Soviet calendar

The Soviet calendar refers to the Gregorian calendar implemented in 1918, national holidays, and five- and six-day work weeks used between 1929 and 1940. The Gregorian calendar, under the name "Western European calendar", was implemented in Soviet Russia in February 1918 by dropping the Julian dates of 1–13 February 1918. As many as nine national holidays (paid days of rest) were implemented in the following decade, but four were eliminated or merged on 24 September 1929, leaving only five national holidays, 22 January, 1–2 May, and 7–8 November, to celebrate until 1951, when 22 January reverted to a normal day. During 1929 to 1940, five- and six-day work weeks were used to schedule work, but the Gregorian calendar and its seven-day week were used for all other purposes.

During the summer of 1929, five-day continuous work weeks were implemented in factories, government offices, and commercial enterprises, but not collective farms. One of the five days was randomly assigned to a worker as their day of rest without regard to the rest days assigned to members of their family or friends. These five-day work weeks continued throughout the Gregorian year, interrupted only by the five national holidays. During the summer of 1931, six-day interrupted work weeks were implemented for most workers, with a common day of rest for all workers interrupting their work weeks. Five six-day work weeks were assigned to each Gregorian month, more or less, with the five national holidays converting normal work days into days of rest. On 27 June 1940 both five- and six-day work weeks were abandoned in favor of seven-day work weeks. Work weeks were never collected into 30-day months.

History

Gregorian calendar

Sovnarkom-Gregorian-Calendar-Decree-izo39
1918 decree adopting the "Western European calendar" (click on image for translation)

The Gregorian calendar was implemented in Russia on 14 February 1918 by dropping the Julian dates of 1–13 February 1918 pursuant to a Sovnarkom decree signed 24 January 1918 (Julian) by Vladimir Lenin. The decree required that the Julian date was to be written in parentheses after the Gregorian date until 1 July 1918.[1] All surviving examples of physical calendars from 1929–40 show the irregular month lengths of the Gregorian calendar (such as those displayed here). Most calendars displayed all the days of a Gregorian year as a grid with seven rows or columns for the traditional seven-day week with Sunday first.

Soviet calendar 1931 pocket
Soviet pocket calendar, 1931
Numbered five-day work week, excluding five national holidays

The 1931 pocket calendar displayed here is a rare example that excluded the five national holidays, enabling the remaining 360 days of the Gregorian year to be displayed as a grid with five rows labeled I–V for each day of the five-day week.[2] Even it had the full Gregorian calendar on the other side. Throughout this period, Pravda, the official newspaper of the Communist Party, and other newspapers continued to use Gregorian calendar dates in their mastheads alongside the traditional seven-day week.[3][4] Pravda dated individual issues with 31 January, 31 March, 31 May, 31 July, 31 August, 31 October, and 31 December, but never used 30 February during the period 1929–1940. The traditional names of "Resurrection" (Воскресенье) for Sunday and "Sabbath" (Суббота) for Saturday continued to be used, despite the government's officially anti-religious atheistic policy. In rural areas, the traditional seven-day week continued to be used despite official disfavor.[3][4][5] Several sources from the 1930s state that the old Gregorian calendar was not changed.[3][6][7] Two modern sources explicitly state that the structure of the Gregorian calendar was not touched.[8][9]

Work weeks

Revolution kalendar
Soviet calendar
12 December 1937
"Sixth day of the six-day week" (just below "12")
—————————
"Election day for the Supreme Soviet of the USSR"
Sixday
Soviet calendar
22 October 1935
"Fourth day of the six-day week" (just below "ОКТЯБРЬ")

During the second half of May 1929, Yuri Larin (Юрий Ларин, 1882–1932) proposed a continuous production week (nepreryvnaya rabochaya nedelya = nepreryvka) to the Fifth Congress of Soviets of the Union, but so little attention was paid to his suggestion that the president of the Congress did not even mention it in his final speech. By the beginning of June 1929, Larin had won the approval of Joseph Stalin, prompting all newspapers to praise the idea. The change was advantageous to the anti-religious movement, as Sundays and religious holidays became working days.[10] On 8 June 1929 the Supreme Economic Council of the RSFSR directed its efficiency experts to submit within two weeks a plan to introduce continuous production. Before any plan was available, during the first half of June 1929, 15% of industry had converted to continuous production according to Larin, probably an overestimate. On 26 August 1929 the Council of People's Commissars (CPC) of the Soviet Union (Sovnarkom) declared "it is essential that the systematically prepared transition of undertakings and institutions to continuous production should begin during the economic year 1929–1930".[11][12] The lengths of continuous production weeks were not yet specified, and the conversion was only to begin during the year. Nevertheless, many sources state that the effective date of five-day weeks was 1 October 1929,[4][13][14][5][15][16] which was the beginning of the economic year. But many other lengths of continuous work weeks were used, all of which were gradually introduced.

Implementation of continuous production weeks

Specific lengths for continuous production weeks were first mentioned when rules for the five-day continuous work week were issued on 24 September 1929. On 23 October 1929 building construction and seasonal trades were put on a continuous six-day week, while factories that regularly halted production every month for maintenance were put on six- or seven-day continuous production weeks. In December 1929, it was reported that about 50 different versions of the continuous work week were in use, the longest being a 'week' of 37 days (30 continuous days of work followed by seven days of rest). By the end of 1929, orders were issued that the continuous week was to be extended to 43% of industrial workers by 1 April 1930 and to 67% by 1 October 1930. Actual conversion was more rapid, 63% by 1 April 1930. In June 1930 it was decreed that the conversion of all industries was to be completed during the economic year 1930–31, except for the textile industry. But on 1 October 1930 peak usage was reached, with 72.9% of industrial workers on continuous schedules. Thereafter, usage decreased. All of these official figures were somewhat inflated because some factories said they adopted the continuous week without actually doing so. The continuous week was applied to retail and government workers as well, but no usage figures were ever published.[11][17][18]

Implementation of six-day weeks

As early as May 1930, while usage of the continuous week was still advancing, some factories reverted to an interrupted week. On 30 April 1931, one of the largest factories in the Soviet Union was put on an interrupted six-day week (Шестидневка = shestidnevka). On 23 June 1931, Stalin condemned the continuous work week as then practiced, supporting the temporary use of the interrupted six-day week (one common rest day for all workers) until the problems with the continuous work week could be resolved. During August 1931, most factories were put on an interrupted six-day week as the result of an interview with the People's Commissar for Labor, who severely restricted the use of the continuous week. The official conversion to non-continuous schedules was decreed by the Sovnarkom of the USSR somewhat later, on 23 November 1931.[15][18][19] Institutions serving cultural and social needs and those enterprises engaged in continuous production such as ore smelting were exempted.[20] It is often stated that the effective date of the interrupted six-day work week was 1 December 1931,[21][22][13][5][15][19] but that is only the first whole month after the 'official conversion'. The massive summer 1931 conversion made this date after-the-fact and some industries continued to use continuous weeks. The last figures available indicate that on 1 July 1935 74.2% of all industrial workers were on non-continuous schedules (almost all six-day weeks) while 25.8% were still on continuous schedules. Due to a decree dated 26 June 1940, the traditional interrupted seven-day week with Sunday as the common day of rest was reintroduced on 27 June 1940.[1][2][18][23]

Five-day weeks

Soviet calendar 1930 color
Soviet calendar, 1930
Colored five-day work week. Days grouped into seven-day weeks. One national holiday in black, four with white numbers

Each day of the five-day week was labeled by either one of five colors or a Roman numeral from I to V. Each worker was assigned a color or number to identify his or her day of rest.

Eighty per cent of each factory's workforce was at work every day (except holidays) in an attempt to increase production while 20% were resting. But if a husband and wife, and their relatives and friends, were assigned different colors or numbers, they would not have a common rest day for their family and social life. Furthermore, machines broke down more frequently both because they were used by workers not familiar with them, and because no maintenance could be performed on machines that were never idle in factories with continuous schedules (24 hours/day every day). Five-day weeks (and later six-day weeks) "made it impossible to observe Sunday as a day of rest. This measure was deliberately introduced 'to facilitate the struggle to eliminate religion'".[24]

The colors vary depending on the source consulted. The 1930 color calendar displayed here has days of purple, blue, yellow, red, and green, in that order beginning 1 January.[25] Blue was supported by an anonymous writer in 1936 as the second day of the week, but he stated that red was the first day of the week.[3] However, most sources replace blue with either pink,[21][4][22][13][26] orange,[6][14][5] or peach,[15] all of which specify the different order yellow, pink/orange/peach, red, purple, and green.

Six-day weeks

Soviet calendar 1933 color
Soviet calendar, 1933
Days grouped into seven-day weeks. Rest day of six-day work week in blue. Five national holidays in red
Soviet kalendar 1939
Soviet calendar, 1939
Days grouped into six-day work weeks. Each day 31 is outside six-day week. Last six-day week of February is short.Six national holidays in red

From the summer of 1931 until 26 June 1940, each Gregorian month was usually divided into five six-day weeks, more and less (as shown by the 1933 and 1939 calendars displayed here).[25] The sixth day of each week was a uniform day off for all workers, that is days 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 of each month. The last day of 31-day months was always an extra work day in factories, which, when combined with the first five days of the following month, made six successive work days. But some commercial and government offices treated the 31st day as an extra day off. To make up for the short fifth week of February, 1 March was a uniform day off followed by four successive work days in the first week of March (2–5). The partial last week of February had four work days in common years (25–28) and five work days in leap years (25–29). But some enterprises treated 1 March as a regular work day, producing nine or ten successive work days between 25 February and 5 March, inclusive. The dates of the five national holidays did not change, but they now converted five regular work days into holidays within three six-day weeks rather than splitting those weeks into two parts (none of these holidays was on a "sixth day").[3][4][6]

National holidays

On 10 December 1918 six Bolshevik holidays were decreed during which work was prohibited.[27][28]

  • 1 January – New Year's Day
  • 22 January – Day of 9 January 1905
    Commemorates Bloody Sunday on 9 January 1905 (Julian) or 22 January 1905 (Gregorian)
  • 12 March – Day of the Overthrow of the Autocracy
    Commemorates the mutiny of the Imperial Guards (about 60,000 soldiers) in Petrograd (now Saint Petersburg) on 27 February 1917 (Julian) or 12 March 1917 (Gregorian) during the February Revolution
  • 18 March – Day of the Paris Commune
    Commemorates the uprising of the National Guard of Paris on 18 March 1871 (Gregorian) which established the Paris Commune
  • 1 May – Day of the International[29]
    Celebration within Russia and later the Soviet Union of International Workers' Day
  • 7 November – Day of the Proletarian Revolution
    Commemorates the Bolshevik uprising on 25 October 1917 (Julian) or 7 November 1917 (Gregorian)

In January 1925, the anniversary of Lenin's death in 1924 was added on 21 January. Although other events were commemorated on other dates, they were not days of rest. Originally, the "May holidays" and "November holidays" were one day each (1 May and 7 November), but both were extended from one to two days in 1928, making 2 May and 8 November public holidays as well.[30]

Until 1929, regional labor union councils or local governments were authorized to set up additional public holidays, totaling to up to 10 days a year. Although people would not work on those days, they would not be paid holidays.[31][32] Typically, at least some of these days were used for religious feast, typically those of the Russian Orthodox Church, but in some localities possibly those of other religions as well.[33]

On 24 September 1929, three holidays were eliminated, 1 January, 12 March, and 18 March. Lenin's Day on 21 January was merged with 22 January. The resulting five holidays continued to be celebrated until 1951, when 22 January ceased to be a holiday. See История праздников России (History of the festivals of Russia).[3][4][6][27][11][34][35]

  • 22 January – Day of Remembrance of 9 January 1905 and of the Memory of V.I. Lenin
    Commemorates Bloody Sunday on 9 January 1905 (Julian) or 22 January 1905 (Gregorian) and the death of Vladimir Lenin on 21 January 1925 (Gregorian)
  • 1–2 May – Days of the International
  • 7–8 November – Days of the Anniversary of the October Revolution

Two Journal of Calendar Reform articles (1938 and 1943) have two misunderstandings, specifying 9 January and 26 October, not realizing that both are Julian calendar dates equivalent to the unspecified Gregorian dates 22 January and 8 November, so they specify 9 January, 21 January, 1 May, 26 October, and 7 November, plus a quadrennial leap day.[21][22]

Erroneous 30-day months

Many sources erroneously state that both five- and six-day work weeks were collected into 30-day months.

A 1929 Time magazine article reporting Soviet five-day work weeks, which it called an "Eternal calendar", associated them with the French Republican Calendar, which had months containing three ten-day weeks.[36] In February 1930 a government commission proposed a "Soviet revolutionary calendar" containing twelve 30-day months plus five national holidays that were not part of any month, but it was rejected because it would differ from the Gregorian calendar used by the rest of Europe.[17] Four Journal of Calendar Reform articles (1938, 1940, 1943, 1954) thought that five-day weeks actually were collected into 30-day months,[21][4][22][37] as do several modern sources.[13][26][5][38]

A 1931 Time magazine article reporting six-day weeks stated that they too were collected into 30-day months, with the five national holidays between those months.[39] Two of the Journal of Calendar Reform articles (1938 and 1943) thought that six-day as well as five-day weeks were collected into 30-day months.[21][22] A couple of modern sources state that five-day weeks plus the first two years of six-day weeks were collected into 30-day months.[14][34]

Apparently to place the five national holidays between 30-day months since 1 October 1929, Parise (1982) shifted Lenin's Day to 31 January, left two Days of the Proletariat on 1–2 May, and shifted two Days of the Revolution to 31 October and 1 November, plus 1 January (all Gregorian dates).[14] Stating that all months had 30 days between 1 October 1929 and 1 December 1931, the Oxford Companion to the Year (1999) 'corrected' Parise's list by specifying that "Lenin Day" was after 30 January (31 January Gregorian), a two-day "Workers' First of May" was after 30 April (1–2 May Gregorian), two "Industry Days" were after 7 November (8–9 November Gregorian), and placed the leap day after 30 February (2 March Gregorian).[13][26]

References

  1. ^ a b История календаря в России и в СССР (Calendar history in Russia and the USSR), chapter 19 in История календаря и хронология by Селешников (History of the calendar and chronology by Seleschnikov) (in Russian). ДЕКРЕТ "О ВВЕДЕНИИ ЗАПАДНО-ЕВРОПЕЙСКОГО КАЛЕНДАРЯ" (Decree "On the introduction of the Western European calendar") Archived 21 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine contains the full text of the decree (in Russian).
  2. ^ a b ИЗ ИСТОРИИ ОТЕЧЕСТВЕННОГО КАРМАННОГО КАЛЕНДАРЯ by Дмитрий Малявин ("Calendar stories from reforms in the USSR" by Dmitry Malyavin) (in Russian) Does not mention colors, only numbers.
  3. ^ a b c d e f The Riga correspondent of the London Times, "Russian experiments", Journal of Calendar Reform 6 (1936) 69–71.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Albert Parry, "The Soviet calendar", Journal of Calendar Reform 10 (1940) 65–69.
  5. ^ a b c d e E. G. Richards, Mapping time, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998) 159–160, 277–279.
  6. ^ a b c d Susan M. Kingsbury and Mildred Fairchild, Factory family and woman in the Soviet Union (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1935) 245–248. Attributes the rest days of six-day weeks to five-day weeks.
  7. ^ P. Malevsky-Malevitch, Russia U.S.S.R.: A complete handbook (New York: William Farquhar Payson, 1933) 601–602.
  8. ^ Lance Latham, Standard C date/time library: Programming the world's calendars and clocks (Lawrence, KS: R&D Books, 1998) 390–392.
  9. ^ Toke Nørby, The Perpetual Calendar: A helpful tool to postal historians: What about Russia?
  10. ^ Siegelbaum, Lewis H. (1992). Soviet State and Society Between Revolutions, 1918-1929. Cambridge University Press. p. 213. ISBN 978-0-521-36987-9.
  11. ^ a b c [Solomon M. Schwarz], "The continuous working week in Soviet Russia", International Labour Review 23 (1931) 157–180.
  12. ^ Gary Cross, Worktime and industrialization (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1988) 202–205.
  13. ^ a b c d e Bonnie Blackburn and Leofranc Holford-Strevens, The Oxford companion to the year (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999) 99, 688–689.
  14. ^ a b c d Frank Parise, ed., "Soviet calendar", The book of calendars, (New York: Facts on file, 1982) 377.
  15. ^ a b c d Eviatar Zerubavel, "The Soviet five-day Nepreryvka", The seven day circle (New York: Free press, 1985) 35–43.
  16. ^ The Duchess of Atholl (Katherine Atholl), The conscription of a people (1931) 84–86, 107.
  17. ^ a b R. W. Davies, The Soviet economy in turmoil, 1929–1930 (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Cambridge University Press, 1989) 84–86, 143–144, 252–256, 469, 544.
  18. ^ a b c Solomon M. Schwarz, Labor in the Soviet Union (New York: Praegar, 1951) 258–277.
  19. ^ a b Elisha M. Friedman, Russia in transition: a business man's appraisal (New York: Viking Press, 1932) 260–262.
  20. ^ Handbook of the Soviet Union (New York: American-Russian Chamber of Commerce, 1936) 524, 526.
  21. ^ a b c d e Erland Echlin, "Here all nations agree", Journal of Calendar Reform 8 (1938) 25–27.
  22. ^ a b c d e Carleton J. Ketchum, "Russia's changing tide", Journal of Calendar Reform 13 (1943) 147–155.
  23. ^ On the transfer to the seven-day work week, 26 June 1940 (item 2)
  24. ^ Nicolas Werth, The Black Book of Communism (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1999) 172.
  25. ^ a b Clive Foss, "Stalin's topsy-turvy work week", History Today 54/9 (September 2004) 46–47.
  26. ^ a b c La réforme grégorienne: La réforme en Russie (The Gregorian reform: The reform in Russia) (in French)
  27. ^ a b Irina Shilova, "Building the Bolshevik calendar through Pravda and Izvestiia", Toronto Slavic Quarterly No. 19 (Winter 2007). She named the holidays associated with five- and six-day weeks the "Stalin calendar" to distinguish them from the holidays of the previous eleven years, which she called the "Bolshevik calendar".
  28. ^ ПРАВИЛА ОБ ЕЖЕНЕДЕЛЬНОМ ОТДЫХЕ И О ПРАЗДНИЧНЫХ ДНЯХ (Rules concerning weekly rest days and holidays) (in Russian) Last annex.
  29. ^ The name of the holiday is uniformly given in Russian sources as "день Интернационала" (e.g., in А.И. Щербинин (A.I. Shcherbinin) «КРАСНЫЙ ДЕНЬ КАЛЕНДАРЯ»: ФОРМИРОВАНИЕ МАТРИЦЫ ВОСПРИЯТИЯ ПОЛИТИЧЕСКОГО ВРЕМЕНИ В РОССИИ ("The red day in the calendar": the formation of the political time perception matrix in Russia)), and is somewhat quaintly translated by Shilova (2007) as "Day of International". The name could probably be translated literally as "Day of the International", where "the International" initially (1918) may not have directly referred to either the already defunct Second International or to the Third International (which was yet to be officially established), but to the general idea of an international Labor/Communist solidarity organization. Incidentally, the name of the international Communist anthem, The Internationale, is spelled the same way in Russian.
  30. ^ Постановление ВЦИК, СНК РСФСР 30.07.1928 «Об изменении статей 111 и 112 Кодекса законов о труде РСФСР». (Order of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee and the Council of the People's Commissars of the RSFSR, "Regarding changes of Articles 111 and 112 of the Labor Code of the RSFSR"). Presumably, other member republics of the USSR passed similar legislation as well.
  31. ^ RSFSR Labor Code (1918), Article 8. (in Russian) Also quoted in Shcherbinin, p. 57.
  32. ^ Декрет СНК РСФСР от 17.06.1920 «Общее положение о тарифе (Правила об условиях найма и оплаты труда рабочих и служащих всех предприятий, учреждений и хозяйств в РСФСР).» (Decree of the Council of the People's Commissars of the RSFSR, "General [wage] rate regulations (Regulations of the conditions of hire and paying of wages of the employees of all enterprises, organizations, and farm estates in the RSFSR)".
  33. ^ Shcherbinin, p. 57
  34. ^ a b Duncan Steel, Marking Time (New York: John Wiley, 2000) 293–294.
  35. ^ ПОСТАНОВЛЕНИЕ от 24 сентября 1929 года: О РАБОЧЕМ ВРЕМЕНИ И ВРЕМЕНИ ОТДЫХА В ПРЕДПРИЯТИЯХ И УЧРЕЖДЕНИЯХ, ПЕРЕХОДЯЩИХ НА НЕПРЕРЫВНУЮ ПРОИЗВОДСТВЕННУЮ НЕДЕЛЮ (Decree of 24 September 1929: Hours of work and leisure time in the enterprises and institutions switching to the continuous production week) (in Russian)
  36. ^ Oneday, Twoday (Time: 7 October 1929)
  37. ^ Elisabeth Achelis, "Calendar marches on: Russia's difficulties Archived 12 July 2012 at Archive.today", Journal of Calendar Reform 24 (1954) 91–93.
  38. ^ The Orthodox and Soviet Calendar Reforms
  39. ^ Staggers Unstaggers (Time: 7 December 1931)
1940

1940 (MCMXL)

was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1940th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 940th year of the 2nd millennium, the 40th year of the 20th century, and the 1st year of the 1940s decade.

Alexander Matrosov

Alexander Matveyevich Matrosov (Russian: Алекса́ндр Матве́евич Матро́сов, Bashkir: Шәкирйән Юныс улы Мөхәмәтйәнов, Ukrainian: Олександр Матвійович Матросов; February 5, 1924 – February 22 or 27, 1943), born in Yekaterinoslav (now Dnipro) was a Soviet infantry soldier during the Second World War, awarded the title of the Hero of the Soviet Union for blocking a German machine-gun with his body.

Calendar (stationery)

A calendar is used to display dates and related information, usually in a table format. Calendars are used to plan future events and keep track of appointments, and so a typical calendar will include days of the week, week numbering, months, public holidays and clock changes. Printed calendars also often contain additional information relevant for specific groups – for instance, a Christian liturgical calendar will show holy days and liturgical colours, while a calendar for amateur astronomers will highlight phases of the moon, conjunctions and eclipses. Alongside their practical uses, calendars have taken on a decorative purpose, offering an easy way to introduce regularly changing artwork to a space, and have even influenced art and sexuality by popularizing the pin-up style.

Chkalovsk, Russia

Chkalovsk (Russian: Чка́ловск) is a town in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Volga River, 95 kilometers (59 mi) northwest of Nizhny Novgorod, the administrative center of the oblast. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 12,368.It was previously known as Vasilyeva Sloboda/Vasilyovo (until 1938). It was renamed after its most famous inhabitant, the war hero Valeri Chkalov.

Five-year plans for the national economy of the Soviet Union

The five-year plans for the development of the national economy of the Soviet Union (USSR) (Russian: Пятиле́тние пла́ны разви́тия наро́дного хозя́йства СССР, Pjatiletnije plany razvitiya narodnogo khozyaystva SSSR) consisted of a series of nationwide centralized economic plans in the Soviet Union, beginning in the late 1920s. The Soviet state planning committee Gosplan developed these plans based on the theory of the productive forces that formed part of the ideology of the Communist Party for development of the Soviet economy. Fulfilling the current plan became the watchword of Soviet bureaucracy.

Most other communist states, including the People's Republic of China, adopted a similar method of planning. Nazi Germany, despite its extreme anti-communism, emulated the practice in its four-year plan (1936–1939) designed by the Nazi Party to bring Germany to war-readiness. Although the Republic of Indonesia under Suharto is known for its anti-communist purge,

his government also adopted the same method of planning. This series of five-year plans in Indonesia was termed REPELITA (Rencana Pembangunan Lima Tahun); plans I to VI ran from 1969 to 1998.Several Soviet five-year plans did not take up the full period of time assigned to them: some were pronounced successfully completed earlier than expected, while others failed and were abandoned. Altogether, Gosplan launched thirteen five-year plans. The initial five-year plans aimed to achieve rapid industrialization of the Soviet Union and thus placed a major focus on heavy industry. The first one, accepted in 1928 for the period from 1929 to 1933, finished one year early. The last five-year plan, for the period from 1991 to 1995, was not completed, since the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991.

French Republican calendar

The French Republican calendar (French: calendrier républicain français), also commonly called the French Revolutionary calendar (calendrier révolutionnaire français), was a calendar created and implemented during the French Revolution, and used by the French government for about 12 years from late 1793 to 1805, and for 18 days by the Paris Commune in 1871. The revolutionary system was designed in part to remove all religious and royalist influences from the calendar, and was part of a larger attempt at decimalisation in France (which also included decimal time of day, decimalisation of currency, and metrication). It was used in government records in France and other areas under French rule, including Belgium, Luxembourg, and parts of the Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, Malta, and Italy.

History of Esperanto

L. L. Zamenhof developed Esperanto in the 1870s and 80s and published the first publication about it, Unua Libro, in 1887. The number of Esperanto speakers has grown gradually since then, although it has not had much support from governments and international organizations and has sometimes been outlawed or otherwise suppressed.

Ilya Kopalin

Ilya Petrovich Kopalin (1900-1976) was a Russian film director remembered for his documentaries. His most famous footage is that of Stalin, Churchill and Roosevelt at the Yalta Conference and that of Yuri Gargarin's space flight.

Lev Dovator

Lev Mikhaylovich Dovator (February 20, 1903 - December 19, 1941) was a Soviet major-general who was killed in action during World War II and posthumously awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union.

List of calendars

This is a list of calendars. Included are historical calendars as well as proposed ones. Historical calendars are often grouped into larger categories by cultural sphere or historical period; thus O'Neil (1976) distinguishes the groupings Egyptian calendars (Ancient Egypt), Babylonian calendars (Ancient Mesopotamia), Indian calendars (Hindu and Buddhist traditions of the Indian subcontinent), Chinese calendars and Mesoamerican calendars.

These are not specific calendars but series of historical calendars undergoing reforms or regional diversification.

In Classical Antiquity, the Hellenic calendars inspired the Roman calendar, including the solar Julian calendar introduced in 45 BC. Many modern calendar proposals, including the Gregorian calendar itself, are in turn modifications of the Julian calendar.

List of non-standard dates

There are several non-standard dates that are used in calendars. Some are used sarcastically, some for scientific or mathematical purposes, and some for exceptional or fictional calendars.

Mikheil Chiaureli

Mikheil Chiaureli (Georgian: მიხეილ ჭიაურელი, Russian: Михаил Эдишерович Чиаурели, 6 February 1894 – 31 October 1974) was a Soviet Georgian actor, film director and screenwriter. He directed 25 films between 1928 and 1974. He was awarded the Stalin Prize five times in 1941, 1943, 1946, 1947, and 1950.

October Revolution

The October Revolution, officially known in Soviet historiography as the Great October Socialist Revolution and commonly referred to as the October Uprising, the October Coup, the Bolshevik Revolution, the Bolshevik Coup or the Red October, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolshevik Party of Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917. It took place with an armed insurrection in Petrograd on 7 November (25 October, O.S.) 1917.

It followed and capitalized on the February Revolution of the same year, which overthrew the Tsarist autocracy and resulted in a provisional government after a transfer of power proclaimed by Grand Duke Michael, the younger brother of Tsar Nicholas II, who declined to take power after the Tsar stepped down. During this time, urban workers began to organize into councils (soviets) wherein revolutionaries criticized the provisional government and its actions. After the Congress of Soviets, now the governing body, had its second session, it elected members of the Bolsheviks and other leftist groups such as the Left Socialist Revolutionaries to important positions within the new state of affairs. This immediately initiated the establishment of the Russian Soviet Republic. On 17 July 1918, the Tsar and his family were executed.

The revolution was led by the Bolsheviks, who used their influence in the Petrograd Soviet to organize the armed forces. Bolshevik Red Guards forces under the Military Revolutionary Committee began the occupation of government buildings on 7 November 1917 (New Style). The following day, the Winter Palace (the seat of the Provisional government located in Petrograd, then capital of Russia) was captured.

The long-awaited Constituent Assembly elections were held on 12 November 1917. In contrast to their majority in the Soviets, the Bolsheviks only won 175 seats in the 715-seat legislative body, coming in second behind the Socialist Revolutionary Party, which won 370 seats, although the SR Party no longer existed as a whole party by that time, as the Left SRs had gone into coalition with the Bolsheviks from October 1917 to March 1918. The Constituent Assembly was to first meet on 28 November 1917, but its convocation was delayed until 5 January 1918 by the Bolsheviks. On its first and only day in session, the Constituent Assembly came into conflict with the Soviets, and it rejected Soviet decrees on peace and land, resulting in the Constituent Assembly being dissolved the next day by order of the Congress of Soviets.As the revolution was not universally recognized, there followed the struggles of the Russian Civil War (1917–22) and the creation of the Soviet Union in 1922.

Revolutionary calendar

Revolutionary Calendar may refer to:

Soviet calendar (Soviet revolutionary calendar)

French Republican Calendar (French Revolutionary Calendar)

Solar calendar

A solar calendar is a calendar whose dates indicate the season or almost equivalently the apparent position of the Sun relative to the stars. The Gregorian calendar, widely accepted as standard in the world, is an example of a solar calendar.

The main other type of calendar is a lunar calendar, whose months correspond to cycles of Moon phases. The months of the Gregorian calendar do not correspond to cycles of Moon phase.

State atheism

State atheism is the incorporation of positive atheism or non-theism into political regimes, particularly associated with Soviet systems. In contrast, a secular state purports to be officially neutral in matters of religion, supporting neither religion nor irreligion. State atheism may refer to a government's anti-clericalism, which opposes religious institutional power and influence in all aspects of public and political life, including the involvement of religion in the everyday life of the citizen.The majority of Marxist–Leninist states followed similar policies from 1917. The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (1917–1991) and the Soviet Union (1922–1991) more broadly, had a long history of state atheism, whereby those seeking social success generally had to profess atheism and to stay away from houses of worship; this trend became especially militant during the middle Stalinist era from 1929 to 1939. The Soviet Union attempted to suppress public religious expression over wide areas of its influence, including places such as Central Asia. Currently, only China, Cuba, North Korea and Vietnam are officially atheist.

Valery Chkalov

Valery Pavlovich Chkalov (Russian: Валерий Павлович Чкалов, IPA: [vɐˈlʲerʲɪj ˈpavləvʲɪtɕ ˈtɕkaləf]; 2 February 1904 – 15 December 1938) was a Soviet and Russian aircraft test pilot and a Hero of the Soviet Union (1936).

Week

A week is a time unit equal to seven days. It is the standard time period used for cycles of rest days in most parts of the world, mostly alongside—although not strictly part of—the Gregorian calendar.

In many languages, the days of the week are named after classical planets or gods of a pantheon. In English, the names are Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, and Saturday.

ISO 8601 includes the ISO week date system, a numbering system for weeks within a given year – each week begins on a Monday and is associated with the year that contains that week's Thursday (so that if a year starts in a long weekend Friday–Sunday, week number one of the year will start after that). ISO 8601 assigns numbers to the days of the week, running from 1 to 7 for Monday through to Sunday.

The term "week" is sometimes expanded to refer to other time units comprising a few days, such as the nundinal cycle of the ancient Roman calendar, the "work week", or "school week" referring only to the days spent on those activities.

Systems
Nearly universal
In wide use
In more
limited use
Historical
By specialty
Proposals
Fictional
Displays and
applications
Year naming
and
numbering

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