Soyuz TM-21 was Soyuz mission, a human spaceflight mission transporting personnel to the Russian space station Mir. Part of the US/Russian Shuttle-Mir Program, the mission launched from Baikonur Cosmodrome, atop a Soyuz-U2 carrier rocket, at 06:11:34 UTC on March 14, 1995. It is of note because its launch marked the presence, for the first time ever, of thirteen humans in space simultaneously - three aboard the Soyuz, three aboard Mir and seven aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, flying STS-67.
The spacecraft carried expedition EO-18 to the space station, including the first American astronaut to launch on a Soyuz spacecraft and board Mir, Norman Thagard, for the American Thagard Increment aboard the station, the first Increment of the Shuttle-Mir program. The three crew members it launched were relieved by Space Shuttle Atlantis during STS-71, when they were replaced by expedition EO-19. The crew returned to earth aboard Soyuz TM-21 on September 11, 1995.
|Mission duration||181 days, 41 minutes, 6 seconds|
|Launch mass||7,170 kilograms (15,810 lb)|
|Crew size||3 up|
|Callsign||Урага́н (Uragan - Hurricane)|
|Start of mission|
|Launch date||March 14, 1995, 06:11:34 UTC|
|End of mission|
|Landing date||September 11, 1995, 06:52:40 UTC|
|Perigee||200 kilometers (120 mi)|
|Apogee||249.6 kilometers (155.1 mi)|
|Docking with Mir|
From left to right: Norman Thagard, Vladimir Dezhurov, Gennady Strekalov
|Position||Launching crew||Landing crew|
|Commander|| Vladimir Dezhurov
| Anatoly Solovyev|
|Flight Engineer|| Gennady Strekalov
Fifth and last spaceflight
| Nikolai Budarin|
|Research Cosmonaut|| Norman Thagard
Fifth and last spaceflight
Aleksandr Fyodorovich Poleshchuk (Russian: Александр Фёдорович Полещук, born October 30, 1953) is a Russian cosmonaut.
Born in Cheremkhovo, Irkutsk region, he graduated from the Moscow Aviation Institute in 1977 with a mechanical engineering diploma. He then joined RSC Energia as a test engineer, where he was occupied with perfecting repair and assembly techniques performed during space flights. He has extensive experience in test work under simulated weightlessness conditions. In February 1989 he was selected as a test cosmonaut candidate (1989 Cosmonaut Candidates Class, Group 14, Civil Specialists). From September 1989 to January 1991 he underwent the complete course of general space training and was qualified as a test cosmonaut, and then till March 1992 he undertook advanced training for the Soyuz-TM transport vehicle and Mir station flight.
In 1992 he was selected as the backup flight engineer of the Soyuz TM-15 joint Russian-French mission, and consequently nominated as the flight engineer of the prime crew of Soyuz TM-16. In space from January 24 to July 22, 1993, he participated in a 179-day space flight with Gennady Manakov. During the flight he performed two EVAs totaling 9 hours and 58 minutes. Also testing of the androgynous peripheral docking subassembly of the Kristall module was performed.
October 1994 to March 1995 he trained as back-up flight engineer for the Soyuz TM-21 transport vehicle and Mir Station 18th primary expedition flights.
Poleshchuk is married and has one daughter.Anatoly Solovyev
Anatoly Yakovlevich Solovyev (Russian: Анатолий Яковлевич Соловьёв; born January 16, 1948 – alternate spelling "Solovyov") is a retired Russian and Soviet cosmonaut and pilot. Solovyev holds the world record on the number of spacewalks performed (16), and accumulated time spent spacewalking (over 82 hours).Gennadi Strekalov
Gennadi Mikhailovich Strekalov (Russian: Генна́дий Миха́йлович Стрека́лов; October 26, 1940 – December 25, 2004) was an engineer, cosmonaut, and administrator at Russian aerospace firm RSC Energia. He flew into space five times and lived aboard the Salyut-6, Salyut-7, and Mir space stations, spending over 268 days in space. The catastrophic explosion of a Soyuz rocket in 1983 led to him being one of only four people to use a launch escape system. He was decorated twice as Hero of the Soviet Union.List of Mir expeditions
This is a chronological list of principal expeditions to Mir, a Soviet/Russian space station in low Earth orbit from 1986–2001. All principal Mir crews (those that were resident long-term on the station) were named "Mir EO-n", where n is sequentially increased with each expedition. Visiting expeditions, which made short-term visits to the station during handovers between principal expeditions were named "Mir EP-n", and are excluded from this list (see List of human spaceflights to Mir for details). Mir commanders are listed in italics. "Duration" refers to the crew and does not always correspond to "Flight up" or "Flight down".List of R-7 launches (1995–1999)
This is a list of launches made by the R-7 Semyorka ICBM, and its derivatives between 1995 and 1999. All launches are orbital satellite launches, unless stated otherwise.List of Russian manned space missions
This is a list of the manned space missions conducted by the Russian Federal Space Agency since 1992. All Russian manned space missions thus far have been carried out using the Soyuz vehicle, and all visited either Mir or the International Space Station.
The Russian Federal Space Agency was the successor to the Soviet space program. Numeration of the Soyuz flights therefore continues from previous Soviet Soyuz launches. For previous flights of the Soyuz and other manned space vehicles, see List of Soviet manned space missions.List of astronauts by name
This is an alphabetical list of astronauts, people selected to train for a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft.
For a list of everyone who has flown in space, see List of space travelers by name.
More than 560 people have been trained as astronauts. Until recently, astronauts were sponsored and trained exclusively by governments, either by the military or by civilian space agencies. However, with the advent of suborbital flight starting with privately funded SpaceShipOne in 2004, a new category of astronaut was created: the commercial astronaut.
While the term astronaut is sometimes applied to anyone who trains for travels into space—including scientists, politicians, journalists, and tourists—this article lists only professional astronauts, those who have been selected to train professionally. This includes national space programs, industry and commercial space programs which train and/or hire their own professional astronauts.
Names in italic are astronauts who have left Low Earth orbit, names in bold are astronauts who have walked on the moon. The flags indicate the astronaut's primary citizenship during his or her time as an astronaut. The symbol identifies female astronauts.List of cosmonauts
This is a list of cosmonauts who have taken part in the missions of the Soviet space program and the Russian Federal Space Agency, including ethnic Russians and people of other ethnicities.
Soviet and Russian cosmonauts born outside Russia are marked with an asterisk and their place of birth is shown in an additional list.
For the full plain lists of Russian and Soviet cosmonauts in Wikipedia, see Category:Russian cosmonauts
Four female cosmonauts have flown on the Soviet/Russian program: Valentina Tereshkova, Svetlana Savitskaya, Elena V. Kondakova, and Elena O. SerovaList of human spaceflights
This is a list of all human spaceflights throughout history. Beginning in 1961 with the flight of Yuri Gagarin aboard Vostok 1, human spaceflight occurs when a human crew flies a spacecraft into outer space. Human spaceflight is distinguished from spaceflight generally, which entails both crewed and uncrewed spacecraft.
There are two definitions of spaceflight. The Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI), an international record-keeping body, defines the boundary between Earth's atmosphere and outer space at 100 kilometers above sea level. This boundary is known as the Kármán line. Additionally, the United States military awards astronaut wings to qualified personnel who pilot a spaceflight above an altitude of 50 miles (80 km). Thirteen flights of the North American X-15 met the latter criteria, while only two met the former. This article is primarily concerned with the former international convention, and also lists flights which only satisfied the latter convention. Unless otherwise specified, "spaceflight" and related terms only apply to flights which went beyond the Kármán line.
As of the launch of Soyuz MS-12 on 14 March 2019, there have been 325 human spaceflight launch attempts, including three failed attempts which did not cross the Kármán line. These were the fatal Challenger disaster, and two non-fatal aborted Soyuz missions, T-10a and MS-10. Another non-fatal aborted Soyuz mission, 18a, nevertheless crossed the Kármán line and therefore qualified as a sub-orbital spaceflight. Three missions successfully achieved human spaceflight, yet ended as fatal failures as their crews died during the return. These were Soyuz 1, Soyuz 11, and the Columbia disaster. Uniquely, Soyuz 34 was launched uncrewed to the Salyut 6 space station, to provide a successful return vehicle for the crew of Soyuz 32. Including Soyuz 34 gives a total of 326 attempted human spaceflights. 14 flights reached an apogee beyond 50 miles, but failed to go beyond 100 kilometers.List of human spaceflights, 1991–2000
This is a detailed list of human spaceflights from 1991 to 2000, including the continuation of Russian space station Mir and the American Space Shuttle program, and the first flights to the International Space Station (ISS).
The Soviet Union broke up at the end of 1991. From this date onwards the former USSR constituent republics are shown as separate nationalities.List of space travelers by nationality
The criteria for determining who has achieved human spaceflight vary. The FAI defines spaceflight as any flight over 100 kilometres (62 mi). In the United States, professional, military, and commercial astronauts who travel above an altitude of 80 kilometres (50 mi) are awarded astronaut wings. The majority of people who have flown into space have done so by entering Earth orbit. This list includes persons meeting all three criteria, in separate subdivisions.
The flags indicate the space traveler's nationality at the time of their flight or flights. In cases of dual citizenship, the space traveler is listed under their primary residence. A secondary list appended to the entry for the Soviet Union shows the birth countries of space travelers not born in Russia. A similar list after the entry for the United States shows the birth countries of space travelers who are or were citizens of the U.S. but were born elsewhere. Flags shown in the secondary lists are those in use at the time of the space travelers' birth.Names in italic are space travelers who are not part of any national astronaut program or astronaut corps (Toyohiro Akiyama, Helen Sharman, the Space Adventures customers and the sub-orbital SpaceShipOne pilots).
Except for the SpaceShipOne pilots, all of the space travellers have been crew or participants aboard flights launched by China, the Soviet Union/Russia or the United States.List of spaceflight records
This is a list of spaceflight records. Most of these records relate to human spaceflights, but some unmanned and animal records are listed as well.Mir EO-19
Mir EO-19 (Russian: Мир ЭО-19, also known as Principal Expedition 19) was the nineteenth manned expedition to the space station Mir, lasting from June to September 1995. The crew, consisting of Russian cosmonauts Anatoly Solovyev and Nikolai Budarin, launched on June 27, 1995 aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the STS-71 mission. After remaining aboard Mir for approximately 75 days, Solovyev and Budarin returned aboard the Soyuz TM-21 spacecraft on September 11, 1995.EO-19 lasted just under three months and was the only complete all-Russian crewed expedition to Mir in 1995 and was the first Mir expedition launched on an American Space Shuttle. The mission that launched EO-19, STS-71, was the first Space Shuttle docking to Mir.NASA Astronaut Group 8
NASA's Astronaut Group 8 was a group of 35 astronauts announced on January 16, 1978. It was the first selection in nine years of astronaut candidates since Group 7 in August 1969, and also included NASA's first female astronauts. Due to the long delay between the last Apollo lunar mission in 1972 and the first flight of the Space Shuttle in 1981, few astronauts from the older groups stayed with NASA. Since then, a new group of candidates has been selected roughly every two years.In Astronaut Group 8, two different astronaut groups were formed: pilots and mission specialists. (With shuttle classes, NASA stopped sending non-pilots for one year of UPT.) Of the 35 selected, six were women, three were male African Americans, and one was a male Asian American.Nikolai Budarin
Nikolai Mikhailovich Budarin (Russian: Николай Михайлович Бударин) (born April 29, 1953 in Kirya, Chuvashia) is a retired Russian cosmonaut, a veteran of three extended space missions aboard the Mir Space Station and the International Space Station. He has also performed eight career spacewalks with a total time of 44 hours.
Named a cosmonaut candidate in 1989, Budarin's first space mission was a long-term assignment aboard the space station Mir in 1995. Since then, he again made extended stays on Mir in 1998 and the International Space Station Expedition 6 from 2002 to 2003.Norman Thagard
Norman Earl Thagard (born July 3, 1943), (Capt, USMC, Ret.), is an American scientist and former U.S. Marine Corps officer and naval aviator and NASA astronaut. He is the first American to ride to space on board a Russian vehicle, and can be considered the first American cosmonaut. He did on this on March 14, 1995, in the Soyuz TM-21 spacecraft for the Russian Mir-18 mission.Soyuz TM-20
The Soyuz-TM crew transports (T - транспортный - Transportnyi - meaning transport, M - модифицированный - Modifitsirovannyi - meaning modified) were fourth generation (1986–2002) Soyuz spacecraft used for ferry flights to the Mir and ISS space stations. It added to the Soyuz-T new docking and rendezvous, radio communications, emergency and integrated parachute/landing engine systems. The new Kurs rendezvous and docking system permitted the Soyuz-TM to maneuver independently of the station, without the station making "mirror image" maneuvers to match unwanted translations introduced by earlier models' aft-mounted attitude control.
Soyuz TM-20 was the twentieth expedition to the Russian Space Station Mir.Soyuz TM-22
Soyuz TM-22 was the 23rd manned spacecraft mission to visit the Soviet Space Station Mir.Vladimir Dezhurov
Vladimir Nikolayevich Dezhurov (Russian: Влади́мир Никола́евич Дежу́ров; born July 30, 1962) is a former cosmonaut who resides in Star City, Moscow. He is a veteran of two spaceflights, to the Mir and International Space Stations. During his career, Dezhurov also conducted nine spacewalks before his retirement on July 12, 2004.
(by spacecraft type)
Uncrewed missions are designated as Kosmos instead of Soyuz; exceptions are noted "(uncrewed)".
The † sign designates failed missions. Italics designates cancelled missions.
Intelsat 704 | Express 1 | Tsikada 1 · Faisat 1 · Astrid 1 | Apstar 2 | USA-108 | STS-63 (SPARTAN-204 · ODERACS 2A · ODERACS 2B · ODERACS 2C · ODERACS 2D · ODERACS 2E · ODERACS 2F | Progress M-26 | Foton #10 | STS-67 | Kosmos 2306 | Kosmos 2307 · Kosmos 2308 · Kosmos 2309 | Soyuz TM-21 | SFU · Himawari 5 | Kosmos 2310 | Intelsat 705 | Kosmos 2311 | USA-109 | Gurwin 1 · EKA-2 · UNAMSAT-A | Brasilsat B2 · Hot Bird 1 | Orbcomm FM1 · Orbcomm FM2 · OrbView-1 | Ofek-3 | AMSC-1 | Progress M-27 | ERS-2 | USA-110 | Intelsat 706 | Spektr | GOES 9 | Kosmos 2312 | USA-111 | Kosmos 2313 | DirecTV-3 | STEP-3 | STS-71 | Kosmos 2314 | Kosmos 2315 | Helios 1A · Cerise · UPMSat | USA-112 | STS-70 (TDRS-7) | Progress M-28 | Kosmos 2316 · Kosmos 2317 · Kosmos 2318 | USA-113 | Interbol 1 · Maigon 4 | PAS-4 | Koreasat 1 | Molniya 3-59 | GEMStar 1 | JCSAT-3 | N-STAR a | Kosmos 2319 | Sich-1 · FASat-Alfa | Soyuz TM-22 | STS-69 (SPARTAN-201 · WSF) | Telstar 402R | Resurs-F2 #10 | Kosmos 2320 | Kosmos 2321 | Progress M-29 | Luch-1 | Astra 1E | STS-73 | USA-114 | METEOR | Kosmos 2322 | Radarsat-1 · SURFSAT | USA-115 | STS-74 (SO) | ISO | Gals 2 | AsiaSat 2 | SOHO | USA-116 | Télécom 2C · INSAT-2C | Kosmos 2323 · Kosmos 2324 · Kosmos 2325 | Galaxy 3R | Progress M-30 | Kosmos 2326 | IRS-1C · Skipper | EchoStar I | RXTE
Payloads are separated by bullets ( · ), launches by pipes ( | ). Manned flights are indicated in bold text. Uncatalogued launch failures are listed in italics. Payloads deployed from other spacecraft are denoted in brackets.