Soyuz TM-20

The Soyuz-TM crew transports (T - транспортный - Transportnyi - meaning transport, M - модифицированный - Modifitsirovannyi - meaning modified) were fourth generation (1986–2002) Soyuz spacecraft used for ferry flights to the Mir and ISS space stations. It added to the Soyuz-T new docking and rendezvous, radio communications, emergency and integrated parachute/landing engine systems. The new Kurs rendezvous and docking system permitted the Soyuz-TM to maneuver independently of the station, without the station making "mirror image" maneuvers to match unwanted translations introduced by earlier models' aft-mounted attitude control.

Soyuz TM-20 was the twentieth expedition to the Russian Space Station Mir.

Mir as seen from Discovery during STS-63
Mir as seen from Space Shuttle Discovery during STS-63, with Soyuz TM-20 seen at the top
Soyuz TM-20
Mission typeMir crew transport
COSPAR ID1994-063A
SATCAT no.23288
Mission duration169 days, 5 hours, 21 minutes, 35 seconds
Orbits completed~2,760
Spacecraft properties
SpacecraftSoyuz 7K-STM No.69[1]
Spacecraft typeSoyuz-TM
ManufacturerRKK Energia
Launch mass7,170 kilograms (15,810 lb)
Crew size3
MembersAlexander Viktorenko
Yelena Kondakova
LaunchingUlf Merbold
LandingValeri Polyakov
CallsignВи́тязь (Vityaz' - Knight)
Start of mission
Launch dateOctober 3, 1994, 22:42:30 UTC[1]
Launch siteBaikonur 1/5
End of mission
Landing dateMarch 22, 1995, 04:04:05 UTC
Landing site50°31′N 67°21′E / 50.52°N 67.35°E
Orbital parameters
Reference systemGeocentric
RegimeLow Earth
Perigee392 kilometres (244 mi)
Apogee394 kilometres (245 mi)
Inclination51.6 degrees
Period92.42 minutes
Epoch3 November 1994[2]
Docking with Mir
Docking portCore forward
Docking date6 October 1994, 00:28:15 UTC
Undocking date22 March 1995, 00:43:08 UTC
Soyuz TM-20 patch
Soyuz programme
(Manned missions)


Position Launching crew Landing crew
Commander Russia Alexander Viktorenko
Fourth and last spaceflight
Flight Engineer Russia Yelena Kondakova
First spaceflight
Research Cosmonaut Germany Ulf Merbold
Third and last spaceflight
Russia Valeri Polyakov
Second and last spaceflight

Mission highlights

20th expedition to Mir.

Carried 10 kg of equipment for use by Merbold in ESA’s month-long Euromir 94 experiment program. During automatic approach to Mir’s front port, the spacecraft yawed unexpectedly. Viktorenko completed a manual docking without additional incident.

See also


  1. ^ a b McDowell, Jonathan. "Launch Log". Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 9 November 2013.
  2. ^ McDowell, Jonathan. "Satellite Catalog". Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 9 November 2013.

External links

Aleksandr Viktorenko

Aleksandr Stepanovich Viktorenko (Александр Степанович Викторенко) is a Soviet cosmonaut. He was born in Olginka, North-Kazakhstan Oblast, Kazakh SSR on March 29, 1947. He is married with two children.He was selected as a cosmonaut on March 23, 1978, and retired on May 30, 1997. During his active career he had been Commander of Soyuz TM-3, Soyuz TM-8, Soyuz TM-14 and Soyuz TM-20. He has spent a total of 489 days in space.


Euromir was an international space programme in the 1990s. Between the Russian Federal Space Agency and the European Space Agency (ESA), it would bring European astronauts to the Mir space station.

Euromir was part of a drive in the early 1990s to recruit and train European astronauts for the then-planned International Space Station (ISS). Trips on the US Space Shuttle and the Russia Mir space station would give ESA astronauts experience in space (ESA's Columbus Precursor Flights programme) and help all parties learn to have experience in international cooperation.

ESA's 1992 intake of astronauts were trained up with two being sent to on Shuttle Missions. Four were selected for Mir and an agreement was signed to train them further at the Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Centre. In 1993 a contract for two flights was signed with Ulf Merbold and Thomas Reiter being the prime candidates for 1994 and 1995 respectively. Pedro Duque and Christer Fuglesang were chosen as backups. They were trained on Russian language and the systems of Soyuz and Mir.

Merbold and Reiter flew on EuroMir 94 (Soyuz TM-20) and EuroMir 95 (Soyuz TM-22) respectively. During Reiter's mission he performed a spacewalk.

List of European astronauts

This is an incomplete list of astronauts who are resident in any of the countries of Europe, exclusive of the former Soviet republics of Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine.

List of German astronauts

The following is a list of German astronauts who have traveled into space, sorted by date of first flight.

As of 2018, eleven Germans have been in space. The first German, and only East German, in space was Sigmund Jähn in 1978. Three astronauts – Ulf Merbold, Reinhard Furrer and Ernst Messerschmid – represented West Germany during the time of divided Germany. Merbold made two other spaceflights after Germany was reunified in 1990; thus, he is the only German to have been in space three times. Thomas Reiter and Alexander Gerst are the only Germans to have made long-term spaceflights.

List of Mir expeditions

This is a chronological list of principal expeditions to Mir, a Soviet/Russian space station in low Earth orbit from 1986–2001. All principal Mir crews (those that were resident long-term on the station) were named "Mir EO-n", where n is sequentially increased with each expedition. Visiting expeditions, which made short-term visits to the station during handovers between principal expeditions were named "Mir EP-n", and are excluded from this list (see List of human spaceflights to Mir for details). Mir commanders are listed in italics. "Duration" refers to the crew and does not always correspond to "Flight up" or "Flight down".

List of Russian manned space missions

This is a list of the manned space missions conducted by the Russian Federal Space Agency since 1992. All Russian manned space missions thus far have been carried out using the Soyuz vehicle, and all visited either Mir or the International Space Station.

The Russian Federal Space Agency was the successor to the Soviet space program. Numeration of the Soyuz flights therefore continues from previous Soviet Soyuz launches. For previous flights of the Soyuz and other manned space vehicles, see List of Soviet manned space missions.

List of astronauts by name

This is an alphabetical list of astronauts, people selected to train for a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft.

For a list of everyone who has flown in space, see List of space travelers by name.

More than 560 people have been trained as astronauts. Until recently, astronauts were sponsored and trained exclusively by governments, either by the military or by civilian space agencies. However, with the advent of suborbital flight starting with privately funded SpaceShipOne in 2004, a new category of astronaut was created: the commercial astronaut.

While the term astronaut is sometimes applied to anyone who trains for travels into space—including scientists, politicians, journalists, and tourists—this article lists only professional astronauts, those who have been selected to train professionally. This includes national space programs, industry and commercial space programs which train and/or hire their own professional astronauts.

Names in italic are astronauts who have left Low Earth orbit, names in bold are astronauts who have walked on the moon. The flags indicate the astronaut's primary citizenship during his or her time as an astronaut. The symbol identifies female astronauts.

List of cosmonauts

This is a list of cosmonauts who have taken part in the missions of the Soviet space program and the Russian Federal Space Agency, including ethnic Russians and people of other ethnicities.

Soviet and Russian cosmonauts born outside Russia are marked with an asterisk and their place of birth is shown in an additional list.

For the full plain lists of Russian and Soviet cosmonauts in Wikipedia, see Category:Russian cosmonauts

Four female cosmonauts have flown on the Soviet/Russian program: Valentina Tereshkova, Svetlana Savitskaya, Elena V. Kondakova, and Elena O. Serova

List of female spacefarers

The following is a list of women who have traveled into space, sorted by date of first flight. Although the first woman flew into space in 1963, very early in crewed space exploration, it would not be until almost twenty years later that another flew. Female astronauts went on to become commonplace in the 1980s. This list includes both cosmonauts and astronauts.

List of human spaceflights, 1991–2000

This is a detailed list of human spaceflights from 1991 to 2000, including the continuation of Russian space station Mir and the American Space Shuttle program, and the first flights to the International Space Station (ISS).

The Soviet Union broke up at the end of 1991. From this date onwards the former USSR constituent republics are shown as separate nationalities.

Nick Hague

Tyler Nicklaus Hague (born on September 24, 1975) is an American flight test engineer and a NASA astronaut of the class of 2013. Selected to be a flight engineer on the International Space Station, his first launch was on Soyuz MS-10, which aborted shortly after take-off on 11 October 2018. His second launch, on 14 March 2019, was successful, taking him and his fellow Soyuz MS-12 crew members to join ISS Expedition 59/60.


STS-63 was the first mission of the US/Russian Shuttle-Mir Program, which carried out the first rendezvous of the American Space Shuttle with Russia's space station Mir. Known as the 'Near-Mir' mission, the flight used Space Shuttle Discovery, which lifted off from launch pad 39B on 3 February 1995 from Kennedy Space Center, Florida. A night launch and the 20th mission for Discovery, it marked the first time a Space Shuttle mission had a female pilot, Eileen Collins, the first EVAs for both a UK born astronaut Michael Foale and a US astronaut of African heritage Bernard A. Harris, Jr. and it also carried out the successful deployment and retrieval of the Spartan-204 platform, along with the scheduled rendezvous and flyaround of Mir, in preparation for STS-71, the first mission to dock with Mir.

Soyuz TM-18

Soyuz TM-18 was launched from Baikonur Cosmodrome and landed 112 km north of Arkalyk. TM-18 was a two-day solo flight that docked with the Mir space station on January 10, 1994. The three cosmonauts became the 15th resident crew onboard Mir. The crew did research work in space flight medicine, primarily by cosmonaut Valeri Polyakov during his long-term flight, and accomplished 25 different experiments.

Soyuz TM-19

The Soyuz-TM crew transports (T - транспортный - Transportnyi - meaning transport, M - модифицированный - Modifitsirovannyi - meaning modified) were fourth generation (1986–2002) Soyuz spacecraft used for ferry flights to the Mir and ISS space stations. It added to the Soyuz-T new docking and rendezvous, radio communications, emergency and integrated parachute/landing engine systems. The new Kurs rendezvous and docking system permitted the Soyuz-TM to maneuver independently of the station, without the station making "mirror image" maneuvers to match unwanted translations introduced by earlier models' aft-mounted attitude control.

Soyuz TM-19 was the tenth expedition to the Russian Space Station Mir.

Soyuz TM-21

Soyuz TM-21 was Soyuz mission, a human spaceflight mission transporting personnel to the Russian space station Mir. Part of the US/Russian Shuttle-Mir Program, the mission launched from Baikonur Cosmodrome, atop a Soyuz-U2 carrier rocket, at 06:11:34 UTC on March 14, 1995. It is of note because its launch marked the presence, for the first time ever, of thirteen humans in space simultaneously - three aboard the Soyuz, three aboard Mir and seven aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, flying STS-67.

The spacecraft carried expedition EO-18 to the space station, including the first American astronaut to launch on a Soyuz spacecraft and board Mir, Norman Thagard, for the American Thagard Increment aboard the station, the first Increment of the Shuttle-Mir program. The three crew members it launched were relieved by Space Shuttle Atlantis during STS-71, when they were replaced by expedition EO-19. The crew returned to earth aboard Soyuz TM-21 on September 11, 1995.

Timeline of longest spaceflights

Timeline of longest spaceflights is a chronology of the longest spaceflights. Many of the first flights set records measured in hours and days, the space station missions of the 1970s and 1980s pushed this to weeks and months, and by the 1990s the record was pushed to over a year and has remained there into the 21st century.

A modern long-duration mission is the ISS year long mission (2015–2016) aboard the International Space Station. The most significant issue in such missions is the effects of spaceflight on the human body, due to such factors as zero-g and elevated radiation.

Ulf Merbold

Dr. Ulf Dietrich Merbold (born June 20, 1941) is the first West German citizen and second German native (after Sigmund Jähn) to have flown in space. He is also the first member of the European Space Agency Astronaut Corps to participate in a spaceflight mission and the first non-US citizen to reach orbit in a US spacecraft. In 1983, he and Byron Lichtenberg became the first Payload Specialists to fly on the shuttle.

Valeri Polyakov

Valeri Vladimirovich Polyakov (Russian: Валерий Владимирович Поляков, born Valeri Ivanovich Korshunov on April 27, 1942) is a former Russian cosmonaut. He is the holder of the record for the longest single stay in space in human history, staying aboard the Mir space station for more than 14 months (437 days 18 hours) during one trip. His combined space experience is more than 22 months.Selected as a cosmonaut in 1972, Polyakov made his first flight into space aboard Soyuz TM-6 in 1988. He returned to Earth 240 days later aboard TM-7. Polyakov completed his second flight into space in 1994–1995, spending 437 days in space between launching on Soyuz TM-18 and landing on TM-20, setting the record for the longest time continuously spent in space by an individual in human history.

Yelena Kondakova

Yelena Vladimirovna Kondakova (Russian: Елена Владимировна Кондакóва; born March 30, 1957) was the third Soviet/Russian female cosmonaut to travel to space and the first woman to make a long-duration spaceflight. Her first trip into space was on Soyuz TM-20 on October 4, 1994. She returned to Earth on March 22, 1995 after a five-month stay at the Mir space station. Kondakova's second flight was as a mission specialist on the United States Space Shuttle Atlantis during mission STS-84 in May 1997. She was the last Russian female in space until her successor cosmonaut Elena Serova flew to the International Space Station (ISS) on 25 September 2014.

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