Soviet Parallel Cinema, often referred to simply as Parallel Cinema, was an underground film movement in the Soviet Union in the 1980s. The films made as part of the movement were noted for embracing amateur aesthetics and for "deliberately [refusing] to conform to professional standards."
Boris Yukhananov (Russian: Борис Юрьевич Юхананов; born 30 September 1957) is a Russian director of theatre, video, cinema and TV, a theatre educator and theorist. He is currently the Artistic Director of the Stanislavsky Electrotheatre, Moscow. He was a pioneering figure in Russia’s underground art movement in the 1980s and 1990s and was one of the founders of the Soviet Parallel Cinema movement, which provided an alternative cinema to that which was produced by the state. His recent major works include a radical interpretation of Maurice Maeterlinck’s The Blue Bird, the opera serial Drillalians and the two-part The Constant Principle. Founder of the new processualism movement, a methodology and artistic strategy that posits theatre as the focal point of all forms of art involving every aspect of time, whether it be cinema, a musical concert or performance art.Parallel cinema
Parallel cinema was a film movement in Indian cinema that originated in the state of West Bengal in the 1950s as an alternative to the mainstream commercial Indian cinema, represented especially by popular Hindi cinema, known today as Bollywood.
Inspired by Italian Neorealism, Parallel Cinema began just before the French New Wave and Japanese New Wave, and was a precursor to the Indian New Wave of the 1960s. The movement was initially led by Bengali cinema and produced internationally acclaimed filmmakers such as Satyajit Ray, Mrinal Sen, Ritwik Ghatak, Tapan Sinha and others. It later gained prominence in other film industries of India and Bangladesh.
It is known for its serious content, realism and naturalism, symbolic elements with a keen eye on the sociopolitical climate of the times, and for the rejection of inserted dance-and-song routines that are typical of mainstream Indian films.
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