Southern right whale

The southern right whale (Eubalaena australis) is a baleen whale, one of three species classified as right whales belonging to the genus Eubalaena.

Approximately 10,000 southern right whales are spread throughout the southern part of the Southern Hemisphere.

Southern right whale[1]
Southern right whale6
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Infraorder: Cetacea
Family: Balaenidae
Genus: Eubalaena
Species:
E. australis
Binomial name
Eubalaena australis
(Desmoulins, 1822)
Cypron-Range Eubalaena australis
Range
Synonyms[3]
  • B. glacialis (Mueller, 1776)
  • B. antarctica (Lesson, 1828)
  • B. antipodarum (Gray, 1843)
  • Hunterus temminckii (Gray, 1864)
  • Macleayius australiensis (Gray, 1865)
  • E. capensis (Gray, 1866)
  • Halibalaena britannica (Gray, 1873)
  • E. glacialis australis (Tomilin, 1962)
  • B. glacialis australis (Scheffer & Rice, 1963)

Taxonomy

Right whales were first classified in the genus Balaena in 1758 by Carl Linnaeus, who at the time considered all right whales (including the bowhead) to be a single species. Through the 1800s and 1900s, in fact, the family Balaenidae has been the subject of great taxonometric debate. Authorities have repeatedly recategorized the three populations of right whale plus the bowhead whale, as one, two, three or four species, either in a single genus or in two separate genera. In the early whaling days, they were all thought to be a single species, Balaena mysticetus.[4]

The southern right whale was initially described as Balaena australis by Desmoulins in 1822. Eventually, it was recognized that bowheads and right whales were in fact different, and John Edward Gray proposed the genus Eubalaena for the right whale in 1864. Later, morphological factors such as differences in the skull shape of northern and southern right whales indicated at least two species of right whale—one in the Northern Hemisphere, the other in the Southern Ocean.[4] As recently as 1998, Rice, in his comprehensive and otherwise authoritative classification, Marine mammals of the world: systematics and distribution, listed just two species: Balaena glacialis (all of the right whales) and Balaena mysticetus (the bowheads).[5]

In 2000, Rosenbaum et al. disagreed, based on data from their genetic study of DNA samples from each of the whale populations. Genetic evidence now clearly demonstrates that the northern and southern populations of right whale have not interbred for between 3 million and 12 million years, confirming the southern right whale as a distinct species. The northern Pacific and Atlantic populations are also distinct, with the North Pacific right whale being more closely related to the southern right whale than to the North Atlantic right whale.[6] Genetic differences between E. japonica (north pacific) and E. australis (south pacific) are much smaller than other baleen whales represent among different ocean basins.[7]

It is believed that the right whale populations first split because of the joining of North and South America. The rising temperatures at the equator then created a second split, into the northern and southern groups, preventing them from interbreeding.[8]

In 2002, the Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commission (IWC) accepted Rosenbaum's findings, and recommended that the Eubalaena nomenclature be retained for this genus.[9]

The cladogram is a tool for visualizing and comparing the evolutionary relationships between taxa. The point where a node branches off is analogous to an evolutionary branching – the diagram can be read left-to-right, much like a timeline. The following cladogram of the family Balaenidae serves to illustrate the current scientific consensus as to the relationships between the southern right whale and the other members of its family.

Other junior synonyms for E. australis have included B. antarctica (Lesson, 1828), B. antipodarum (Gray, 1843), Hunterus temminckii (Gray, 1864), and E. glacialis australis (Tomilin, 1962) (see side panel for more synonyms).[1][3]

Description

Ballenafranca+alvina
Two distinctive coloration patterns.

Like other right whales, the southern right whale is readily distinguished from others by the callosities on its head, a broad back without a dorsal fin, and a long arching mouth that begins above the eye. Its skin is very dark grey or black, occasionally with some white patches on the belly. The right whale's callosities appear white due to large colonies of cyamids (whale lice). It is almost indistinguishable from the closely related North Atlantic and the North Pacific right whales, displaying only minor skull differences. It may have fewer callosities on its head than North Atlantic and more on its lower lips than the two northern species.[4][10] Biological functions of callosities are unclear although the primal role has been considered to be for protection against predators, and whales' declines may affect on diversities and quantities of barnacles.[11]

An adult female is 15 m (49 ft)[12] and can weigh up to 47 tonnes (46 long tons; 52 short tons),[12] with the larger records of 17.5–18 m (57–59 ft)[13][14] in length and 80 tonnes (79 long tons; 88 short tons)[15] or up to 90 tonnes (89 long tons; 99 short tons) in weight,[16] making them slightly smaller than other right whales in the Northern Hemisphere.[17] The testicles of right whales are likely to be the largest of any animal, each weighing around 500 kg (1,100 lb). This suggests that sperm competition is important in the mating process.[18]

Right whales do not normally cross the warm equatorial waters to connect with the other species and (inter)breed: their thick layers of insulating blubber make it difficult for them to dissipate their internal body heat in tropical waters. However, based on historical records and unconfirmed sightings in modern periods, E. australis transits may indeed occur through equatorial waters.[19] Moreover, a stranding of a 21.3 m (71 feet) long right whale at Gajana, northwestern India in November 1944 was reported, however, true identity of this animal is unclear.[20][21]

The proportion and numbers of molten-coloured individuals are notable in this species compared with the other species in the Northern Hemisphere. Some whales remain white even after growing up.[22]

Life span is not clear although whales seem to reach over 100 years old.[23]

Behavior

Southern Right Whale Behavior
Southern right whale4
"Sailing"

Like other right whales, they are rather active on the water surface and curious towards human vessels. Southern rights appear to be more active and tend to interact with humans more than the other two northern species. One behavior unique to the southern right whale, known as tail sailing, is that of using their elevated flukes to catch the wind, remaining in the same position for considerable amount of time. It appears to be a form of play and is most commonly seen off the coast of Argentina and South Africa.[10] Some other species such as humpback whales are also known to display. Right whales are often seen interacting with other cetaceans, especially humpback whales[24] and dolphins. There have been records of southern rights and humpbacks thought to be involved in mating activities off Mozambique,[25] and along Bahia, Brazil.[26]

They have very strong maternal connections with locations and gene pools they were born in,[27][28] and especially males may follow patterned migration routes.[29] Calving females are known to return to their 'birth spots' at 3-years intervals[30] as the most commonly seen calving intervals are 3 years which may vary from 2 up to 21 years due to multiple factors.[31][32] Specific congregation areas in the same region may function as for different objectives for whales.[33]

This species has been recognized to nurse unrelated orphans on occasions.[34]

Population and distribution

The southern right whale spends summer in the far Southern Ocean feeding, probably close to Antarctica. If the opportunity arises, feeding can occur even in temperate waters such as along Buenos Aires.[35][36] It migrates north in winter for breeding and can be seen by the coasts of Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Chile, Namibia, Mozambique, Peru, Tristan de Cunha, Uruguay, Madagascar, New Zealand and South Africa, however, whales have been known to winter on sub-Antarctic regions.[37][38] The total population is estimated to be around 10,000. Since hunting ceased, stocks are estimated to have grown by 7% a year. It appears that the South American, South African and Australasian groups intermix very little if at all, because maternal fidelity to feeding and calving habitats is very strong. The mother also passes these choices to her calves.[39]

Whaling records among the hemisphere including a certain whaling ground in central northern Indian Ocean[40] and recent sightings among near-equatorial regions have occurred, and if the later mentioned sighting off Kiribati was truly of E. australis, this species could cross the Equator on irregular occasions and their original distributions might have been much broader and more northerly distributed than that of the present status.[19][41] As above mentioned, there was one record of a "right whale" stranded at northwestern coast of continental India.

Other than sheltered and calm waters, calving grounds have been identified close to high wave coastal areas, vicinity to land cliffs and deep waters where sounds of waves may prevent predators' acoustics searches for infants and calving cows, and deep areas close to shallows may function as training grounds for calves to prepare for upcoming migrations to feeding grounds.[42]

The most recent population estimates, published by National Geographic in October 2008, put the southern whale population at 10,000. An estimate of 7,000 followed a March 1998 IWC workshop. Researchers used data about adult female populations from three surveys (one in each of Argentina, South Africa and Australia, collected during the 1990s) and extrapolated to include unsurveyed areas, number of males and calves using available male:female and adult:calf ratios to give an estimated 1999 figure of 7,500 animals.[43] Recovery of the overall population size of the species is predicted to be at less than 50% of its pre-whaling state by 2100 due to heavier impacts of whaling and slower recovery rates.[44]

Aside from impacts on whales and environments caused by mankind, their distributions and residences could be largely effected by presences of natural predators or enemies,[37] and similar trends are also expectable for other subspecies.[45]

Many locations throughout the Southern Hemisphere were named after current or former presences of southern rights, including Walvis Bay, Punta Ballena, Right Whale Bay, Otago Harbour, Whangarei Harbour, Foveaux Strait,[46] South Taranaki Bight, Moutohora Island and Wineglass Bay.

Africa

GlattwalP1010754-2
Breaching in the De Hoop Nature Reserve
A mating group in Hermanus Bay: one female and two males

South Africa

Hermanus in South Africa has become known as a mecca for whale watching, during the Southern Hemisphere winter months (June – October) the southern right whales migrate to the coastal waters of South Africa, with in excess of 100 whales known to be in the Hermanus area. Whilst in the area, the whales can be seen with their young as they come to Walker Bay to calve and mate. Many behaviours such as breaching, sailing, lobtailing, or spyhopping can be witnessed. In False Bay whales can be seen from the shore from July to October while both Plettenberg Bay and Algoa Bay are also home to the southern right whales from July to December. They can be viewed from land as well as by boat with licensed operators conducting ocean safaris throughout the year.

Southern right whale, mother and calf
Mother and calf in Hermanus

Recent increases in numbers of whales visiting the north-eastern part of South Africa, the so-called Dolphin Coast such as around Ballito[47] and off Umdloti Beach,[48] indicates the whales' normal ranges are expanding and that re-colonising historical habitats will likely continue as more whales migrate further north.

Western Africa

In Namibia, the majority of confirmed whales are restricted to the south of Luderitz, the southern edge of the country, and only a handful of animals, but with good increases in numbers, venture further north to historical breeding grounds such as at Walvis Bay. Until hunting, including illegal mass operations by Soviet Union ceased, whales had been rare along Namibian shores as no sighting records north of Orange River until 1971,[49] and the first calving activities were confirmed as late as the 1980s.[50]

Historical records suggest that this whale's regular range could have reached further north up the coasts of Cape Fria (northern Namibia)[51] and Angola as far as Baia dos Tigres (Tiger Bay).[52][51]

Whaling was taken place in Gabon[19] such as at Cape Lopez, and there have been a few of unconfirmed sightings in recent years including one by Jim Darling, a renowned whale researcher.[53][54]

Eastern Africa

Humpback Whale, Île Sainte-Marie (3954153574)
Rare appearance along Madagascar at Île Sainte-Marie

In contrast to the case in South Africa, even though right whales are becoming more common migrants, but within very small numbers off Mozambique[55] and Madagascar. Whales were historically seen in large numbers at various locations such as off Durban, in Delagoa/Maputo Bay[56] and Inhaca Island, Ponta do Ouro, and around the Bazaruto Archipelago.[25] The first sighting off Mozambique since the end of whaling was in 1997.[57] In recent years, more whales seem to migrate further north to calve, such as at Île Sainte-Marie,[58][59][60][61] Antongil Bay,[54] Fort Dauphin[62] Toliara,[63] Anakao, Andavadoaka, and Antsiranana Bay,[64][65][66] which is at nearby the northern tip of Malagasy coasts. Although occurrences on the island of Mayotte have been confirmed,[67] frequencies of recent appearance is rather small. Whales were taken off Tanzania, and may still be present occasionally such as around Zanzibar.[68]

Mid–South Atlantic

Due to illegal whaling by the USSR, the recovery of many stocks including the population off Tristan da Cunha[69] and adjacent areas such as Gough Island had been severely hindered, resulting in relatively few numbers of visiting animals.

Based on catch records, right whales once reached north to the island of Saint Helena as well.[41]

South America

Brazil

Abrolhos- Baleias
Cow – calf pair at Abrolhos

In Brazil, more than 300 individuals have been cataloged through photo identification (using head callosities) by the Brazilian Right Whale Project, maintained jointly by Petrobras (the Brazilian state-owned oil company), and the conservation group, the International Wildlife Coalition. The State of Santa Catarina hosts a concentration of breeding and calving right whales from June to November, and females from this population also calve off Argentinian Patagonia and Uruguay. In recent years, possibly due to changing habitat environments by human activities and conflicts with local fisheries, the number of whales visiting the coasts is decreasing.[70] Sighting in locations other than Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul[71] shows gradual increases, such as along Cidreira,[72] Rio de Janeiro coasts like Sepetiba Bay (pt),[73] Cabo Frio,[74][75] Macaé,[76] Prado, Bahia,[77][78] Castelhanos Bay in Ilha Bela,[79][80][81] São Paulo coasts[82] such as within Ilha Anchieta State Park,[83] Honey Island,[84][85][86] and bays and estuaries of Paranaguá and Superagui National Park,[87] Paraná,[88][89][90] and even entering into the lagoon of Lagoa dos Patos.[91][92] Annual distributions have been known to reach in far more north like Bahia[26] and Abrolhos Archipelago where small numbers of whales migrate every year to winter or calve, and certain individuals return by 3 or 4 years of intervals.[93]

Whaling records including those prior to by Maury and Townsend indicate that right whales, at least, more commonly ventured or migrated to further north than today such as at Salvador, Bahia.[19][41]

Argentina

Whale underwater - panoramio
Submerges off Valdes Peninsula

During the 2012 annual meeting of the International Whaling Commission's Scientific Committee, data was presented regarding the continued phenomenon of southern right whale strandings and high rate of mortality at Península Valdés, Argentina. Between 2003 and 2011, a total of 482 dead right whales were recorded at Península Valdés. There were at least 55 whale deaths in 2010, and 61 in 2011. As in previous years, the vast majority of strandings were calves of the season.[94] There are increasing sightings along various other locations in recent years, such as on Golfo San Jorge,[95] Tierra del Fuego,[96][97] Puerto Deseado,[98][99] Mar del Plata,[100][101] Miramar, Buenos Aires,[102][103] Bahía Blanca,[104] and so on.

Uruguay

In Uruguay, coastal areas such as Punta del Este host congregating sites for whales in breeding seasons, but not likely as calving grounds.[105] Their recovery helped create a whale-sanctuary off Latin America;[106] the creation of this protected area had been prevented for nearly a decade by pro-whaling nations such as Japan.

Chile and Peru

For the critically endangered Chile/Peru population, the Cetacean Conservation Center (CCC) has been working on a separate program for right whales. This population, containing no more than 50 or less individuals, is under threats of increasing ship lanes and fishing industries.[107] 124 sightings in total had been recorded during 1964–2008 period.[108] Aside from vagrants' records, Peru's coastlines possibly host one of the northernmost confirmed range of the species along with Gabon,[19] Senegal, Tanzania, Brazilian coasts, Madagascar, Indian Ocean, western Australia, Kermadec Islands, and tropical waters including South Pacific Islands.[19] The Alfaguara project targeting cetaceans in Chiloe[109][110] may possibly target this species as well in the future since calving activities have been confirmed in Chiloé Archipelago.[111] Foraging grounds of this population is currently undetected, but possibly Chiloé and down south of Caleta Zorra to southern fiords such as from Penas Gulf to Beagle Channel although numbers of confirmations are small in the Beagle Channel. .[112] Some hopes arising for establishment of new tourism industry in eastern side of the Strait of Magellan[113] most notably in the vicinity of Cape Virgenes[114] and Punta Dungeness as the number of sightings increases.[115][116][117] It is unknown whether these increases are due to re-colonisation by whales from the Patagonian population.

Occurrences of brindle individuals have been confirmed from this population as well.[118][119]

Oceania

Historically, populations in Oceanian regions had been very robust.[41] There were stories of early settlers complaining that sounds of cavorting whales kept them awake at night in various locations such as on Wellington Bay and River Derwent. Satellite tracking conducted suggests that there are at least some interactions between populations in these two nations,[120][121] but the extent thereof is unknown. Furthermore, historical distributions of New Zealand and southeast or east Australian groups have been speculated to share at least calving grounds, and significant losses of local calving grounds may provide habitats to different groups.[122]

Australia

Southern right whales in Australian waters show higher rate of recoveries, as they have increased from 2,100 whales in 2008[123] to 3,500 individuals in 2010.[30] Two genetically distinct groups inhabit Australian waters: the southwestern population of 2,900 whales - in 2012 currently holding the majority of the overall Australian population - and the critically endangered southeastern group, counting only dozens to 300 individuals.

Right whales can be found in many parts of southern Australia, where the largest population is found at the Head of the Bight in South Australia, a sparsely populated area south of the middle of the Nullarbor Plain. Over 100[124] individuals are seen there annually from June to October. Visitors can view the whales from cliff-top boardwalks and lookouts, with whales swimming almost directly below. A more accessible South Australian location for viewing whales is Encounter Bay where the whales can be seen just off the beaches of the Fleurieu Peninsula, centred around the surfing town of Middleton. The whales have established a newer nursery-ground near Eyre Peninsula, especially at Fowlers Bay. Numbers are much smaller at these locations compared to those in the Bight, with an average of a couple of whales per day, but as of 2009 there were regular sightings of more than ten whales at a time off Basham Beach, near Middleton.[125] The South Australian Whale Centre at Victor Harbor has information on the history of whaling and whale-watching in the area, and maintains an on-line database of whale sightings.[126] Whale numbers are scarcer in Victoria, where the only established breeding ground which whales use each year, in very small numbers, is at Warrnambool. However, as the whales do seem to be increasing in number generally, but not showing any dramatic increases at Warrnambool, they may be extending their wintering habitats into other areas of Victoria, where the numbers of sightings are slowly increasing. These areas include around Melbourne, such as in Port Phillip Bay, along Waratah Bay, at Ocean Grove, Warrnambool, on Mornington Peninsula, in Apollo Bay, and on Gippsland coasts and at Wilsons Promontory. Tasmania is another, newer, wintering ground showing dramatic increases in recent years. The waters off the Western Australia, New South Wales, and Queensland coasts had previously been inhabited by whales. Their historical range was much wider and was spread around the southern coast of the continent, extending up to Australian Abrolhos Island,[127] Exmouth and Shark Bay on the west coast, and to Hervey Bay and Moreton Bay to Great Barrier Reef[128] or further north on the east coast. The east-coast population remains endangered and very small (in the low-tens),[129] contributing in small numbers and limited re-colonization, but increases have been confirmed in many areas such as the vicinity of Port Jackson, Port Stephens, Twofold Bay, Jervis Bay, Broulee,[130] Moruya River,[131][132] Narooma,[133] Byron Bay,[134] and so on, and there have been 12 foraging areas officially announced.[135]

Whale numbers visiting historical habitats of sub-Antarctic regions show drastic differences in quantity for respective locations: recovering well at the New Zealand Subantarctic Islands while less successful at Macquarie Island.[136]

It is not known whether Australian populations will re-colonise historical oceanic habitats such as Norfolk Island and Lord Howe Island with Lord Howe Seamount Chain (historically known as the "Middle Ground" for whalers[137][138]) in the future.

New Zealand

Many features are still unknown about current right whale population(s) in New Zealand waters. However, studies by the Department of Conservation and sightings reported by locals helped to deepen understanding.[139] Pre-exploitation size of New Zealand group could have been up from 28,800 to 47,100 in total where 35,000 to 41,000 catches were made between 1827 and 1980. The number of whales survived commercial and illegal whaling operations might be decreased to as few as 30 whales.[122][140] Not a single sighting or stranding was recorded between 1928 and 1963 on main islands, and full recovery is estimated to take about 60 years. As below mentioned, if illegal mass operations by Soviet with supports from Japan taken 372 whales in 1960s[141] had not been taken place, New Zealand population could have been three or four times larger than the current size.[142] Furthermore, considerably small genetic diversity of this population, caused by whaling operations, has been concerned and which is even lower than that of more endangered North Atlantic right whales.[143]

The population at the sub-Antarctic Auckland Islands is showing a remarkable recovery but with the lowest genetic diversities in the world,[143] while the recovery state in Campbell Islands is slower,[38] and possible number of whales after the World War 2 could have been fewer than 20 individuals in total.[120] Right whales had not been confirmed on main islands for 36 years until 1963 when 4 separate sightings including a cow-calf pair were made among wide range, and remnants of sub-Antarctic populations were re-discovered in 1990s as opportunistic sightings had been reported in 1980s.[120]

Today, the majority of right whales congregate at Auckland and Campbell Islands and forming exceptionally dense and limited congregations including all the sex groups such as mating adults and calving females within and adjacent to Port Ross,[144] where up to 200 whales may winter at the same time.[145] It is notable that whales, including all the age groups[146] are present in this small area annually, not only as feeding and summering[147] grounds but also mainly for wintering, breeding, and calving during harsh, cold periods. Low genetic diversities due to whaling pressures caused changes in skin colorations on this group as well.[143] Scientists used to believe there was a very small remnant population of southern right whales inhabiting New Zealand's main islands (North and South Island), containing probably 11 reproductive females.[148] In winter, whales migrate north to New Zealand waters and large concentrations occasionally visit the southern coasts of South Island. Bay areas along Foveaux Strait from Fiordland region to northern Otago are important breeding habitats for right whales, especially Preservation[149] and Chalky Inlets,[150] Te Waewae Bay,[151] and Otago Peninsula.[152][153] Calving activities are observed all around the nation, but with more regularity around North Island shores from the Taranaki coast in the west to Hawke's Bay, Bay of Plenty in the east, and areas in Hauraki Gulf such as Firth of Thames or Bay of Islands in the north.

There are various parts of the nation where large numbers of whales were seen historically, but sightings are less common nowadays. These areas include the Marlborough Region, especially from Clifford Bay and Cloudy Bay to Port Underwood,[154] Golden Bay, Awaroa Bay, and coastlines on West Coast and Hokianga Harbour in Northland. Other than a handful of confirmed observations, very little information is available for modern migrations to historical oceanic habitats of Kermadec Islands[155][156] and Chatham Islands.[157] Northernmost of historic records was at 27°S.[158]

Recent study revealed that the right whale populations from New Zealand's main islands and the sub-Antarctic islands interbreed, though it is still unknown whether the two stock originally came from a single population.[159] Feeding areas in pelagic waters are rather unclear while congregations have been confirmed along southern edge of the Chatham Rise.[160]

It is unclear whether (part of) whales found either historically or currently on areas within Australian ranges that are located close to the ranges of New Zealand whales such as Norfolk Island and Macquarie Island, do or do not originate in New Zealand group(s).

Other

Southern Right Whale and Gentoo Penguin (5747485418)
Fluking off South Georgia nearby a gentoo penguin.

In oceanic islands and offshore waters other than the above-mentioned areas, very little about the presence and recovery status of southern right whales is known. Right whales' historical ranges were much greater than today as whales were known to occur in lower latitude areas such as around Pacific Islands during the whaling era such as catches off Kiribati,[161] and also frequented lower latitudes of the central Indian Ocean.

It is unclear whether right whales have historically or currently distributed among parts of hemisphere lacking great land masses and reached far more pelagic islands such as Alejandro Selkirk and Robinson Crusoe Islands, Hanga Roa, Pitcairn, Galapagos Islands, and the Easter Island.

Populations among sub-Antarctic islands in the Scotia Sea[71] such as South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands and Falkland Islands were severely damaged and showing slower recoveries. Antarctic distributions are also rather unclear due to low levels of sightings around oceanic islands in these areas, such as at Elephant Island.[162]

Indian Ocean

Historical populations which summered in the Crozet Islands and the Kerguelen Islands, and migrated to La Roche Godon and Île Saint-Paul, Île Amsterdam, and Central Indian Ocean once existed, and that might be distinct from whales seen on Mozambique coasts.[163] Repopulation these whales among these areas in Indian Ocean is likely to be even at lower rates than other areas. Sightings have been fewer in modern periods among Crozet,[164][165] Réunion,[166][56][167][168] Mauritius, Marion Islands,[37] Île Amsterdam, and Kerguelen.[169]

Killings of these whales had occurred on central Indian Ocean near the equator, especially around the area between Diego Garcia, Egmont Islands, and the Great Chagos Bank in the west, and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands in the east, being comparable to the range of some other populations around Latin America, Africa, and the South Pacific islands including Kiribati, the northmost places of all the populations known today.[40]

Whaling

Whale sculpture Cockle Creek
Sculpture of southern right whale at Cockle Creek on Recherche Bay, Tasmania, where bay whaling was performed extensively during the 1840s and 1850s

By 1750 the North Atlantic right whale was as good as extinct for commercial purposes, and the American whalers moved into the South Atlantic before the end of the 18th century. The southmost Brazilian whaling station was established in 1796, in Imbituba. Over the next one hundred years, American whaling spread into the Southern and Pacific Oceans, where the American fleet was joined by fleets from several European nations.

The southern right whale had been coming to Australian and New Zealand waters in large numbers before the 19th century, but was extensively hunted from 1800–1850. Hunting gradually declined with the whale population and then all but ended in coastal waters in Australasia.[170] The beginning of the 20th century brought industrial whaling, and the catch grew rapidly. By 1937, according to whalers' records, 38,000 were harpooned in the South Atlantic, 39,000 in the South Pacific, and 1,300 in the Indian Ocean. Given the incompleteness of these records, the total take was somewhat higher.[171]

As it became clear that the population was nearly depleted, the harpooning of right whales was banned in 1937. The ban was largely successful, although some illegal whaling continued for several decades. Madeira took its last two right whales in 1968. Illegal whaling continued off the coast of Brazil for years, and the Imbituba station processed right whales until 1973. The USSR admitted to taking illegally over 3,300 during the 1950s and 1960s,[172] although it only reported taking 4.[173]

Illegal operations continued even in the 1970s, such as the case in Brazil until 1973.[13] It was also revealed that Japan was supporting these destructive hunts by neglecting and disregarding its monitoring obligations. Furthermore, there were agreements between Japan and the Soviet Union to keep their illegal mass whaling activities in foreign/international protected waters in confidence.[174]

Right whales began to be seen again in Australian and New Zealand waters from the early 1960s.[170] It is claimed that if the illegal hunts by the Soviet Union had never happened, the New Zealand population would be three or four times larger than its current size.[142]

Conservation

The southern right whale, listed as "endangered" by CITES, is protected by all countries with known breeding populations (Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Chile, New Zealand, South Africa and Uruguay). In Brazil, a federal Environmental Protection Area encompassing some 1,560 km2 (600 sq mi) and 130 km (81 mi) of coastline in Santa Catarina State was established in 2000 to protect the species' main breeding grounds in Brazil and promote regulated whale watching.[175] The southern right whale is listed on Appendix I[176] of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) as this species has been categorized as being in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant proportion of their range. This species is also covered by the Memorandum of Understanding for the Conservation of Cetaceans and Their Habitats in the Pacific Islands Region (Pacific Cetaceans MoU).[177]

A two-year, £740,000 project, led by the British Antarctic Survey began in 2016, to discover why almost 500 young have been washed up on the Valdes Peninsula over the last ten years. The project is funded by the UK's Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) and the EU. Possible reasons are a lack of krill in the whale feeding grounds at South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, exposure to toxic algae and attacks by kelp gulls (Larus dominicanus).[178]

Southern right whale5
Whale and gull off Península Valdés

Gull attacks

One possibly significant contributor to the calf mortality rate has alarmed scientists – since at least 1996, kelp gulls off the coast of Patagonia have been observed attacking and feeding on live right whales.[179] The kelp gull uses its powerful beak to peck down several centimetres into the skin and blubber, often leaving the whales with large open sores – some of which have been observed to be half a meter in diameter. This predatory behavior, primarily targeted towards mother/calf pairs, has been continually documented in Argentinian waters, and continues today. Observers note that the whales are spending up to a third of their time and energy performing evasive maneuvers – therefore, mothers spend less time nursing, and the calves are thinner and weaker as a result. Researchers speculate that many years ago, waste from fish processing plants allowed the gull populations to soar. Their resulting overpopulation, combined with reduced waste output, caused the gulls to seek out this alternative food source.[180] Scientists fear that the gulls' learned behaviour could proliferate, and the IWC Scientific Committee has urged Brazil to consider taking immediate action if and when similar gull behaviour is observed in their waters. Such action may include the removal of attacking gulls, following Argentina's lead in attempting to reverse the trend.[94]

Whale watching

Africa

Breaching Southern Right whale with tanker (11341899566)
Whale breaching off George, Western Cape with a tanker behind.

The southern right whale has made Hermanus, South Africa one of the world centers for whale watching. During the winter months (June to October), southern right whales come so close to the shoreline that visitors can watch them from the shore as well as from strategically placed hotels. Hermanus also has two boat–based whale watching operators. The town employs a "whale crier" (cf. town crier) to walk through the town announcing where whales have been seen. Southern right whales can also be watched at other winter breeding grounds. In False Bay whale-watching can be done from the shore or from the boats of licensed operators in Simon's Town. Plettenberg Bay along the Garden Route of South Africa is another mecca for whale watching not only for southern rights (July to December)but throughout the year. There are both land based and ocean safaris boat based whale encounters on offer in this beautiful town. Southern right whales can also be seen off the coast of Port Elizabeth with marine eco tours running from the Port Elizabeth harbour, as some southern right whales make Algoa Bay their home for the winter months.

Whales are occasionally observed during tours in Namibia, Mozambique and Madagascar, where sighting rates along Namibian coasts shows dramatic increases in the recent years.

Latin America

Southern right whale7
Southern right whale approaches close to whale watchers near Península Valdés in Patagonia.

In Brazil, Imbituba in Santa Catarina has been recognized as the National Right Whale Capital and holds annual Right Whale Week celebrations in September, when mothers and calves are more often seen. The old whaling station there is now a museum that documents the history of right whales in Brazil. In Argentina, Península Valdés in Patagonia hosts (in winter) the largest breeding population, with more than 2,000 catalogued by the Whale Conservation Institute and Ocean Alliance.[181] As in the south of Argentina, the whales come within 200 m (660 ft) of the main beach in the city of Puerto Madryn and form a part of the large ecotourism industry. Uruguay's Parliament on 4 September 2013, has become the first country in the world to make all of its territorial waters a safehaven for whales and dolphins. Every year, dozens of whales are sighted, especially in the departments of Maldonado and Rocha during the months of winter.[182] Swimming activities for commercial objectives had been banned in the area in 1985,[183] but is legalized in Gulf of San Matías where this is the only location in the world for tourists to be permissioned to swim with the species.[184] Land-based watching and occasional kayaking with whales activities are Various other locations where is not renown for whale-watching industries as much as Puerto Madryn and with less restrictions on approaching whales, such as at Puerto Deseado,[185][186][187] Mar del Plata,[188][189] and Miramar in Buenos Aires.[190][191][192][193]

Though their numbers are dangerously small, land-based sightings of whales are on the increase in recent years off Chile and Peru, with some hope of creating new tourism industries,[194] especially in the Strait of Magellan, most notably around Cape Virgenes.[116]

Oceania

Visitors (6055922040)
Whales cavort next to surfers on Manly Beach.

In Australia's winter and spring, southern right whales can be seen from the Bunda Cliffs and Twin Rocks, both along the remote Great Australian Bight in South Australia.[10] In Warrnambool, Victoria, a right whale nursery is popular with tourists in the winter and spring. Their normal range is extending with the species recovering and re-colonizing other areas of the continent, especially around coastal waters of New South Wales and Tasmania. In Tasmania, the first birth since the 19th century was recorded in 2010 in the River Derwent.

Similarly, southern right whales may provide chances for the public to observe whales from shore on New Zealand's coasts with greater regularity than in the past, especially in southern Fiordland, Southland through to the Otago coast,[195] and on the North Island coast, especially in Northland and other locations such as the Bay of Plenty and the South Taranaki Bight. Births of calves could have always been occurring on the main islands' coasts, but were confirmed with two cow-calf pairs in 2012.[196][197]

Subantarctic

In the Subantarctic Islands and in the vicinity of Antarctica,[198] where few regulations exist or are enforced, whales can be observed on expedition tours with increasing probability. The Auckland Islands are a specially designated sanctuary for right whales, where whale-watching tourism is prohibited without authorization.[199]

See also

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External links

Balaenidae

Balaenidae is a family of whales of the parvorder Mysticeti that contains two living genera: the right whales (genus Eubalaena), and in a separate genus, the closely related bowhead whale (genus Balaena).

Cephalorhynchus

Cephalorhynchus is a genus in the dolphin family Delphinidae.

Dusky dolphin

The dusky dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) is a dolphin found in coastal waters in the Southern Hemisphere. Its specific epithet is Latin for "dark" or "dim". It is very closely genetically related to the Pacific white-sided dolphin, but current scientific consensus holds they are distinct species. The dolphin's range is patchy, with major populations around South America, southwestern Africa, New Zealand, and various oceanic islands, with some sightings around southern Australia and Tasmania. The dusky dolphin prefers cool currents and inshore waters, but can also be found offshore. It feeds on a variety of fish and squid species and has flexible hunting tactics. The dusky dolphin is known for its remarkable acrobatics, having a number of aerial behaviours. The status of the dolphin is unknown, but it has been commonly caught in gill nets.

Environment of Argentina

The Environment of Argentina is characterised by high biodiversity.

Subtropical plants dominate the Gran Chaco in the north, with the Dalbergia genus of trees well represented by Brazilian rosewood and the quebracho tree; also predominant are white and black algarrobo trees (Prosopis alba and Prosopis nigra). Savannah-like areas exist in the drier regions nearer the Andes. Aquatic plants thrive in the wetlands of Argentina. In central Argentina the humid pampas are a true tallgrass prairie ecosystem.The original pampa had virtually no trees; some imported species like the American sycamore or eucalyptus are present along roads or in towns and country estates (estancias). The only tree-like plant native to the pampa is the evergreen Ombú. The surface soils of the pampa are a deep black color, primarily mollisols, known commonly as humus. This makes the region one of the most agriculturally productive on Earth; however, this is also responsible for decimating much of the original ecosystem, to make way for commercial agriculture. The western pampas receive less rainfall, this dry pampa is a plain of short grasses or steppe.Most of Patagonia lies within the rain shadow of the Andes, so the flora, shrubby bushes and plants, is suited to dry conditions. The soil is hard and rocky, making large-scale farming impossible except along river valleys. Coniferous forests in far western Patagonia and on the island of Tierra del Fuego, include alerce, ciprés de la cordillera, ciprés de las guaitecas, huililahuán, lleuque, mañío hembra and pehuén, while broadleaf trees include several species of Nothofagus such as coihue, lenga and ñire. Other introduced trees present in forestry plantations include spruce, cypress and pine. Common plants are the copihue and colihue.In Cuyo, semiarid thorny bushes and other xerophile plants abound. Along the many rivers grasses and trees grow in significant numbers. The area presents optimal conditions for the large scale growth of grape vines. In northwest Argentina there are many species of cactus. No vegetation grows in the highest elevations (above 4,000 m (13,000 ft)) because of the extreme altitude.

Many species live in the subtropical north. Prominent animals include big cats like the jaguar and puma; primates (howler monkey); large reptiles (crocodiles), the Argentine black and white tegu and a species of caiman. Other animals include the tapir, peccary, capybara, bush dog, and various species of turtle and tortoise. There are a wide variety of birds, notably hummingbirds, flamingos, toucans, and swallows.

The central grasslands are populated by the giant anteater, armadillo, pampas cat, maned wolf, mara, cavias, and the rhea (ñandú), a large flightless bird. Hawks, falcons, herons, and tinamous (perdiz, Argentine "false partridges") inhabit the region. There are also pampas deer and pampas foxes. Some of these species extend into Patagonia.

The western mountains are home to animals including the llama, guanaco and vicuña which are among the most recognizable species of South America. Also in this region are the fox, viscacha, Andean mountain cat, kodkod, and the largest flying bird in the New World, the Andean condor.

Southern Argentina is home to the cougar, huemul, pudú (the world's smallest deer), and introduced, non-native wild boar. The coast of Patagonia is rich in animal life: elephant seals, fur seals, sea lions and species of penguin. The far south is populated by cormorants.

The territorial waters of Argentina have abundant ocean life; mammals such as dolphins, orcas, and whales like the southern right whale, a major tourist draw for naturalists. Sea fish include sardines, Argentine hakes, dolphinfish, salmon, and sharks; also present are squid and king crab (centolla) in Tierra del Fuego. Rivers and streams in Argentina have many species of trout and the South American golden dorado fish. Well known snake species inhabiting Argentina include boa constrictors and a very venomous pit viper named the yarará. The hornero was elected the national bird after a survey in 1928.

Great Australian Bight Marine National Park

Great Australian Bight Marine National Park is a marine protected area in the Australian state of South Australia located 918 km (570 mi) west of the state capital of Adelaide. The national park was proclaimed under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (SA) by the South Australian Government on 26 September 1996 principally to protect the calving waters of the Southern right whale and the Australian sea lion populations. It consists of two sections occupying the ocean immediately adjoining the coastline up to a distance of 3 nautical miles (5.6 km; 3.5 mi) and extending from the Western Australia border in the west to a locality known as the Tchalingaby Sandhills in the east. The gap between the two sections is also a protected area known as the Great Australian Bight Marine Park Whale Sanctuary which was proclaimed on 22 June 1995 under the Fisheries Act 1982 (SA). The national park is also part of the group of marine protected areas which are located together in waters within Australian and South Australian jurisdictions within the Great Australian Bight and which is collectively known as the Great Australian Bight Marine Park. Since late 2012, the national park and the whale sanctuary have also been within the boundaries of the Far West Coast Marine Park.The national park is classified as an IUCN category II protected area.

Head of the Bight

Head of the Bight (also called Head of Bight) is a bay located in South Australia at the most northern extent of the Great Australian Bight.

Hermanus

Hermanus (originally called Hermanuspietersfontein, but shortened in 1902 as the name was too long for the postal service ), is a town on the southern coast of the Western Cape province of South Africa. It is famous for southern right whale watching during the southern winter and spring and is a popular retirement location. The whales can be seen from the cliffs in the town centre as early as June and usually depart in early-December. They were once hunted in the nearby town of Betty's Bay, but are now protected to ensure the survival of the species. The Old Harbour Museum contains several exhibitions that explain the whaling industry, and the De Wetshuis Photo Museum houses an exhibition of photos by T. D. Ravenscroft that depicts the history of Hermanus. The Whale Museum houses a skeleton of a whale and shows an audio-visual presentation of whales and dolphins twice daily.

Kogia

Kogia is a genus of toothed whales within the superfamily Physeteroidea comprising two extant and one extinct species: Fossils date to the miocene

Pygmy sperm whale, Kogia breviceps

Dwarf sperm whale, Kogia sima

Kogia pusilla extinct

Murray Commonwealth Marine Reserve

Murray Commonwealth Marine Reserve is a 25,803 km2 marine protected area within Australian waters located off the coast of South Australia. The reserve was established in 2007 and is part of the South-east Commonwealth Marine Reserve Network.

The reserve features the Murray Canyon which descends to 4,600 m (15,100 ft) below sea level and stretches for more than 150 km (93 mi). The southern right whale uses the inshore area of the reserve to nurse its young.

Paikea

According to Māori tradition, Paikea is an ancestor of Ngāi Tahu and Ngāti Porou, Māori tribes in the South Island and east coast of New Zealand's North Island. Paikea is the name assumed by Kahutia-te-rangi because he was assisted by a whale such as a southern right whale (tohora) or humpback whales (paikea) to survive an attempt on his life by his half-brother Ruatapu.

Right whale

Right whales or black whales are three species of large baleen whales of the genus Eubalaena: the North Atlantic right whale (E. glacialis), the North Pacific right whale (E. japonica) and the Southern right whale (E. australis). They are classified in the family Balaenidae with the bowhead whale. Right whales have rotund bodies with arching rostrums, V-shaped blowholes and dark gray or black skin. The most distinguishing feature of a right whale is the rough patches of skin on its head, which appear white due to parasitism by whale lice. Right whales can grow up to more than 18 m (59 ft) long with a highest-recorded length of 19.8 m (65 ft). They weigh 100 short tons (91 t; 89 long tons) or more, reaching 20.7 m (68 ft) with 135,000 kg (298,000 lb) or 21.3 m (70 ft) with uncertainty, significantly larger than other coastal species such as humpbacks, grays, or edens and omura's, but smaller than blues. One (apocryphal) explanation for their name is that whalers identified them as the "right" whale to kill on a hunt due to the plentiful oil and baleen they could provide.All three species are migratory, moving seasonally to feed or give birth. The warm equatorial waters form a barrier that isolates the northern and southern species from one another although at the southern species at least has been known to cross the equator. In the Northern Hemisphere, right whales tend to avoid open waters and stay close to peninsulas and bays and on continental shelves, as these areas offer greater shelter and an abundance of their preferred foods. In the Southern Hemisphere, right whales feed far offshore in summer, but a large portion of the population occur in near-shore waters in winter. Right whales feed mainly on copepods but also consume krill and pteropods. They may forage the surface, underwater or even the ocean bottom. During courtship, males gather into large groups to compete for a single female, suggesting that sperm competition is an important factor in mating behavior. Although the blue whale is the largest animal on the planet, the testes of the right whale are actually ten times larger than those of the blue whale – with each weighing up to 525 kilograms (1,157 lb), they are by far the largest of any animal on Earth. Gestation tends to last a year, and calves are born at 1 short ton (0.91 t; 0.89 long tons) in weight and 4–6 m (13–20 ft) in length. Weaning occurs after eight months.

Right whales were a preferred target for whalers because of their docile nature, their slow surface-skimming feeding behaviors, their tendency to stay close to the coast, and their high blubber content (which makes them float when they are killed, and which produced high yields of whale oil). Today, the North Atlantic and North Pacific right whales are among the most endangered whales in the world, and both species are protected in the United States by the Endangered Species Act. The western populations of both are currently endangered, with their total populations numbering in the hundreds. The eastern North Pacific population, on the other hand, with fewer than 50 individuals remaining, is critically endangered – further still, the eastern North Atlantic population, which numbers in the low teens at best, may already be functionally extinct.Although the whales no longer face a threat from whaling, mankind remains by far the greatest threat to these species: the two leading causes of death are being struck by ships and entanglement in fishing gear. For the North Atlantic right whale, for example, whose population was estimated at 411 in 2018 which was down from 451 in 2016 and 458 in 2015, these two anthropogenic factors alone account for 48% of all known right whale deaths since 1970. More than 85% of right whales have been entangled at least once.In 2017, at least 118 right whales were in the Gulf of St Lawrence, or roughly a quarter of the local population, which previously fed in summer and fall months in the Bay of Fundy and Roadway basin. The habitat shift moved this population away from existing conservation efforts and into the path of busy shipping lanes and also snow crab fisheries where Fisheries and Oceans Canada doubled the quotas in 2017.

Right whale dolphin

Right whale dolphins are cetaceans belonging to the genus Lissodelphis. It contains the northern right whale dolphin (Lissodelphis borealis) and the southern right whale dolphin (Lissodelphis peronii). These cetaceans are predominantly black, white beneath, and some of the few without a dorsal fin or ridge. They are smaller members of the delphinid family, oceanic dolphins, and very slender. Despite scientists being long acquainted with the species (the Northern species was identified by Peale in 1848 and the Southern by La Cépède in 1804), little is known about them in terms of life history and behaviour.

Southern Kangaroo Island Marine Park

Southern Kangaroo Island Marine Park (formerly Southern Kangaroo Island Commonwealth Marine Reserve) is a marine protected area located south of South Australia in waters within the Australian Exclusive economic zone to the south of Kangaroo Island and ranging in depth from 15 metres (49 feet) to 100 metres (330 feet).It was gazetted in November 2012. It was renamed on 11 October 2017.It is part of a group of Australian marine parks managed by the Department of the Environment and Energy known as the South-west Marine Park Network. It is bounded on its northern side by the Southern Kangaroo Island Marine Park which is managed by the Government of South Australia.The marine park includes an ecosystem representative of the bioregion known as the "Spencer Gulf Shelf Province", a "key ecological feature" consisting of a feature known as the "Kangaroo Island Pool" and the associated "Eyre Peninsula upwelling" both notable for their "high productivity, breeding and feeding aggregations", a calving area for southern right whale and feeding areas for both the Australian sea lion and the great white shark.The marine park is classified as an IUCN Category VI protected area.

Southern right whale dolphin

The southern right whale dolphin (Lissodelphis peronii) is a small and slender species of mammal found in cool waters of the Southern Hemisphere. The dolphin is one of two species of right whale dolphin; Lissodelphis, the other, the northern right whale dolphin, is found in deep oceans of the Northern Hemisphere.

Tail sailing

Tail sailing refers to the action of whales lifting their tails clear of the water for long periods of time. The process is rarely observed by humans, and the precise motivation for this phenomenon is unknown. It is thought that whales either undertake this activity to catch the wind and 'sail' through the water, or as a method to cool down. A third theory suggests that the whale is feeding close to the sea floor.

Scientists believe that tail-sailing is fairly common amongst certain species, such as the Southern right whale.

Whaling in Argentina

Whaling in Argentina was a major industry in both the South Pacific and South Atlantic coasts, and around the Falkland Islands. The primary whalers were Norwegian and Scottish ships, and the primary quarry the southern right whale.

Whaling in New Zealand

Whaling in New Zealand dates back to the late 18th century, and ended in 1964 since it was no longer economic. Nineteenth-century whaling was based on the southern right whale, and 20th-century whaling on the humpback whale. There is now an established industry for whale watching based in the South Island town of Kaikoura.

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