Southern Provinces

The Southern Provinces or Moroccan Sahara are the terms used by the Moroccan government for Western Sahara. These two official Moroccan denominations explicitly include all of Western Sahara. The Moroccan government favours "Southern Provinces" for its geographical obviousness, and because of the sensitivity of the word "Sahara" in Morocco. A frequent use of the term "Southern Provinces" is found for example in Moroccan state television (weather forecasts, displayed maps on the news, government statements, etc.)

Map of Morocco and Western Sahara-fr
Map of Morocco and Western Sahara with the Southern Provinces in a darker color.

Overview

The Moroccan government controls and administers 80% of Western Sahara (the part west of the Moroccan Wall, while the rest makes up the Free Zone) and all the oceanic coasts of Western Sahara. Government and private companies exploit coastal areas for fishing and the land areas for phosphate mining. The Polisario Front controls the remaining fifth, which is isolated from the ocean, mostly empty of any population, dry, and unfit for conventional urbanization or any basic economic activity.

The two thirds of Western Sahara that are controlled by Morocco are treated by the government as normal Moroccan territory. The government conducts various economic and social development programs and includes these "Southern Provinces" in the national budget of government funding, national sport competitions, education programs, and national parliamentary elections. Following the Green March and the Madrid Accords signed with Spain and Mauritania in 1975, Morocco took control of Saguia el-Hamra, and the northern part of Río de Oro, while Mauritania took control of the remaining part of Río de Oro, renamed as Tiris al-Gharbiyya.

A locally based Saharawi national liberation movement, the Polisario Front launched a guerrilla war, with the crucial financial and logistical backing of Algeria and Libya, aiming to win independence of the territory under the "Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic" (SADR). Following bloody clashes with the Polisario troops (SPLA) and deteriorating ties with Algeria, Mauritania pulled out in 1979 and gave up its share in the Western Sahara in order to avoid further complicated conflicts with the Sahrawi Republic, Algeria, and Morocco. Morocco then seized the opportunity and took control of the remaining part of Río de Oro as well, which had been recognized by the Moroccan regime as Mauritanian a few years earlier.

Since a United Nations-sponsored ceasefire agreement in 1991, about two thirds of the territory is administered by Morocco, including all the seacoasts, due to the construction of the Moroccan Wall. The Polisario Front controls most of the remainder, which is almost unpopulated. Polisario's army is considered incapable of covering the vast one-third of Western Sahara, east of the Moroccan military berm. Moreover, most of Polisario's army is thought to be concentrated in the Tinduf area inside Algeria, safe from the long arm of Morocco's superior artillery and air force.

The ceasefire line corresponds to the route of the Moroccan Wall (the military berm). Both sides claim the territory of Western Sahara in its entirety. The Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic had been recognized by 84 nations, and is a full member of the African Union, but not of the UN. Moroccan territorial integrity is implicitly recognized by the Arab League with strong reservations from Algeria and Syria.

Administratively, Morocco divided the territory under its control into administrative units (wilayas). Flags and coats of arms were created for the three wilayas of Boujdour,[1] Smara and Laayoune.[2] There were further changes in the territories in 1983, with the area becoming four wilayas through the addition of Dakhla.[3] In 1990 Wadi al-Dhahab (Río de Oro) was added.

Morocco has assigned a special satellite TV channel for the "Southern Provinces", called Laayoun TV.

Population

Following the 1975 Green March, the Moroccan state has sponsored settlement schemes enticing thousands of Moroccans to move into the Moroccan-occupied part of Western Sahara (80% of the territory). By 2015, it was estimated that Moroccan settlers made up at least two thirds of the 500,000 inhabitants.[4] In addition to guaranteeing a right of return for the Sahrawi refugees, the Sahrawi government in exile has indicated a willingness to offer Sahrawi citizenship to Moroccan settlers and their descendants in a future independent state.[5][6]

References and notes

  1. ^ "Boujdour province, Morocco". crwflags.com. Retrieved 2007-03-20.
  2. ^ "Laayoune province, Morocco". crwflags.com. Retrieved 2007-03-20.
  3. ^ "Dakhla (Oued Eddahab-Lagouira) Province, Morocco". crwflags.com. Retrieved 2007-03-20.
  4. ^ https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jan/06/morocco-western-sahara-referendum-delay
  5. ^ South African Institute for Security Studies
  6. ^ Canadian Government Website report on SADR offer of citizenship to Moroccan settlers

Coordinates: 25°N 13°W / 25°N 13°W

Belgian Revolution

The Belgian Revolution (French: Révolution belge, Dutch: Belgische Revolutie/opstand/omwenteling) was the conflict which led to the secession of the southern provinces (mainly the former Southern Netherlands) from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands and the establishment of an independent Kingdom of Belgium.

The people of the south were mainly Dutch-speaking Flemings and French-speaking Walloons. Both peoples were traditionally Roman Catholic as contrasted with the largely Protestant (Dutch Reformed) people of the north. Many outspoken liberals regarded King William I's rule as despotic. There were high levels of unemployment and industrial unrest among the working classes.On 25 August 1830, riots erupted in Brussels and shops were looted. Theatregoers who had just watched the nationalistic opera La muette de Portici joined the mob. Uprisings followed elsewhere in the country. Factories were occupied and machinery destroyed. Order was restored briefly after William committed troops to the Southern Provinces but rioting continued and leadership was taken up by radicals, who started talking of secession.Dutch units saw the mass desertion of recruits from the southern provinces and pulled out. The States-General in Brussels voted in favour of secession and declared independence. In the aftermath, a National Congress was assembled. King William refrained from future military action and appealed to the Great Powers. The resulting 1830 London Conference of major European powers recognized Belgian independence. Following the installation of Leopold I as "King of the Belgians" in 1831, King William made a belated attempt to reconquer Belgium and restore his position through a military campaign. This "Ten Days' Campaign" failed because of French military intervention. Not until 1839 did the Dutch accept the decision of the London conference and Belgian independence by signing the Treaty of London.

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Guelmim-Es Semara

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John Salmon (bishop)

John Salmon (died 1325) was a medieval Bishop of Norwich.

John of Sittingbourne

John of Sittingbourne (died before 1238) was Archbishop of Canterbury-elect in 1232.

John was a monk of Christ Church Priory, Canterbury, and was selected as prior of Christ Church in 1222. John was elected to the archbishopric on 16 March 1232, but his election was quashed on 12 June 1232 when he resigned the office at the papal court.John died sometime before 1238.

Kolae boat

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Nguyễn Hoàng

Nguyễn Hoàng (28 August 1525 – 20 July 1613) was the first of the Nguyễn lords who ruled the southern provinces of Vietnam between 1558 and 1613, from a series of cities: Ai Tu (1558–70), Tra Bat (1570–1600), and Dinh Cat (modern-day Huế) (1600–13).

He was the second son of Nguyễn Kim. When his father was assassinated by a Mạc supporter, his brother-in-law Trịnh Kiểm took command of the Lê Loyalist army. Sometime after his older brother (Nguyen Uong) died (believed to have been poisoned), Nguyễn Hoàng requested his brother in law, and was appointed to govern the southern-most province of Vietnam. This land was formerly Champa territory which had been conquered by Lê Thánh Tông and at the time was under control of Mạc force. Nguyễn Hoàng defeated the enemy commander Duke Lập and took over the province in 1558. In 1573 he was given the title Grand Master (Thai-pho) by Emperor Le The Ton. Later he was given the title Duke of Mon (Mon Cong).In 1592, when Trịnh Tùng laid siege to the Eastern Capital (modern-day Hanoi), Nguyễn Hoàng lend him resources and troops. The Nguyen army joined the Royal (Trịnh) army and helped destroy the remainder of the Mac army. For reasons that are mysterious, when the new Emperor, Lê Kinh Tông, ascended the throne, Nguyễn Hoàng refused to recognize the new sovereign and instead took for himself the new title of Good Prince (Huu Vuong) in 1600. Perhaps an explanation is found in that his nephew Trịnh Tùng had been given a similar title just one year earlier: Pacifying Prince (Binh An Vuong). Nguyễn Hoàng had many children (10 sons) but most of them either lost their lives in the battlefields or stayed in the North. His 6th son Nguyễn Phúc Nguyên succeeded him upon his death in 1613. He ruled the south for 55 years.The reason Trịnh Kiểm appointed Nguyễn Hoàng to the Southern provinces is not clear. As anecdote goes, Trinh Kiểm, being afraid of losing power to Nguyễn brothers, ordered the assassination of Nguyễn Hoàng's older brother. As for Hoang, Trịnh Kiểm wanted to take advantage of Mạc's southern garrison troops to eliminate his brother in law.

Nguyễn Hoàng is considered as the founder of the Nguyen Dynasty and Southern Vietnam. In 2013, his 400th anniversary was celebrated in Hue.

Outline of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic:

Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) – partially recognised state that claims sovereignty over the entire territory of Western Sahara, a former Spanish colony. SADR was proclaimed by the Polisario Front on February 27, 1976, in Bir Lehlu, Western Sahara. The SADR government controls about 20-25% of the territory it claims. It calls the territories under its control the Liberated Territories or the Free Zone. Morocco controls and administers the rest of the disputed territory and calls these lands its Southern Provinces. The SADR government considers the Moroccan-held territory to be an occupied territory.

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Phatthalung Province

Phatthalung (Thai: พัทลุง, pronounced [pʰát.tʰā.lūŋ]) is one of the southern provinces (changwat) of Thailand. Neighboring provinces are (from north clockwise) Nakhon Si Thammarat, Songkhla, Satun, and Trang. Phatthalung is essentially a landlocked province, one of the only two in southern Thailand, the other being Yala.

Piyaz

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Ralph Walpole

Ralph Walpole (died 1302) was a medieval Bishop of Norwich and Bishop of Ely.

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Sahrawi nationalism is a political ideology that seeks self-determination of the Sahrawi people, the indigenous population of Western Sahara. It has historically been represented by the Polisario Front. It came as a reaction against Spanish colonialist policies imposed from 1958 on, and subsequently in reaction to Mauritanian and Moroccan invasions of 1975.Its main opposing ideologies have been Spanish colonialism (Spanish Sahara, 1884–1975), Mauritanian irredentism (Tiris al-Gharbiyya, 1975–1979), Moroccan irredentism (Southern Provinces, 1975-present) and Pan-Arabism.

Seneschal

The word seneschal () can have several different meanings, all of which reflect certain types of supervising or administering in a historic context. Most commonly, a seneschal was a senior position filled by a court appointment within a royal, ducal, or noble household during the Middle Ages and early Modern period – historically a steward or majordomo of a medieval great house. In a medieval royal household, a seneschal was in charge of domestic arrangements and the administration of servants, which, in the medieval period particularly, meant the seneschal might oversee hundreds of laborers, servants and their associated responsibilities, and have a great deal of power in the community, at a time when the much of the local economy was often based around the wealth and responsibilities of such a household.

A second meaning is more specific, and concerns the late medieval and early modern nation of France, wherein the seneschal (French: sénéchal) was also a royal officer in charge of justice and control of the administration of certain southern provinces called seneschalties, holding a role equivalent to a northern French bailiff (bailli).

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Treaty of Saigon

The Treaty of Saigon was signed on June 5, 1862, between representatives of the French Empire and the last precolonial emperor of the House of Nguyen, Emperor Tự Đức. Based on the terms of the accord, Tự Đức ceded Saigon, the island of Poulo Condor and three southern provinces of what was to become known as Cochinchina (Bien Hoa, Gia Dinh, and Dinh Tuong) to the French. The treaty was confirmed by the Treaty of Hué signed on April 14, 1863.

William Scot

William Scot (or William of Stitchill; died c. 1243) was a medieval Bishop of Durham-elect.

Scot was Archdeacon of Worcester in December 1218. He was elected to the see of Durham before 20 October 1226 but the election was quashed by Pope Gregory IX on 19 May 1227. He died about 1242 or 1243.Scot may have been the father of Robert Stitchill, who was Bishop of Durham from 1260 to 1274.

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