Soyuz TM-29 was a Russian manned spacecraft launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome aboard a Soyuz 11A511U rocket. It docked with Mir on February 22 at 05:36 GMT with Cosmonauts Viktor Afanasyev of Russia, Jean-Pierre Haigneré of France, and Ivan Bella of Slovakia aboard. Since two crew seats had been sold (to Slovakia and France), Afanasyev was the only Russian cosmonaut aboard. This meant that Russian engineer Avdeyev already aboard Mir would have to accept a double-length assignment. After the February 27 departure of EO-26 crew commander Padalka and cosmonaut Bella aboard Soyuz TM-28, the new EO-27 Mir crew consisted of Afanasyev as Commander, Avdeyev as Engineer and French cosmonaut Haigneré.
|Mission duration||188 days, 20 hours, 16 minutes, 19 seconds|
|Launch mass||7,150 kilograms (15,760 lb)|
|Start of mission|
|Launch date||February 20, 1999, 04:18:01 UTC|
|End of mission|
|Landing date||August 28, 1999, 00:34:20 UTC|
|Landing site||70 kilometres (43 mi) NE of Arkalyk|
|Perigee||188 kilometres (117 mi)|
|Apogee||273 kilometres (170 mi)|
|Docking with Mir|
|Position||Launching crew||Landing crew|
|Commander|| Viktor Afanasyev|
|Flight Engineer|| Jean-Pierre Haigneré|
Second and last spaceflight
|Research Cosmonaut/Flight Engineer|| Ivan Bella
| Sergei Avdeyev|
Third and last spaceflight
38th expedition to Mir.Gennady Padalka
Gennady Ivanovich Padalka (Russian: Гeннадий Иванович Падалка; born 21 June 1958 in Krasnodar, Russia) is a Russian Air Force officer and an RKA cosmonaut. Padalka currently has the world record for the most time spent in space, having spent 879 days in space, more than any other person. He worked on both Mir and the International Space Station.Ivan Bella
Ivan Bella (born 25 May 1964 in Brezno, Czechoslovakia (now Slovakia)) is a Slovak Air Force officer who became the first Slovak citizen to fly in space. He participated in an eight-day joint Russian-French-Slovak mission to the Mir space station in 1999.Jean-Pierre Haigneré
Jean-Pierre Haigneré (born 19 May 1948) is a French Air Force officer and a former CNES spationaut.
Jean-Pierre Haigneré was born in Paris, France and joined the French Air Force, where he trained as a test pilot.
He flew on two missions to the Mir space station in 1993 and 1999. The Mir Altair long-duration mission (186 days) in 1993 also included an EVA.
In addition to his duties at the European Space Agency, Jean-Pierre Haigneré is also involved in a European space tourism initiative, the Astronaute Club Européen (ACE), which he co-founded with Alain Dupas and Laurent Gathier.List of European astronauts
This is an incomplete list of astronauts who are resident in any of the countries of Europe, exclusive of the former Soviet republics of Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine.List of Mir expeditions
This is a chronological list of principal expeditions to Mir, a Soviet/Russian space station in low Earth orbit from 1986–2001. All principal Mir crews (those that were resident long-term on the station) were named "Mir EO-n", where n is sequentially increased with each expedition. Visiting expeditions, which made short-term visits to the station during handovers between principal expeditions were named "Mir EP-n", and are excluded from this list (see List of human spaceflights to Mir for details). Mir commanders are listed in italics. "Duration" refers to the crew and does not always correspond to "Flight up" or "Flight down".List of R-7 launches (1995–1999)
This is a list of launches made by the R-7 Semyorka ICBM, and its derivatives between 1995 and 1999. All launches are orbital satellite launches, unless stated otherwise.List of Russian manned space missions
This is a list of the manned space missions conducted by the Russian Federal Space Agency since 1992. All Russian manned space missions thus far have been carried out using the Soyuz vehicle, and all visited either Mir or the International Space Station.
The Russian Federal Space Agency was the successor to the Soviet space program. Numeration of the Soyuz flights therefore continues from previous Soviet Soyuz launches. For previous flights of the Soyuz and other manned space vehicles, see List of Soviet manned space missions.List of astronauts by first flight
This is a list of astronauts by first flight, in chronological order. According to the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, spaceflight is achieved by exceeding an altitude higher than 100 km (62 mi; 330,000 ft), thereby crossing the Kármán line. The United States Air Force considers an altitude of 50 mi (80 km; 260,000 ft) as the limit of space; United States Air Force and NASA personnel exceeding that altitude can be awarded the astronaut badge.List of astronauts by name
This is an alphabetical list of astronauts, people selected to train for a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft.
For a list of everyone who has flown in space, see List of space travelers by name.
More than 560 people have been trained as astronauts. Until recently, astronauts were sponsored and trained exclusively by governments, either by the military or by civilian space agencies. However, with the advent of suborbital flight starting with privately funded SpaceShipOne in 2004, a new category of astronaut was created: the commercial astronaut.
While the term astronaut is sometimes applied to anyone who trains for travels into space—including scientists, politicians, journalists, and tourists—this article lists only professional astronauts, those who have been selected to train professionally. This includes national space programs, industry and commercial space programs which train and/or hire their own professional astronauts.
Names in italic are astronauts who have left Low Earth orbit, names in bold are astronauts who have walked on the moon. The flags indicate the astronaut's primary citizenship during his or her time as an astronaut. The symbol identifies female astronauts.List of cosmonauts
This is a list of cosmonauts who have taken part in the missions of the Soviet space program and the Russian Federal Space Agency, including ethnic Russians and people of other ethnicities.
Soviet and Russian cosmonauts born outside Russia are marked with an asterisk and their place of birth is shown in an additional list.
For the full plain lists of Russian and Soviet cosmonauts in Wikipedia, see Category:Russian cosmonauts
Four female cosmonauts have flown on the Soviet/Russian program: Valentina Tereshkova, Svetlana Savitskaya, Elena V. Kondakova, and Elena O. SerovaList of human spaceflights
This is a list of all human spaceflights throughout history. Beginning in 1961 with the flight of Yuri Gagarin aboard Vostok 1, human spaceflight occurs when a human crew flies a spacecraft into outer space. Human spaceflight is distinguished from spaceflight generally, which entails both crewed and uncrewed spacecraft.
There are two definitions of spaceflight. The Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI), an international record-keeping body, defines the boundary between Earth's atmosphere and outer space at 100 kilometers above sea level. This boundary is known as the Kármán line. Additionally, the United States military awards astronaut wings to qualified personnel who pilot a spaceflight above an altitude of 50 miles (80 km). Thirteen flights of the North American X-15 met the latter criteria, while only two met the former. This article is primarily concerned with the former international convention, and also lists flights which only satisfied the latter convention. Unless otherwise specified, "spaceflight" and related terms only apply to flights which went beyond the Kármán line.
As of the launch of Soyuz MS-12 on 14 March 2019, there have been 325 human spaceflight launch attempts, including three failed attempts which did not cross the Kármán line. These were the fatal Challenger disaster, and two non-fatal aborted Soyuz missions, T-10a and MS-10. Another non-fatal aborted Soyuz mission, 18a, nevertheless crossed the Kármán line and therefore qualified as a sub-orbital spaceflight. Three missions successfully achieved human spaceflight, yet ended as fatal failures as their crews died during the return. These were Soyuz 1, Soyuz 11, and the Columbia disaster. Uniquely, Soyuz 34 was launched uncrewed to the Salyut 6 space station, to provide a successful return vehicle for the crew of Soyuz 32. Including Soyuz 34 gives a total of 326 attempted human spaceflights. 14 flights reached an apogee beyond 50 miles, but failed to go beyond 100 kilometers.List of human spaceflights, 1991–2000
This is a detailed list of human spaceflights from 1991 to 2000, including the continuation of Russian space station Mir and the American Space Shuttle program, and the first flights to the International Space Station (ISS).
The Soviet Union broke up at the end of 1991. From this date onwards the former USSR constituent republics are shown as separate nationalities.List of space travelers by nationality
The criteria for determining who has achieved human spaceflight vary. The FAI defines spaceflight as any flight over 100 kilometres (62 mi). In the United States, professional, military, and commercial astronauts who travel above an altitude of 80 kilometres (50 mi) are awarded astronaut wings. The majority of people who have flown into space have done so by entering Earth orbit. This list includes persons meeting all three criteria, in separate subdivisions.
The flags indicate the space traveler's nationality at the time of their flight or flights. In cases of dual citizenship, the space traveler is listed under their primary residence. A secondary list appended to the entry for the Soviet Union shows the birth countries of space travelers not born in Russia. A similar list after the entry for the United States shows the birth countries of space travelers who are or were citizens of the U.S. but were born elsewhere. Flags shown in the secondary lists are those in use at the time of the space travelers' birth.Names in italic are space travelers who are not part of any national astronaut program or astronaut corps (Toyohiro Akiyama, Helen Sharman, the Space Adventures customers and the sub-orbital SpaceShipOne pilots).
Except for the SpaceShipOne pilots, all of the space travellers have been crew or participants aboard flights launched by China, the Soviet Union/Russia or the United States.Michal Fulier
Michal Fulier (Český Těšín, Moravia, Czechoslovakia 20 February 1955 - ) Slovak pilot, cosmonaut, colonel.Sergei Avdeyev
Sergei Vasilyevich Avdeyev (Сергей Васильеви Авдеев; born 1 January 1956) is a Russian engineer and cosmonaut.
Avdeyev was born in Chapayevsk, Samara Oblast (formerly Kuybyshev Oblast), Russian SFSR. He graduated from Moscow Physics-Engineering Institute in 1979 as an engineer-physicist. From 1979 to 1987 he worked as an engineer for NPO Energiya. He was selected as a cosmonaut as part of the Energia Engineer Group 9 on 26 March 1987. His basic cosmonaut training was from December 1987 through to July 1989. He retired as a cosmonaut on 14 February 2003.
Avdeyev at one point held the record for cumulative time spent in space with 747.59 days in earth orbit, accumulated through three tours of duty aboard the Mir Space Station. He has orbited the earth 11,968 times traveling about 515,000,000 kilometers. In August 2005, this record was taken by another cosmonaut, Sergei K. Krikalev; it has since been surpassed by several other cosmonauts and the current record of 879 days was set by Gennady Padalka in 2015.
Avdeyev is married with two children. He is an amateur radio operator, and his call sign is RV3DW.Soyuz TM-28
TM-28 was a Soyuz mission to the Mir space station.Soyuz TM-30
Soyuz TM-30 (Russian: Союз ТМ-30, Union TM-30), also known as Mir EO-28, was a Soyuz mission, the 39th and final human spaceflight to the Mir space station. The crew of the mission was sent by MirCorp, a privately funded company, to reactivate and repair the station. The crew also resupplied the station and boosted the station to an orbit with a low point (perigee) of 360 and a high point (apogee) of 378 kilometers (223 and 235 miles, respectively). The boost in the station's orbit, which was done by utilizing the engines of the Progress M1-1 and M1-2 spacecraft, made transit between Mir and the International Space Station impossible, as desired by NASA. The mission was the first privately funded mission to a space station.The mission was part of an effort by MirCorp to refurbish and privatize the aging Mir space station, which was nearing the end of its operational life. Further commercially funded missions beyond Soyuz TM-30 were originally planned to continue the restoration efforts of the then 14-year-old space station, but insufficient funding and investment ultimately led to the de-orbit of the station in early 2001.Timeline of space travel by nationality
Since the first human spaceflight by the Soviet Union, citizens of 40 countries have flown in space. For each nationality, the launch date of the first mission is listed. The list is based on the nationality of the person at the time of the launch. Only 3 of the 40 "first flyers" have been women (Helen Sharman for the United Kingdom in 1991, Anousheh Ansari for Iran in 2006, and Yi So-yeon for South Korea in 2008). Only three nations (Soviet Union/Russia, U.S., China) have launched their own manned spacecraft, with the Soviets/Russians and the American programs providing rides to other nations' astronauts. Twenty-six "first flights" occurred on Soviet or Russian flights while the United States carried thirteen.Viktor Afanasyev (cosmonaut)
Viktor Mikhailovich Afanasyev Russian: Виктор Михайлович Афанасьев; born 31 December 1948) is a colonel in the Russian Air Force and a test cosmonaut of the Yu. A. Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center. He was born December 31, 1948, in Bryansk, Russia, and is married to Yelena Ya. Afanasyeva, born 1952. They have two children. His father, Mikhail Z. Afanasyev, is deceased. His mother, Marya S. Afanasyeva, resides in Merkulyevo, Bryansk region, Russia. His recreational interests include football, swimming, and tourism.
(by spacecraft type)
Uncrewed missions are designated as Kosmos instead of Soyuz; exceptions are noted "(uncrewed)".
The † sign designates failed missions. Italics designates cancelled missions.
Mars Polar Lander | ROCSAT-1 | Stardust | Globalstar 23 · Globalstar 36 · Globalstar 38 · Globalstar 40 | Telstar 6 | JCSAT-6 | Soyuz TM-29 | ARGOS · Ørsted · SUNSAT | Arabsat 3A · Skynet 4E | Globus No.15 | Wide Field Infrared Explorer | Globalstar 23 · Globalstar 37 · Globalstar 41 · Globalstar 46 | AsiaSat 3S | DemoSat | Progress M-41 · Sputnik 99 | INSAT-2E | USA-142 | Eutelsat W3 | Globalstar 19 · Globalstar 42 · Globalstar 44 · Globalstar 45 | Landsat 7 | UoSAT-12 | Ikonos-1 | ABRIXAS · Megsat-0 | USA-143 | Orion 3 | Feng Yun 1C · Shijian 5 | TERRIERS · MUBLCOM | Nimiq 1 | USA-144 | Oceansat-1 · Kitsat-3 · DLR-Tubsat | STS-96 (Starshine 1) | Globalstar 25 · Globalstar 47 · Globalstar 49 · Globalstar 52 | Iridium 14A · Iridium 21A | Astra 1H | QuikSCAT | FUSE | Gran' No.45 | Molniya 3-50 | Globalstar 30 · Globalstar 32 · Globalstar 35 · Globalstar 51 | Progress M-42 | Okean-O No.1 | STS-93 (Chandra) | Globalstar 26 · Globalstar 28 · Globalstar 43 · Globalstar 48 | Telkom 1 · Globalstar 24 · Globalstar 27 · Globalstar 53 · Globalstar 54 | Kosmos 2365 | Kosmos 2366 | Koreasat 3 | Yamal-101 · Yamal-102 | Foton 12 | Globalstar 33 · Globalstar 50 · Globalstar 55 · Globalstar 58 | EchoStar V | Ikonos 2 | Telstar 7 | LMI-1 | Resurs F-1M | USA-145 | DirecTV-1R | CBERS-1 · SACI-1 | Globalstar 31 · Globalstar 56 · Globalstar 57 · Globalstar 59 | Orion 2 | Ekspress A1 | GE-4 | MTSAT-1 | Shenzhou 1 | Globalstar 29 · Globalstar 34 · Globalstar 39 · Globalstar 61 | USA-146 | Hélios 1B · Clémentine | Orbcomm FM30 · Orbcomm FM31 · Orbcomm FM32 · Orbcomm FM33 · Orbcomm FM34 · Orbcomm FM35 · Orbcomm FM36 | XMM-Newton | SACI-2 | USA-147 | Terra | STS-103 | Arirang-1 · ACRIMSAT · Millennial | Galaxy 11 | Kosmos 2367 | Kosmos 2368
Payloads are separated by bullets ( · ), launches by pipes ( | ). Manned flights are indicated in bold text. Uncatalogued launch failures are listed in italics. Payloads deployed from other spacecraft are denoted in brackets.