Southern Cone

The Southern Cone (Spanish: Cono Sur, Portuguese: Cone Sul) is a geographic and cultural region composed of the southernmost areas of South America, south of and around the Tropic of Capricorn. Traditionally, it covers Argentina, Chile and Uruguay, bounded on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the south by the junction between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, which is the continental area closest to Antarctica (separated by 960 km). In terms of social, economic and political geography, the Southern Cone comprises Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Southern Brazil and the Brazilian state of São Paulo (but not the entire Southeastern Brazil). In its broadest definition, the Southern Cone also includes southern Bolivia (the most developed area of the country) and Paraguay (because of the common history and geography).[2]

High life expectancy, the highest Human Development Index of Latin America, high standard of living, low fertility rates, significant participation in the global markets and the emerging economy of its members make the Southern Cone the most prosperous macro-region in Latin America.[2][3]

Southern Cone
Southern cone
  Regions included in all forms
  Regions generally included
  Countries that still have a small part of their territory in the Southern Cone
Area5,712,034 kilometres (3,549,293 mi)
Population135,707,204 (July 2010 est.)
Density27.45/km2 (71.1/sq mi)[1]
Countries3, 4, or 5
LanguagesSpanish, Portuguese and Guarani
DemonymSouth American
Largest urban agglomerations1. Brazil São Paulo
2. Argentina Buenos Aires
3. Chile Santiago
4. Brazil Curitiba
5. Brazil Porto Alegre
6. Argentina Córdoba
7. Uruguay Montevideo

Geography and extent

Satellite images of the Southern Cone month by month
Campo Departamento Conhelo
The extensive temperated prairies of the Pampas in the center of the Argentina.
A panoramic sight of Aconcagua. Located in Argentina, this summit - almost 7000 meters high - is the highest mountain on Earth besides the Himalayas, and continues to rise.
Ischigualasto national park
Landforms in the Monte Desert at Ischigualasto, Argentina. Much of the southern cone is covered by the Arid Diagonal of which Monte Desert is part.
Bariloche view
The region of the forests of coniferous and lakes of glacier origin concerning Bariloche.

The climates are mostly temperate, but include humid subtropical, Mediterranean, highland tropical, maritime temperate, sub-Antarctic temperate, highland cold, desert and semi-arid temperate regions. Except for northern regions of Argentina (thermal equator in January), the whole country of Paraguay, the Argentina-Brazil border and the interior of the Atacama desert, the region rarely suffers from heat. In addition to that, the winter presents mostly cool temperatures. Strong and constant wind and high humidity is what brings low temperatures in the winter. The Atacama is the driest place on Earth.

One of the most peculiar plants of the region is the Araucaria tree, which can be found in Brazil, Chile and Argentina. The only native group of conifers found in the southern hemisphere had its origin in the Southern Cone. Araucaria angustifolia, once widespread in Southern Brazil, is now a critically endangered species, protected by law. The prairies region of central Argentina, Uruguay and southern Brazil is known as the Pampas.

Central Chile has Mediterranean vegetation and climate, grading southward into oceanic climate. The Atacama, Patagonian and Monte deserts form a diagonal of arid lands separating the woodlands, croplands and pastures of La Plata basin from Central and Southern Chile. Apart from the desert diagonal, the north-south running Andes form a major divide in the Southern Cone and constitute, for most of its part in the southern cone, the Argentina–Chile border. In the east the river systems of the La Plata basin form natural barriers and sea-lanes between Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay.

Average temperatures for some of the largest urban areas of Southern Cone
Location Warmest month April Coldest month October
Buenos Aires[4] 29.9 °C (85.8 °F)
19.6 °C (67.3 °F)
22.8 °C (73.0 °F)
13.3 °C (55.9 °F)
15.4 °C (59.7 °F)
7.6 °C (45.7 °F)
22.1 °C (71.8 °F)
12.7 °C (54.9 °F)
Santiago de Chile[5] 29.7 °C (85.5 °F)
13.0 °C (55.4 °F)
24.3 °C (75.7 °F)
8.0 °C (46.4 °F)
14.9 °C (58.8 °F)
3.9 °C (39.0 °F)
25.3 °C (77.5 °F)
10.6 °C (51.1 °F)
Porto Alegre 30.2 °C (86.4 °F)
20.5 °C (68.9 °F)
25.2 °C (77.4 °F)
16.3 °C (61.3 °F)
20.3 °C (68.5 °F)
10.7 °C (51.3 °F)
24.4 °C (75.9 °F)
15.0 °C (59.0 °F)
Asunción 33.5 °C (92.3 °F)
22.8 °C (73.0 °F)
28.4 °C (83.1 °F)
18.6 °C (65.5 °F)
23.2 °C (73.8 °F)
13.1 °C (55.6 °F)
29.2 °C (84.6 °F)
18.6 °C (65.5 °F)
Montevideo 28.4 °C (83.1 °F)
18.0 °C (64.4 °F)
22.0 °C (71.6 °F)
12.9 °C (55.2 °F)
15.0 °C (59.0 °F)
7.2 °C (45.0 °F)
20.5 °C (68.9 °F)
11.5 °C (52.7 °F)
Valparaiso 20.8 °C (69.4 °F)
13.5 °C (56.3 °F)
17.9 °C (64.2 °F)
11.4 °C (52.5 °F)
11.4 °C (52.5 °F)
9.2 °C (48.6 °F)
16.5 °C (61.7 °F)
11.5 °C (52.7 °F)
Córdoba 29.8 °C (85.6 °F)
17.1 °C (62.8 °F)
24.2 °C (75.6 °F)
11.5 °C (52.7 °F)
17.9 °C (64.2 °F)
4.4 °C (39.9 °F)
25.2 °C (77.4 °F)
11.4 °C (52.5 °F)
Planisferio Latitud templada comparada
Planisphere of moderate latitudes in which the equivalent location of most of the Southern Cone can be observed as if it was in the Northern Hemisphere (over latitudes corresponding to the south end of the United States up to the south end of Alaska).


Mate, as shown in the picture, is a typical beverage from the Southern Cone.

Besides sharing languages and colonial heritage, the residents of the states of the Southern Cone are avid players and fans of football, with top-notch teams competing in the sport. Argentina and Uruguay have both won the FIFA World Cup twice; they are the only national teams along with Brazil outside Europe to have won the cup. Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, and Brazil have all hosted the World Cup. Additionally, national teams from the region have won several Olympic medals in football. Also, football clubs from the Southern Cone countries have won large numbers of club competitions in South-American competitions, Pan-American competitions, and world-FIFA Club World Cup-level competitions.

The asado barbecue is a culinary tradition typical of the Southern Cone. The asado developed from the horsemen and cattle culture of the region, more specifically from the gauchos of Argentina, Uruguay and Southern Brazil (and Southern Chile) and the huasos of Chile. In the Southern Cone, horsemen are considered icons of national identity; they are featured in the epic poem Martín Fierro. Mate is popular throughout the Southern Cone.

In this area, there was extensive European immigration during the 19th- and 20th-centuries, who, with their descendants, have strongly influenced the culture, social life and politics of these countries.

In a social survey, residents rated their countries as 'good places for gay or lesbian people to live;' the following percentages said 'yes' in Uruguay (69%), Argentina (58%) and Chile (52%). By contrast, fewer people in the following countries agreed: Bolivia (24%), Ecuador (31%) and Peru (32%).[6]


The overwhelming majority, including those of recent immigrant background, speak Spanish (in Argentina, Chile and Uruguay) or Portuguese in the case of Southern Brazil. The Spanish-speaking countries of the Southern Cone are divided into two main dialects:

  • Castellano Rioplatense (River Plate Spanish), spoken in Argentina and Uruguay, where the accent and daily language is heavily influenced by 19th-20th century Italian immigrants, has a particular intonation famously recognized by Spanish speakers from around the world. It is sometimes erroneously referred to as "Castellano Argentino/Argentinean Spanish" due to the majority of the speakers (by population) being Argentinians. Preliminary research has shown that Rioplatense Spanish, has intonation patterns that resemble those of Italian dialects in the Naples region, and differ markedly from the patterns of other forms of Spanish.[7] Buenos Aires, Rosario, and Montevideo had a massive influx of Italian immigrant settlers from the mid-19th until mid-20th centuries. Researchers note that the development of this dialect is a relatively recent phenomenon, developing at the beginning of the 20th century with the main wave of Italian immigration.[8]
  • Castellano Chileno (Chilean Spanish)

These dialects share common traits, such as a number of Lunfardo and Quechua words.

Other minor languages and dialects include Portuñol, a hybrid between Rioplatense and Brazilian Portuguese that is spoken in Uruguay on the border with Brazil.

Native American languages

Some Native American groups, especially in rural areas, continue to speak autochthonous languages, including Mapudungun (also known as Mapuche), Quechua, Aymara, and Guarani. The first is primarily spoken in Araucanía and adjacent areas of Patagonia, in southern Argentina and Chile. Guarani is an official language of Paraguay, the most widely spoken language in that country, and in 2010, the city of Tacuru, in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul, adopted Guarani as the official language, besides Portuguese. It is also a co-official language in the northeastern Argentine provinces of Corrientes and Misiones.[9]

Non-Iberian immigrant languages

English is spoken in the Falkland Islands, a British Overseas Territory, and by descendants of British settlers in Argentina and Chile. Welsh is spoken by descendants of immigrants in the Patagonia region of Argentina.

Italian (mostly its Northern dialects, such as Venetian), is spoken in rural communities across Argentina and São Paulo where immigrants had settled. German in some dialects is mostly spoken in Southern Chile and Southern Brazil. German dialects are the second most spoken mother tongue in Brazil.[10][11][12] Polish, Dutch and Ukrainian are also spoken in Southern Brazil. Dutch is spoken in Chile as well, Ukrainian is used in Argentina as well. Croatian and other Slavic languages are also spoken in the southernmost areas of Chilean Patagonia, reflecting patterns of immigration and settlement.

Yiddish can be heard mainly in Buenos Aires, Argentina and São Paulo, Brazil.

In Brazil, Japanese is mostly common in the states of São Paulo and Paraná.


A history of Catholicism has left landmarks like the Churches of Chiloé (pictured) in the Southern Cone

The majority of residents are Roman Catholic, but there are Jewish and Protestants as well (mostly in Argentina and Chile). Religions include Islam, Anglicanism, Lutheranism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Buddhism, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and Daoism. Jewish communities have thrived in cities of Argentina and Uruguay.

While the Southern Cone has been conservative in some aspects of religion, it has had a tradition of social reform and "liberation theology" has been followed by many in the Catholic Church. Uruguay, where agnosticism and atheism is common, has a policy of strong separation of church and state; it is one of the most secular countries in the Americas.[13] Uruguay, Argentina and Chile, in that order, have the least religious residents in South America, according to their responses about the significance of religion in their lives. According to a Gallup poll, 51% of Uruguayans, 56% of Argentines, and 60% of Chileans think of religion 'as something important in their lives,' contrasting with the higher values given by the residents of countries such as Brazil (87%), Bolivia (89%) and Paraguay (92%).

Countries and territories

Country or
Population density
(per km²)
HDI (2017)[15] Capital or most important city
Argentina Argentina 2,780,400 40,091,359 14.42 0.825
(very high)
Buenos Aires
Chile Chile 756,096 17,094,275 22.60 0.843
(very high)
Uruguay Uruguay 176,215 3,424,595 19.43 0.804
(very high)
Total 3,712,711 60,610,229 16.32 0.824
(very high)

Inclusion of other countries


Brazil being a country of continental dimensions, it presents great internal regional differences.

While its 4 southernmost states (Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná and São Paulo) share the same characteristics with Argentina, Chile and Uruguay: high standard of living, subtropical and temperate climate, high levels of industrialization and strong European ethnic component due to immigration, the other states are more similar to the other South American countries in these issues.

For this reason, Brazil is included in some meanings when speaking in Southern Cone, but excluded in others. When the definition is not limited to entire countries, the states of the South Region and the state of São Paulo are generally included.

Country or
Population density
(per km²)
HDI (2014)[15] Capital or most important city
São Paulo (state) São Paulo 248,222 45,595,497 95.83 0.819
(very high)
São Paulo
Santa Catarina (state) Santa Catarina 95,346 6,727,000 71.18 0.813
(very high)
Paraná (state) Paraná 199,314 11,800,000 59.80 0.790
Rio Grande do Sul Rio Grande do Sul 291,748 11,286,500 39.10 0.779
Porto Alegre
Total 834,630 75,408,997 90.35 0.800
(very high)


Due to the geographical proximity, common history, geography and political cycles, Paraguay is usually included in what is meant by Southern Cone. However, it contrasts strongly with other countries given the high level of poverty, low standard of living and low level of industrialization, and is therefore sometimes excluded from the definition.


Southern cone density
Population density of the Southern Cone by first level national administrative divisions. Population/km²
Southern Cone at night
View of the Southern Cone at night, where there are population densities in the accumulation of light from cities.

The population of Argentina, Chile and Uruguay is 40, 16.8 and 3.6 million respectively. Buenos Aires is the largest metropolitan area at 13.1 million and Santiago, Chile has 6.4 million. Uruguay's capital and largest city, Montevideo, has 1.8 million, and it receives many visitors on ferry boats across the Río de la Plata from Buenos Aires, 50 km (31 mi) away.


The population of the Southern Cone has been strongly influenced by waves of immigration from Europe in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. People of European descent, make up 79% of the total population of Argentina, 88% of total population of Uruguay and 53% of total population of Chile.[16][17][18][19] Mestizos make up 15.8% of the population and are a majority in Paraguay. Native Americans make up 3% of the population, mulattoes (people of European and African ancestry) mostly in Uruguay (0.2%), and Asians (1.0%), mostly in Argentina, the remaining 1.2%.[20]

Genetic and historical roots

Since interethnic marriages are widespread in Latin America, complex ethnic classifications emerged, including more than a dozen of "racial" categories created in 18th century Hispanic America, with notorious examples being castizo, morisco and cambujo. In Brazil, about 190 "racial" categories were detected by the Census of 1976.[21]

Blacks made up 25% of the population of Buenos Aires in 1810, 1822 and 1838. In 1887, the government decided to cease asking Argentine citizens about their race. According to Laura López, it was a way to "hide" the Black population, not only from the Census, but also from the public opinion.[22] [23] Chile does not ask its citizens about race, but a study from the University of Chile concluded that Whites make 60% of the Chilean population,[24] while the CIA World Factbook described 88.4% of the population as white and mestizo.[25]

A study conducted on 218 individuals in 2010 by the Argentine geneticist Daniel Corach, has established that the genetic map of Argentina is composed by 79% from different European ethnicities (mainly Spanish and Italian ethnicities), 18% of different indigenous ethnicities, and 4.3% of African ethnic groups, in which 63.6% of the tested group had at least one ancestor who was Indigenous.[26][27] An autosomal DNA study from 2009 found the composition of the Argentine population to be 78,50% European, 17,30% Native American, and 4,20% Sub-Saharan African (SSA).[28]

A DNA study from 2009, published in the American Journal of Human Biology, showed the genetical composition of Uruguay to be mainly European, but with Native American (which varies from 1% to 20% in different parts of the country) and also SSA (7% to 15% in different parts of the country).[29]

An autosomal DNA study from 2014 found out Chile to be 44.34% (± 3.9%) Native American, 51.85% (± 5.44%) European and 3.81% (± 0.45%) African.[30][31]

In the case of Chile,"The use of mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome" test results show the following: The European component is predominant (91.0%, versus 9.0% of the aboriginal one) in the Chilean upper class,[32] the middle classes, 66.8%-62.3% European component[32][33] and 37.7%-33.2 of mixed aboriginal[32][34] and lower classes at 55%-52.9% European component[32][33] and 47.1%-45% mix of Aboriginal.[32][33]

Similar to the rest of Latin America, the genetic ancestry of the population of the Southern Cone reflects the history of the continent: the Iberian colonizers were mostly men who arrived without women. In consequence, they had children with the local Indigenous or enslaved African women. A European immigration to this part of the World in the late 19th and early 20th centuries (massive in Argentina, Uruguay, Southern Chile, and south and southeastern Brazil, modest in elsewhere in Brazil, Central Chile and Paraguay)[17][35] [36] brought more European and northern Middle Eastern components to the local population – mainly Spaniards in Chile, Italians and Spaniards in Argentina and Uruguay, Italians in São Paulo, Italians, Germans and Poles in southern Brazil.[37] European immigration was encouraged by local governments, among other reasons, to "whiten" the local population, which reflected the scientific racism that considered the Amerindian and African elements "inferior", while the European element was seen as "superior".[38] As a consequence, the White phenotype came to dominate these areas that received larger numbers of European immigrants. But the predominantly non-white majority before the mass European immigration did not disappear, of course, but was largely assimilated into the white population.

Education and standards of living

The other conspicuous characteristic of the Southern Cone is its relatively high standard of living and quality of life. Argentina's, Chile's, and Uruguay's HDIs—(0.827), (0.847), and (0.804)—are the highest in Latin America, similar to rich countries in Eastern Europe, such as Hungary, Croatia or Romania.[39] Uruguay, where illiteracy technically does not exist, reaches the same level in this area, even considering that it faces restrictions to its industrial and economic growth. The Southern Cone is the most prosperous macro-region in Latin America. It has high life expectancy, access to health care and education.[40] From an economic and liberal point of view the region has been praised for its significant participation in the global markets, and its "emerging economy" profile.[40] More troubling are high levels of income inequality.[41]

Summary of socio-economic performance indicators for Latin American countries
Country GDP per
(2015 estimates)


Gini index
(2014 estimates)

Failed States Index[46]
Lack of Corruption[47]
Economic Freedom
Southern Cone 22,493 45.2 0.820 (VH) 57.7 42.4 60 1.648 7.60 7.84
Mexico 18,714 48.1 0.774 (H) 55.0 71.1 35 66.4 2.500 6.91
Brazil 15,518 52.7 0.759 (H) 52.9 64.8 43 56.6 2.073 7.12
South America 11,955 47.5 0.715 (H) 50.3 76.7 31 55.0 2.233 6.01
Central America 10,502 49.7 0.678 (M) 51.0 68.8 37 62.2 2.058 6.45

Southern Cone =  Argentina  Chile  Uruguay

Mexico =  Mexico

Brazil =  Brazil

South America =  Colombia  Venezuela  Paraguay  Ecuador  Peru  Bolivia

Central America =  Costa Rica  Panama  Nicaragua  Honduras  El Salvador  Guatemala


During the second half of 20th century, these countries were in some periods ruled by right-wing juntas, military nationalistic dictatorships. Around the 1970s, these regimes collaborated in Plan Cóndor against leftist opposition, including urban guerrillas.[49] However, by the early 1980s Argentina and Uruguay restored their democracies; Chile followed suit in 1990.


Timeline of presidents


  1. ^ This North American density figure is based on a total land area of 4,944,081sq km
  2. ^ a b Steven, F. (2001). Regional Integration and Democratic Consolidation in the Southern Cone of Latin America. Democratization. 14. Routledge. pp. 75–100. ISBN 978-950-738-053-2. Retrieved 12 May 2009.
  3. ^ Krech III, Shepard; Merchant, Carolyn; McNeill, John Robert, eds. (2004). Encyclopedia of World Environmental History. 3: O–Z, Index. Routledge. pp. 1142–. ISBN 978-0-415-93735-1.
  4. ^ "Servicio Meteorológico Nacional".
  5. ^ Lazcano, Luis. "Climatología". Archived from the original on 2016-09-16. Retrieved 2015-05-25.
  6. ^ WorldView Archived October 19, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, Gallup
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  8. ^ Colantoni, Laura; Gurlekian, Jorge (2004). "Convergence and intonation: historical evidence from Buenos Aires Spanish". Bilingualism: Language and Cognition. 7 (2): 107–119. doi:10.1017/S1366728904001488.
  9. ^ "Official languages include indigenous" Archived 2012-02-20 at the Wayback Machine, IPS News
  10. ^ "Hunsrückish". Ethnologue. Retrieved 20 July 2015.
  11. ^ "Standard German". Ethnologue. Retrieved 20 July 2015.
  12. ^ "Olivet Second Most Spoken Languages Around the World". Retrieved 29 March 2016.
  13. ^ Latin American Area Studies: Uruguay Archived 2010-07-14 at the Wayback Machine, University of Minnesota
  14. ^ a b c d Land areas and population estimates are taken from The 2008 World Factbook which currently uses July 2008 data, unless otherwise noted.
  15. ^ a b "2018 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2018. Retrieved 14 September 2018.
  16. ^ Fernández, Francisco Lizcano (2007). Composición Étnica de las Tres Áreas Culturales del Continente Americano al Comienzo del Siglo XXI (in Spanish). ISBN 978-970-757-052-8.
  17. ^ a b SOCIAL IDENTITY Marta Fierro Social Psychologist. Archived February 25, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  18. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Spanish) massive immigration of European Argentina Uruguay Chile Brazil
  19. ^ Waiss, Óscar (1 January 1983). "La literatura hispanoamericana y el exilio" (PDF). Anales de Literatura Hispanoamericana. 12.
  20. ^ Historia de las repúblicas de la Plata, Manuel González Llana
  21. ^ Salzano, Francisco M. (1 September 2004). "Interethnic variability and admixture in Latin America - social implications". Revista de Biología Tropical. 52 (3): 405–415 – via SciELO.
  22. ^ "Negros en el país: censan cuántos hay y cómo viven".
  23. ^ Cahoon, Ben. "Argentina".
  24. ^ "5.2.6. Estructura racial". La Universidad de Chile. Archived from the original on 2007-10-16. Retrieved 2007-08-26. (Main page Archived 2009-09-16 at the Wayback Machine)
  25. ^ "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency".
  26. ^ Corach, Daniel; Lao, Oscar; Bobillo, Cecilia; Van Der Gaag, Kristiaan; Zuniga, Sofia; Vermeulen, Mark; Van Duijn, Kate; Goedbloed, Miriam; Vallone, Peter M; Parson, Walther; De Knijff, Peter; Kayser, Manfred (2010). "Inferring Continental Ancestry of Argentineans from Autosomal, Y-Chromosomal and Mitochondrial DNA". Annals of Human Genetics. 74 (1): 65–76. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2009.00556.x. PMID 20059473.
  27. ^ Carnese, Francisco R.; Dejean, Cristina B.; Dugoujon, Jean M.; Rey, Jorge; Goicoechea, Alicia S.; Avena, Sergio A. (April 2006). "Medicina (B. Aires) vol.66 número2; Resumen: S0025-76802006000200004". Medicina (Buenos Aires). 66 (2): 113–118. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011.
  28. ^ Corach Daniel (2010). "Inferring Continental Ancestry of Argentineans from Autosomal, Y-Chromosomal and Mitochondrial DNA". Annals of Human Genetics. 74 (1): 65–76. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2009.00556.x. PMID 20059473.
  29. ^ Bonilla, Carolina; Bertoni, Bernardo; González, Susana; Cardoso, Horacio; Brum-Zorrilla, Nadir; Sans, Mónica (1 May 2004). "Substantial native American female contribution to the population of Tacuarembó, Uruguay, reveals past episodes of sex-biased gene flow". American Journal of Human Biology. 16 (3): 289–297. doi:10.1002/ajhb.20025. PMID 15101054.
  30. ^ Fuentes M, Pulgar I, Gallo C, Bortolini MC, Canizales-Quinteros S, Bedoya G, González-José R, Ruiz-Linares A, Rothhammer F (Mar 2014). "[Gene geography of Chile: regional distribution of American, European and African genetic contributions]". Rev Med Chil. 142 (3): 281–9. doi:10.4067/S0034-98872014000300001. PMID 25052264.
  31. ^ "Gene geography of Chile" (PDF).
  32. ^ a b c d e Zemelman, Viviana; von Beck, Petra; Alvarado, Orlando; Valenzuela, Carlos Y. (2002). "El estrato socioeconómico alto se constituye mayoritariamente por una población caucásica y el estrato bajo por una mezcla de población caucásica 65% y amerindia 35% Revista médica de Chile". Revista Médica de Chile. 130 (8). doi:10.4067/S0034-98872002000800006.
  33. ^ a b c Acuña, M.; Jorquera, H.; Cifuentes, L.; Armanet, L. (2002). "Frequency of the hypervariable DNA loci D18S849, D3S1744, D12S1090 and D1S80 in a mixed ancestry population of Chilean blood donors". Genetics and Molecular Research. 1 (2): 139–46. PMID 14963840.
  34. ^ M. Acuña1, H. Jorquera, L. Cifuentes, and L. Armanet. "Frequency of the hypervariable DNA loci D18S849, D3S1744, D12S1090 and D1S80 in a mixed ancestry population of Chilean blood donors".CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  35. ^ Juan Bialet Massé en su informe sobre "El estado de las clases obreras en el interior del país" Archived September 27, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  36. ^ Caribe, Comisión Económica para América Latina y el (27 October 2014). "Etnicidad y ciudadanía en América Latina: la acción colectiva de los pueblos indígenas". Archived from the original on 2017-09-01. Retrieved 2016-05-06.
  37. ^ "Demografia - Imigrações: 4. A imigração alemã - Passeiweb".
  38. ^ RIBEIRO, Darcy. O Povo Brasileiro, Companhia de Bolso, fourth reprint, 2008 (2008).
  39. ^ "- Human Development Reports" (PDF).
  40. ^ a b "Wayback Machine". 4 September 2006. Archived from the original on 4 September 2006.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  41. ^ Science, London School of Economics and Political. "Department of Economic History" (PDF).
  42. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database". International Monetary Fund. October 2014. Retrieved February 15, 2015.
  43. ^ "UNDP".
  44. ^ UNDP Human Development Report 2015 Update. "Table 1: Human Development Index Trends" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-12-15. page 25–26
  45. ^ Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy / Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University. "Environmental Performance Index 2014". Archived from the original on 2014-01-26. Retrieved 2015-02-15.
  46. ^ "Failed States Index Scores 2014". The Fund for Peace. 2015-02-15. Archived from the original on February 15, 2015. Retrieved 2015-02-15.
  47. ^ e.V., Transparency International. "How corrupt is your country?".
  48. ^ "Democracy Index 2010" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-01-07.
  49. ^ Victor Flores Olea. "Editoriales - El Universal - 10 de abril 2006 : Operacion Condor" (in Spanish). El Universal (Mexico). Archived from the original on 2007-06-28. Retrieved 2009-03-24.

External links

Media related to Southern Cone at Wikimedia Commons

Coordinates: 39°06′00″S 67°54′00″W / 39.1000°S 67.9000°W


The Alacalufe, also known as the Kawésqar, Kaweskar, Alacaluf or Halakwulup (meaning "mussel eater" in Yaghan), are an indigenous people who live in Chilean Patagonia, specifically in the Brunswick Peninsula, and Wellington, Santa Inés, and Desolación islands of the western area of Tierra del Fuego. Their traditional language is known as Kawésqar; it is endangered as few native speakers survive.

Anglican Church of South America

The Anglican Church of South America (Spanish: Iglesia Anglicana de Sudamérica) is the ecclesiastical province of the Anglican Communion that covers six dioceses in the countries of Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay.

Formed in 1981, the province had 25,000 members in April 2013. Its members in South America are thinly spread, making it one of the smaller provinces in the Anglican Communion in terms of numbers, although one of the largest in geographical extent.The province was known as "The Province of the Southern Cone of America" from its formation in 1981 until September 2014, when it formally changed its name to "The Anglican Church of South America".The province also included Chile, until the inception of the new Anglican Church of Chile as an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, on 4 November 2018.


A bolas (plural: bolas or bolases; from Spanish bola, "ball", also known as boleadoras) is a type of throwing weapon made of weights on the ends of interconnected cords, used to capture animals by entangling their legs. Bolas were most famously used by the gauchos (South American cowboys), but have been found in excavations of Pre-Columbian settlements, especially in Patagonia, where indigenous peoples (particularly the Tehuelche) used them to catch 200-pound guanaco (llama-like mammals) and ñandú (birds). The Mapuche and the Inca army used them in battle. Researchers have also found bolas in North America at the Calico Early Man Site.

Brown hair

Brown hair is the second most common human hair color, after black hair. It varies from light brown to almost black hair. It is characterized by higher levels of the dark pigment eumelanin and lower levels of the pale pigment pheomelanin. People with brown hair are often referred to as brunette, which in French is the feminine form of brunet, the diminutive of brun (brown, brown-haired or dark-haired).Brown hair is common among populations in the Western world, especially among those from Central Europe, Southeastern Europe, Eastern Europe, Southern Europe, Southern Cone, the United States, and also some populations in the Greater Middle East where it transitions smoothly into black hair. Additionally, brown hair is common among Australian Aborigines and Melanesians.


Chaná were one of the native nations of Uruguay.Their culture was semi-nomadic. After the arrival of Europeans and the introduction of cattle, they started using leather for dressing.


The Charrúa are an Amerindian, Indigenous People or Indigenous Nation of the Southern Cone in present-day Uruguay and the adjacent areas in Argentina (Entre Ríos) and Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul). They were a semi-nomadic people who sustained themselves mainly through hunting and gathering. Since resources were not permanent in every region, they would constantly be on the move. Rain, drought, and other environmental factors determined their movement. For this reason they are often called "nomadas estacionales"; which means seasonal nomads.


Cuarteto (Spanish: quartet), sometimes called cuartetazo, is a musical genre born in Córdoba, Argentina.

The roots of the cuarteto ensemble are in Italian and Spanish dance ensembles. The name was coined because the early dance-hall numbers were invariably four-piece bands (violin-piano-accordion-bass).

Cuarteto is almost always upbeat; its rhythm range is similar to that of modern Dominican merengue.

In the 1970s, cuarteto became one of the cornerstones of Córdoba's cultural identity—together with Hortensia magazine. Both reflected a local brand of popular culture overlooked by the establishment, and proposed an alternative to the Buenos Aires-centered culture that television was spreading to the rest of the country.

Cuarteto was one of the genres that gave birth to the Buenos Aires tropical scene, which was renamed as bailanta in the 1990s following the usage of Corrientes province.

Cueva de las Manos

Cueva de las Manos (Spanish for Cave of Hands) is a cave or a series of caves located in the province of Santa Cruz, Argentina, 163 km (101 mi) south of the town of Perito Moreno. It is famous for (and gets its name from) the paintings of hands. The art in the cave dates from 13,000 to 9,000 years ago. Several waves of people occupied the cave, and early artwork has been carbon-dated to ca. 9300 BP (about 7300 BC). The age of the paintings was calculated from the remains of bone-made pipes used for spraying the paint on the wall of the cave to create silhouettes of hands.

The site was last inhabited around 700 AD, possibly by ancestors of the Tehuelche people. It was entered on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1999.


The Diaguita people are a group of South American indigenous people native to the Chilean Norte Chico and the Argentine Northwest. Western or Chilean Diaguitas lived mainly in the Transverse Valleys incised in a semi-arid environment. Eastern or Argentine Diaguitas lived in the provinces of La Rioja and Catamarca and part of the provinces of Salta, San Juan and Tucumán. The term Diaguita was first applied to peoples and archaeological cultures by Ricardo E. Latcham in early 20th century.Ancient Diaguitas were not a unified people; the language or dialects used by them seems to have varied from valley to other valleys and they were politically fragmented into several chiefdoms. Coastal and inland Chilean Diaguitas traded as evidenced by the archaeological findings of mollusc shells in the upper course of Andean valleys.According to the 2010 census there are 67,410 self-identified Diaguita descendants in Argentina.

Episcopal Diocese of Fort Worth (ACNA)

The Episcopal Diocese of Fort Worth is a diocese of the Anglican Church in North America. The diocese comprises 62 congregations and its headquarters are in Fort Worth, Texas.

The diocese is divided in 6 deaneries, each one headed by a dean, which are:

Fort Worth East (churches in eastern Fort Worth)

Fort Worth West (churches in western Fort Worth)

Eastern Deanery (churches in suburbs in eastern Tarrant County, as well as ex-TEC churches in Dallas County and the states of Arkansas and Louisiana)

Western Deanery (churches on the western side of Tarrant County, as well as in counties west of Tarrant County)

Southern Deanery (churches in counties south and southwest of Tarrant County, as well as ex-TEC churches in Houston)

Northern Deanery (churches in counties north and northwest of Tarrant County)The current bishop is Jack Iker, SSC.

The controversial separation between it and the identically named Episcopal Diocese of Fort Worth in the Episcopal Church arose out of events in 2008, when the 26th annual convention of the Episcopal Diocese of Fort Worth voted to remove the diocese from the Episcopal Church and join the Anglican Church of the Southern Cone.At the time of the vote in 2008 to separate from the Episcopal Church, the diocese had geographically fixed boundaries covering 24 counties in Texas and claimed 19,000 members. Afterward, in accordance with the non-geographical concept of dioceses in the Anglican Church of North America, it began to accept congregations outside its previous territory. In November 2012, the diocese reported 62 congregations, of which 60 are in Texas, one in Louisiana and one in Arkansas. The cathedral of the diocese is St. Vincent's Cathedral in Bedford.

Episcopal Diocese of Quincy

The Episcopal Diocese of Quincy was a diocese of the Episcopal Church in western Illinois from 1877 to 2013. The cathedral seat (home of the diocese) was originally in Quincy but was moved to St. Paul's Cathedral in Peoria in 1963. In order to avoid confusion with the Roman Catholic Diocese of Peoria, the diocese retained the name of the location of its original "home" city, Quincy, where its cathedral seat was St. John's.In November 2008, a majority of the diocesan synod (or diocesan convention) voted to leave the Episcopal Church and associate with Anglican Province of the Southern Cone, a member province of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as part of the conservative Anglican realignment movement. Those parishes and parishioners who did not vote to leave the Episcopal Church remained and continued as the Episcopal Diocese of Quincy. In 2013, the diocese merged into the Episcopal Diocese of Chicago.


Guenoa or Güenoa were one of the native nations of Entre Rios, Argentina and Uruguay. They were related to the other tribes in the area like Charrua, Minuane, Yaro and Bohán.

Huilliche people

The Huilliche, Huiliche or Huilliche-Mapuche are the southern partiality of the Mapuche macroethnic group of Chile. The Huilliche are the principal indigenous population of Chile from Toltén River to Chiloé Archipelago. According to Ricardo E. Latcham the term Huilliche started to be used in Spanish after the second founding of Valdivia in 1645, adopting the usage of the Mapuches of Araucanía for the southern Mapuche tribes. Huilliche means 'southerners' (Mapudungun willi 'south' and che 'people'.)

The majority of Huilliche speak Spanish, while a minority, dominated by older adults, speaks the Huilliche language.The Huilliche calls the territory between Bueno River and Reloncaví Sound Futahuillimapu, meaning "great land of the south".


Mercosur (in Spanish), or Mercosul (in Portuguese), officially Southern Common Market, is a South American trade bloc established by the Treaty of Asunción in 1991 and Protocol of Ouro Preto in 1994. Its full members are Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. Venezuela is a full member but has been suspended since December 1, 2016. Associate countries are Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru and Suriname. Observer countries are New Zealand and Mexico.Mercosur's purpose is to promote free trade and the fluid movement of goods, people, and currency. It currently confines itself to a customs union, in which there is free intra-zone trade and a common trade policy between member countries. The official languages are Spanish, Portuguese, and Guarani. Since its foundation, Mercosur's functions have been updated, amended, and changed many times: it is now a full customs union and a trading bloc.

Music of Uruguay

The most distinctive music of Uruguay is to be found in the tango and candombe; both genres have been recognized by UNESCO as an Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. Uruguayan music includes a number of local musical forms such as murga, a form of musical theatre, and milonga, a folk guitar and song form deriving from Spanish traditions and related to similar forms found in many Hispanic-American countries.


The Puelche (Mapudungun: pwelche, "people of the east") were indigenous peoples living east of the Andes Mountains in Chile and Southwest Argentina in the 18th century. They spoke the Puelche language. The name "Puelche" was not native, but was given to them by the Mapuche. They were annihilated by plagues and epidemics in the late 18th century, with survivors merging into other groups such as the Mapuche, Het, and Tehuelche.


The Ranquel or Rankülche are an indigenous tribe from the northern part of La Pampa Province, Argentina, in South America. With Puelche, Pehuenche and also Patagones from the Günün-a-Küna group origins, they were conquered by the Mapuche.


The Teushen or Tehues were an indigenous hunter-gatherer people of Patagonia in Argentina. They were considered "foot nomads", whose culture relied on hunting and gathering. Their territory was between the Tehuelche people to the south and the Puelche people to their north.

Before 1850, estimates claimed that there were 500 to 600 Teushen people. They were slaughtered in the Argentinian genocides of Patagonia, known as the Conquest of the Desert. By 1925, only ten to twelve Teushen survived. They are considered extinct as a tribe.The Teushen language is almost entirely unknown. Linguists believe, from the limited data available, that it was closest to Tehuelche, the language of the people to the south of the Teushen.

Yaro people

Yaro were one of the native nations of Uruguay and Argentina (Entre Ríos). A minor tribe, they were closely related to the Charrúa people.Nowadays a street in Montevideo (Cordón neighbourhood) bears their name.

Earth's primary regions

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