space flights and ranks third to Gennady Padalka and Yuri Malenchenko for the amount of time in space: a total of 803 days, 9 hours, and 39 minutes. He retired from spaceflight in 2007 and is currently working as vice president of Space Corporation Energia.


Soyuz-1 may refer to:

Soyuz 1, the first manned flight of the Soyuz programme

Soyuz TM-31, the first Soyuz mission to the International Space Station

Soyuz-1 (rocket), a proposed Russian carrier rocket

Soyuz TM-30

Soyuz TM-30 (Russian: Союз ТМ-30, Union TM-30), also known as Mir EO-28, was a Soyuz mission, the 39th and final human spaceflight to the Mir space station. The crew of the mission was sent by MirCorp, a privately funded company, to reactivate and repair the station. The crew also resupplied the station and boosted the station to an orbit with a low point (perigee) of 360 and a high point (apogee) of 378 kilometers (223 and 235 miles, respectively). The boost in the station's orbit, which was done by utilizing the engines of the Progress M1-1 and M1-2 spacecraft, made transit between Mir and the International Space Station impossible, as desired by NASA. The mission was the first privately funded mission to a space station.The mission was part of an effort by MirCorp to refurbish and privatize the aging Mir space station, which was nearing the end of its operational life. Further commercially funded missions beyond Soyuz TM-30 were originally planned to continue the restoration efforts of the then 14-year-old space station, but insufficient funding and investment ultimately led to the de-orbit of the station in early 2001.

Soyuz TM-32

Soyuz TM-32 was a manned Russian spacecraft which was launched on April 28, 2001, and docked with the International Space Station two days later. It launched the crew of the visiting mission ISS EP-1, which included the first paying space tourist Dennis Tito, as well as two Russian cosmonauts. The Soyuz TM-32 remained docked to the station until October; during this time it served as the lifeboat for the crew of Expedition 2 and later for the crew of Expedition 3. In October it landed the crew of ISS EP-2, who had been launched by Soyuz TM-33.

Space flight participant

Space flight participant (Russian: участник космического полёта, translit. uchastnik kosmicheskogo polyota) is the term used by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Russian Federal Space Agency (RKA), and the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for people who travel into space, but who are not professional astronauts.

While the term gained new prominence with the rise of space tourism, it has also been used for participants in programs like NASA's Teacher in Space and astronauts designated by inter-government agreements like the Angkasawan program and the Korean Astronaut Program.

Other terms used for space travelers who are not career astronauts include NASA's Payload Specialist and the RKA's Researcher-Cosmonaut.

Talgat Musabayev

Talgat Amangeldyuly Musabayev (Kazakh: Талғат Аманкелдіұлы Мұсабаев; born 7 January 1951) is a Kazakh test pilot and former cosmonaut who flew on three spaceflights. His first two spaceflights were long-duration stays aboard the Russian space station Mir. His third spaceflight was a short duration visiting mission to the International Space Station, which also carried the first paying space tourist Dennis Tito. He retired as a cosmonaut in November 2003. Since 2007 he has been head of Kazakhstan's National Space Agency, KazCosmos.

Yuri Baturin

Yuri Mikhailovich Baturin (Russian: Юрий Михайлович Батурин (born 12 June 1949, Moscow, Soviet Union {now Russia})), is a Russian cosmonaut and former politician.Baturin graduated from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology in 1973, and is the former Assistant to the President on National Security and Secretaty of the Defense Council (1996-1998); he is also an author in constitutional law.

Baturin was also a cosmonaut who flew on two missions.

His first spaceflight, sometimes called Mir EP-4, was launched with the spacecraft Soyuz TM-28 13 August 1998, and landed with Soyuz TM-27. He was a Research Cosmonaut for this mission, which lasted for 11 days 19 hours 39 minutes. His second spaceflight was ISS EP-1, which was launched with the spacecraft Soyuz TM-32 on April 28, 2001, and landed with Soyuz TM-31. This mission was notable as carrying to first paying space tourist Dennis Tito. For this mission he was designated a Flight Engineer; the mission lasted for 7 days 22 hours and 4 minutes.He married Svetlana Veniaminovna Polubinskaya, (born 1954); they had a daughter, Alexandra Yurievna Baturina, (born 1982), a student at the Moscow State Academy of Law.

Yuri Gidzenko

Yuri Pavlovich Gidzenko (Russian: Гидзенко, Юрий Павлович; born March 26, 1962) is a Russian cosmonaut. He was a test cosmonaut of the Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (TsPK). Gidzenko has flown into space three times and has lived on board the Mir and International Space Stations. He has also conducted two career spacewalks. Although he retired on July 15, 2001, he continued his employment by a special contract until Soyuz TM-34 concluded. Since 2004 to May 2009, Gidzenko was the Director of the 3rd department within the TsPK. Since May 2009 he serves as the Deputy Chief of Cosmonaut Training Center TsPK.

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