Southern forest bat

The southern forest bat (Vespadelus regulus) is a vespertilionid bat found in Australia.

Southern forest bat
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Chiroptera
Family: Vespertilionidae
Genus: Vespadelus
V. regulus
Binomial name
Vespadelus regulus
(Thomas, 1906)[2]
  • Eptesicus regulus (Thomas, 1906)[3]


A species of Vespadelus, of the diverse and common micro-bats, bats assigned as either suborder Yangochiroptera or Microchiroptera. The description for the species was published by Oldfield Thomas in 1906.[2] The holotype, of indeterminate sex, was collected at King River, Western Australia at sea level.[2] The specimen was obtained on a survey of Southwest Australia, along with several other bat species. The lectotype, a skull held at British Museum of Natural History, was nominated in 1968, providing a single specimen from the material collected by Thomas.[3]

Thomas ascribed the species as Pipistrellus regulus, allying it to the genus Pipistrellus. The species has also been placed with genus Eptesicus.[4][3] Prior to analysis that led to the description of new species, the population was assigned to a poorly studied pumilis group of Australian bat taxa.[5] Taxonomic instability also saw the species placed within a subgenus Pipistrellus (Vespadelus),[6] while others were elevating that taxon as genus Vespadelus.[4]

The taxonomic status of the population west of Adelaide, South Australia, is suspected to be a separate species.[1]

Common names for the Vespadelus regulus include, little bat, King River little bat, and King River pipistrelle.[7]


Vespadelus regulus is an aerial predator of insects that hunts at night using echolocation. There is reddish-brown fur at the back, the ventral coloration is greyish or light brown.[8] This fur is thick, hairs are slightly greater than five millimetres in length, with an overall coloration at the dorsal side of dark Prout's brown.[2] The ears and wings are dark grey.[8] The range of measurements for the forearm is from 28 to 35 millimetres, and their weight is 4 to 7 grams.[8] It has a very short snout and large ears. The side profile of the skull is comparatively lower, flattened, and the head in top view is triangular.[9]

The species overall grey and brown fur is characterised by hairs that are coloured dark brown then markedly lighter at the upper part of the shaft. The penis is pendulous, without a sharp bend in the length, the glans penis has a lateral fold and is funnel-shaped in profile. The ratio of the third to second phalanx bone of the wings third finger is greater than 0.84, The measured range of length of the head and body combined is 36 to 46 mm, the tail is 28 to 34 mm, from notch at base to tip the ear length is 9 to 13 millimetres.[9] The skull, at its longest measurement, is 11.9 to 13.4 millimetres with a mean of 12.7 mm.[3] A sampled weight range of V. regulus from 3.6 to 7.0 grams gave a mean figure of 5.2 grams.[9]

They are highly energetic and can hunt their prey, insects, with great agility.[10][8]

Another bat of the genus, the little forest species Vespadelus vulturnus, is also found in eastern regions, it is usually smaller, a forearm length of less than 31 mm, probably possesses a whitish tragus, a head has a pronounced brow. The inland forest bat Vespadelus baverstocki is distinguished by its smaller size in their common range to the north, and is paler in colour and lacks the distinct fold at the glans penis. The related bats of genus Vespadelus, the eastern forest bat V. pumilus and large forest species V. darlingtoni, are distinctly darker in skin colour and their penis is bent at an acute angle.[9] The structural characteristics of their ultrasound calls are able to be discerned in sonograms, although imperfect recording conditions may not allow them to be distinguished from some other vespadeluses. The echolocation calls are emitted at a frequency of 38 to 46 kHz, and visual output of signals received by bat detectors are classified as "curved calls, tail absent or up-sweeping".[11]

Distribution and habitat

An endemic of Tasmania and the southern regions of Australia, relatively common in coastal and sub-coastal habitat.[7][9] The distribution range extends from southeast Queensland to the Eyre Peninsula, then restricted to the coast until their deeper inland ingress to the semiarid and forested regions of southwest Australia. The southwest of the continent, across an area to the north of Perth, is a region of low diversity in microbat taxa and none of the megachiropterans; this species is one of around ten to occur there. The also occur on Kangaroo Island, off the south coast of Australia. The habitat is a variety of mallee and other semi-arid woodland and wet sclerophyll forest in areas of higher rainfall.[9] The species is found in environs at sea level and above, in Victoria they are reported as occurring at altitudes up to 1700 metres.[1] Colonies have been found in remnant bushland in agricultural and urban areas.[1]

The species is found roosting in tree hollows and sometimes in buildings.[12] The sites are often shared by individuals of the same gender.[9] The diverse range of habitat includes wet to dry sclerophyll forests and low shrub woodlands, in mallee and a range of vegetation types of temperate regions.[1] They display a strong preference for roosting in large, mature trees in the mid-decay stages, which correspond to trees with large numbers of suitable hollows.[12]

A study of roosting habitat and preferences for V. regulus and Nyctophilus gouldi in the Jarrah Forest of Southwest Australia examined the habits of these bats at two locations. This species favoured hollows of trees, predominantly the giants jarrah, Eucalyptus marginata, and marri, Corymbia calophylla, located in mature and open forest buffers reserved by later forest management practices. The individuals occupied a number of roosts in a confined locality, a hollow at a high elevation on the tree, and seem to favour riparian zones.[13] In a survey of the greater Melbourne area, where they are uncommon, the species did not adopt the bat boxes installed to replace their preferred habitat.[14]


Vespadelus regulus forages amongst all levels of their habitat, including at the ground and above the forest canopy.[7] They are fast and agile, able to twist in the air while pursuing small moths and other prey.[15] The species flight is characterised by spiralling and gliding in long arcs.[7] A study in comparative analysis of flight in Australian bats reported this highly energetic species, along with wattled bats Chalinolobus morio and Chalinolobus gouldii, had the greatest manoeuvrability.[10]

They occur in colonies of up to one hundred individuals,[1] and recorded in association with Chalinolobus morio, lesser long-eared Nyctophilus geoffroyi and south-eastern freetail bat.[7] A single birth occurs after a three month gestation period.[1]

The conservation status, as Eptisicus regulus, was assessed in IUCN 2003 red list as 'lower concern',[5] and in 2008 as 'least concern' with the note that determination of the taxonomic status of populations was required.[1] The species is found in protected parks and reserves, which provides some security from threatening factors.[1] The also appear to be less sensitive to altered land use, primarily the removal of habitat by encroachment of agricultural and suburban development.[1]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Lumsden, L.; Reardon, T. & Pennay, M. (2008). "Vespadelus regulus". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008: e.T7939A12873245. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T7939A12873245.en. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
  2. ^ a b c d Thomas, O. (1906). "On mammals collected in south-west Australia for Mr. W.E. Balston". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 1906: 468–478. ISSN 0370-2774.
  3. ^ a b c d Kitchener, D J; Jones, B.; Caputi, N. (1987). "Revision of Australian Eptesicus (Microchiroptera: Vespertilionidae)". Records of the Western Australian Museum. 13: 427–500. ISSN 0312-3162.
  4. ^ a b "Species Vespadelus regulus (Thomas, 1906) Southern Forest Bat". Australian Faunal Directory. 2018-12-04. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
  5. ^ a b Simmons, N.B. (2005). "Order Chiroptera". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 312–529. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  6. ^ Hill, J.E; Harrison, D.L. (30 July 1987). "The baculum in the Vespertilioninae (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) with a systematic review, a synopsis of Pipistrellus and Eptesicus, and the descriptions of a new genus and subgenus". Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). 52: 225–305. ISSN 0007-1498.
  7. ^ a b c d e Andrew, D. (2015). Complete Guide to Finding the Mammals of Australia. CSIRO Publishing. p. 336. ISBN 9780643098145.
  8. ^ a b c d Richards, G.C.; Hall, L.S.; Parish, S. (photography) (2012). A natural history of Australian bats : working the night shift. CSIRO Pub. pp. 21, 32, 33, 55, 121, 174. ISBN 9780643103740.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Menkhorst, P.W.; Knight, F. (2011). A field guide to the mammals of Australia (3rd ed.). Melbourne: Oxford University Press. p. 164. ISBN 9780195573954.
  10. ^ a b Bullen, R.D.; McKenzie, N.L. (2007). "Recent developments in studies of the community structure, foraging ecology and conservation of Western Australian bats". The Biology and Conservation of Australasian Bats. Royal Zoological Society of NSW. pp. 31–43.
  11. ^ Scanlon, A.T.; Petit, S. (2008). "Effects of site, time, weather and light on urban bat activity and richness: considerations for survey effort". Wildlife Research. 35 (8): 821. doi:10.1071/WR08035.
  12. ^ a b Joanna M. Burgar; Michael D. Craig; Vicki L. Stokes (2015). "The importance of mature forest as bat roosting habitat within a production landscape". Forest Ecology and Management. 356: 112–123. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2015.07.027.
  13. ^ Webala, P.W.; Craig, M.D.; Law, B.S.; Wayne, A.F.; Bradley, J.S. (October 2010). "Roost site selection by southern forest bat Vespadelus regulus and Gould's long-eared bat Nyctophilus gouldi in logged jarrah forests; south-western Australia". Forest Ecology and Management. 260 (10): 1780–1790. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2010.08.022Author's personal copy
  14. ^ Griffiths, S.R.; Bender, R.; Godinho, L.N.; Lentini, P.E.; Lumsden, L.F.; Robert, K.A. (October 2017). "Bat boxes are not a silver bullet conservation tool". Mammal Review. 47 (4): 261–265. doi:10.1111/mam.12097.
  15. ^ "Southern Forest Bat, Scientific name: Vespadelus regulus". The Australian Museum. 2018-11-18. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
African yellow bat

The African yellow bat (Scotophilus dinganii) is a species of bat in the family Vespertilionidae, the vesper bats. Other common names include African yellow house bat, yellow-bellied house bat, and Dingan's Bat. It is one of fifteen species in the genus Scotophilus.


Arielulus is a genus of vesper bats with the following species, sometimes in Pipistrellus:

Genus Arielulus

Collared pipistrelle (A. aureocollaris)

Black-gilded pipistrelle (A. circumdatus)

Coppery pipistrelle (A. cuprosus)

Social pipistrelle (A. societatis)

Necklace pipistrelle (A. torquatus)


Barbastella is a small genus of vespertilionid bats. There are five described species in this genus.


Eptesicus is a genus of bats, commonly called house bats or serotine bats, in the family Vespertilionidae.The 25 species within this genus are:

Little black serotine (Eptesicus andinus)

Bobrinski's serotine (Eptesicus bobrinskoi)

Botta's serotine (Eptesicus bottae)

Brazilian brown bat (Eptesicus brasiliensis)

Chiriquinan serotine (Eptesicus chiriquinus)

Diminutive serotine (Eptesicus diminutus)

Surat serotine (Eptesicus dimissus)

Horn-skinned bat (Eptesicus floweri)

Argentine brown bat (Eptesicus furinalis)

Big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus)

Gobi big brown bat (Eptesicus gobiensis)

Guadeloupe big brown bat (Eptesicus guadeloupensis)

Long-tailed house bat (Eptesicus hottentotus)

Harmless serotine (Eptesicus innoxius)

Meridional serotine (Eptesicus isabellinus)

Japanese short-tailed bat (Eptesicus japonensis)

Kobayashi's bat (Eptesicus kobayashii)

Eptesicus lobatus

Jamaican serotine (Eptesicus lynni)

Sind bat (Eptesicus nasutus)

Northern bat (Eptesicus nilssonii)

Thick-eared bat (Eptesicus pachyotis)

Lagos serotine (Eptesicus platyops)

Serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus)

Eptesicus taddeii

Sombre bat (Eptesicus tatei)


Glauconycteris is a genus of vespertilionid bats in Africa.

Grey long-eared bat

The grey long-eared bat (Plecotus austriacus) is a fairly large European bat. It has distinctive ears, long and with a distinctive fold. It hunts above woodland, often by day, and mostly for moths. It is extremely similar to the more common brown long-eared bat, and was only distinguished in the 1960s, but has a paler belly.

Harlequin bat

The harlequin bat (Scotomanes ornatus) is a species of bat in the family Vespertilionidae, the vesper bats. It is the only member of the monotypic genus Scotomanes.

This bat is found in south-eastern Asia from India to China and Vietnam.This is a common and widespread species. It lives in forests and caves and roosts in trees.


The genus Hypsugo contains many bats referred to as pipistrelles or pipistrelle bats. They belong to the family Vespertilionidae or vesper bats within the order Chiroptera.


Laephotis is a genus of bats in the family Vespertilionidae. Species within this genus are:

Angolan long-eared bat (Laephotis angolensis)

Botswanan long-eared bat (Laephotis botswanae)

Namib long-eared bat (Laephotis namibensis)

De Winton's long-eared bat (Laephotis wintoni)

List of mammals of Victoria

This is a list of mammals of Victoria, Australia:

Acrobates pygmaeus (feathertail glider)

Aepyprymnus rufescens (rufous rat-kangaroo)

Antechinus agilis (agile antechinus)

Antechinus flavipes (yellow-footed antechinus)

Antechinus minimus (swamp antechinus)

Antechinus swainsonii (dusky antechinus)

Arctocephalus forsteri (New Zealand fur seal)

Arctocephalus pusillus (Cape fur seal)

Arctocephalus tropicalis (subantarctic fur seal)

Balaenoptera acutorostrata (minke whale)

Balaenoptera edeni (Bryde's whale)

Balaenoptera musculus (blue whale)

Balaenoptera physalus (fin whale)

Bettongia gaimardi (eastern bettong)

Bettongia penicillata (woylie)

Burramys parvus (mountain pygmy possum)

Canis lupus dingo (dingo)

Caperea marginata (pygmy right whale)

Capra hircus (goat) — naturalised

Cercartetus concinnus (southwestern pygmy possum)

Cercartetus lepidus (Tasmanian pygmy possum)

Cercartetus nanus (eastern pygmy possum)

Axis axis (axis deer) — naturalised

Dama dama (fallow deer) — naturalised

Cervus timorensis (rusa deer) — naturalised

Chalinolobus gouldii (Gould's wattled bat)

Chalinolobus morio (chocolate wattled bat)

Chaeropus ecaudatus (pig-footed bandicoot) - extinct

Conilurus albipes (white-footed rabbit-rat)

Dasyurus maculatus (tiger quoll)

Dasyurus geoffroii (western quoll)

Dasyurus viverrinus (eastern quoll)

Delphinus delphis (short-beaked common dolphin)

Equus caballus (horse) — naturalised

Eubalaena australis (southern right whale)

Falsistrellus tasmaniensis (eastern false pipistrelle)

Felis catus (cat) — naturalised

Globicephala melas (long-finned pilot whale)

Grampus griseus (Risso's dolphin)

Gymnobelideus leadbeateri (Leadbeater's possum)

Hydromys chrysogaster (water rat)

Hydrurga leptonyx (leopard seal)

Hyperoodon planifrons (bottlenose whale)

Isoodon obesulus (southern brown bandicoot)

Kogia breviceps (pygmy sperm whale)

Lagenodelphis hosei (Fraser's dolphin)

Lagorchestes leporides (eastern hare-wallaby) — extinct

Lepus europaeus (brown hare) — naturalised

Leporillus apicalis (lesser stick rat)

Lobodon carcinophaga (crabeater seal)

Macropus fuliginosus (western grey kangaroo)

Macropus giganteus (eastern grey kangaroo)

Macropus greyi (toolache wallaby) — extinct

Macropus robustus (eastern wallaroo)

Macropus rufogriseus (red-necked wallaby)

Macropus rufus (red kangaroo)

Macrotis lagotis (greater bilby)

Mastacomys fuscus (broad-toothed mouse)

Megaptera novaeangliae (humpback whale)

Mesoplodon bowdoini (Andrews' beaked whale)

Mesoplodon densirostris (Blainville's beaked whale)

Mesoplodon ginkgodens (ginkgo-toothed beaked whale)

Mesoplodon grayi (Gray's beaked whale)

Mesoplodon layardii (Layard's beaked whale)

Mesoplodon mirus (True's beaked whale)

Miniopterus schreibersii (common bentwing bat)

Mirounga leonina (southern elephant seal)

Mormopterus planiceps (southern free-tailed bat)

Mus musculus (house mouse) — naturalised

Myotis adversus (large-footed bat)

Neophoca cinerea (Australian sea lion)

Ningaui yvonneae (southern ningaui)

Notomys mitchellii (Mitchell's hopping mouse)

Nyctophilus geoffroyi (lesser long-eared bat)

Nyctophilus gouldi (Gould's long-eared bat)

Nyctophilus timoriensis (greater long-eared bat)

Onychogalea fraenata (bridled nail-tail wallaby)

Orcinus orca (orca)

Ornithorhynchus anatinus (platypus)

Oryctolagus cuniculus (European rabbit) — naturalised

Perameles bougainville (western barred bandicoot)

Perameles gunnii (eastern barred bandicoot)

Perameles nasuta (long-nosed bandicoot)

Petauroides volans (greater glider)

Petaurus australis (yellow-bellied glider)

Petaurus breviceps (sugar glider)

Petaurus norfolcensis (squirrel glider)

Petrogale penicillata (brush-tailed rock-wallaby)

Phascogale calura (red-tailed phascogale)

Phascogale tapoatafa (brush-tailed phascogale)

Phascolarctos cinereus (koala)

Physeter macrocephalus (sperm whale)

Planigale gilesi (paucident planigale)

Potorous longipes (long-footed potoroo)

Potorous tridactylus (long-nosed potoroo)

Pseudocheirus peregrinus (common ringtail possum)

Pseudomys apodemoides (silky mouse)

Pseudomys australis (plains rat)

Pseudomys bolami (Bolam's mouse)

Pseudomys desertor (brown desert mouse)

Pseudomys fumeus (smoky mouse)

Pseudomys gouldii (Gould's mouse)

Pseudomys novaehollandiae (New Holland mouse)

Pseudomys shortridgei (heath mouse)

Pseudorca crassidens (false killer whale)

Pteropus poliocephalus (grey-headed flying-fox)

Pteropus scapulatus (little red flying-fox)

Rattus fuscipes (bush rat)

Rattus lutreolus (Australian swamp rat)

Rattus norvegicus (brown rat) — naturalised

Rattus rattus (black rat) — naturalised

Rhinolophus megaphyllus (smaller horseshoe bat)

Saccolaimus flaviventris (yellow-bellied pouched bat)

Scotorepens balstoni (western broad-nosed bat)

Scotorepens orion (eastern broad-nosed bat)

Sminthopsis crassicaudata (fat-tailed dunnart)

Sminthopsis leucopus (white-footed dunnart)

Sminthopsis murina (slender-tailed dunnart)

Sus scrofa (pig) — naturalised

Tachyglossus aculeatus (short-beaked echidna)

Tadarida australis (white-striped free-tailed bat)

Thylogale billardierii (Tasmanian pademelon)

Trichosurus caninus (short-eared possum)

Trichosurus vulpecula (common brushtail possum)

Tursiops australis (burrunan dolphin)

Tursiops truncatus (bottlenose dolphin)

Vespadelus baverstocki (inland forest bat)

Vespadelus darlingtoni (large forest bat)

Vespadelus regulus (southern forest bat)

Vespadelus vulturnus (little forest bat)

Vombatus ursinus (common wombat)

Vulpes vulpes (fox) — naturalised

Wallabia bicolor (swamp wallaby)

Ziphius cavirostris (Cuvier's beaked whale)

Moloney's mimic bat

Moloney's mimic bat (Mimetillus moloneyi) is a species of vesper bat. It can be found in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, and Zambia. It is found in subtropical or tropical dry or moist forests, subtropical or tropical mangrove forests, subtropical or tropical moist montane forests, dry and moist savanna.


Nyctalus is a genus of vespertilionid bats commonly known as the noctule bats. They are distributed in the temperate and subtropical areas of Europe, Asia and North Africa.

There are eight species within this genus:

Birdlike noctule, Nyctalus aviator

Azores noctule, Nyctalus azoreum

Japanese noctule, Nyctalus furvus

Greater noctule bat, Nyctalus lasiopterus

Lesser noctule, Nyctalus leisleri

Mountain noctule, Nyctalus montanus

Common noctule, Nyctalus noctula

Chinese noctule, Nyctalus plancyi


The genus Plecotus consists of the long-eared bats. Many species in the genus have only been described and recognized in recent years.

Rüppell's pipistrelle

Rüppell's pipistrelle (Pipistrellus rueppellii) is a species of vesper bat found in Africa and Asian republics such as Iraq and Israel. It is found in dry and moist savanna, subtropical or tropical dry shrubland, and hot deserts.


Scotoecus is a genus of bats in the family Vespertilionidae.

Strange big-eared brown bat

The strange big-eared brown bat (Histiotus alienus), is a bat species from South America. It is found in Brazil.


Vespadelus is a genus of bats in the family Vespertilionidae.

The genus name was first published by Ellis Le Geyt Troughton and Tom Iredale in 1934, but without an adequate description; the type was cited as Scotophilus pumilus Gray, 1841. The 1934 review included taxa previously ascribed to other generas and placed these with the proposed arrangement, the type species was assigned to a new combination as Vespadelus pumilus. Troughton later provided a diagnosis for the genus in 1943, making this name available. Other circumscriptions have assigned these species to genera Pipistrellus and Eptesicus.

An earlier treatment of populations had placed them as the sole species of Eptesicus (E. pumilus). The separation to this genus followed comparative studies that recognised its diversity and nominated new species (Kitchener, 1987; Queale.). Subsequent authors recognition of the arrangement published as Vespadelus by Troughton in 1943 saw the name of this genus reëstablished.The following nine species are currently recognised.

genus Vespadelus Troughton 1943. Reëlevated to genus with new combinations (Queale, 1997 et al). Also known as: forest bats, cave bats. little brown bats

species Vespadelus baverstocki (Kitchener et al, 1987). aka: Baverstock's or inland forest bat

sp. Vespadelus caurinus (Thomas, 1914). northern cave bat

sp. Vespadelus darlingtoni. (Allen, 1933). large forest bat

sp. Vespadelus douglasorum (Kitchener, 1976). yellow-lipped bat

sp. Vespadelus finlaysoni. (Kitchener et al, 1987). Finlayson's cave bat

sp. Vespadelus pumilus (Gray, 1841). eastern forest bat

sp. Vespadelus regulus (Thomas, 1906). southern forest bat

sp. Vespadelus troughtoni. eastern cave bat

sp. Vespadelus vulturnus. little forest bat


Vespertilio is a genus of bats in the family Vespertilionidae. The common name for this family is vesper bats, which is a better known classification than Vespertilio. Also: frosted bats.

Species within the genus Vespertilio are:

Parti-coloured bat, Vespertilio murinus

Asian parti-coloured bat, Vespertilio sinensis


The Vespertilioninae are a subfamily of vesper bats from the family Vespertilionidae.

Species of subfamily Vespertilioninae


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