Southern California

Southern California (colloquially and locally known as SoCal) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises California's southernmost counties, and is the second most populous urban agglomeration in the United States.[3][4] The region is traditionally described as eight counties, based on demographics and economic ties: Imperial, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Santa Barbara, and Ventura.[5] The more extensive 10-county definition, which includes Kern and San Luis Obispo counties, is also used and is based on historical political divisions.[3]

The Colorado Desert and the Colorado River are located on southern California's eastern border with Arizona, and the Mojave Desert is located north on California's Nevada border. Southern California's southern border is part of the Mexico–United States border.

Southern California
Southern California Images top from bottom, left to right: San Diego Skyline, Downtown Los Angeles, Village of La Jolla, Santa Monica Pier, Surfer at Black's Beach, Hollywood Sign, Disneyland, Hermosa Beach Pier
Red: The eight traditionally included counties. Light red: San Luis Obispo and Kern counties in the expanded 10-county definition.
Red: The eight traditionally included counties.
Light red: San Luis Obispo and Kern counties in the expanded 10-county definition.
Country United States
State California
Counties Imperial
Kern
Los Angeles
Orange
Riverside
San Bernardino
San Diego
San Luis Obispo
Santa Barbara
Ventura
Largest city Los Angeles
Area
 (10-county)[1]
 • Total146,350 km2 (56,505 sq mi)
Population
(2018)
24,122,237 (10-county), 23,651,512 (8-county)[2]

Constituent metropolitan areas

Southern California includes the heavily built-up urban area which stretches along the Pacific coast from Ventura through Greater Los Angeles down to Greater San Diego (the contiguous urban area in fact continuing into Tijuana, Mexico), and inland to the Inland Empire and Coachella Valley (Palm Springs area). It encompasses eight metropolitan areas (MSAs), three of which together form the Greater Los Angeles Combined Statistical Area (CSA) with over 18 million people, the second-biggest CSA after the New York CSA. These three MSAs are: the Los Angeles metropolitan area (Los Angeles and Orange counties, with 13.3 million people), the Inland Empire ((Riverside and San Bernardino counties, including the Coachella Valley cities, with 4.3 million people), and the Oxnard–Thousand Oaks–Ventura metropolitan area (0.8 million people). In addition, Southern California contains the San Diego metropolitan area with 3.3 million people, Bakersfield metro area with 0.9 million, and the Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, and El Centro (Imperial County) metropolitan areas.

The Southern California Megaregion (or megalopolis) is larger still, extending east into Las Vegas, Nevada and south across the Mexican border into Tijuana.[6]

Significance

Venice, California Beach
Sunset in Venice, a district in Los Angeles

Within southern California are two major cities, Los Angeles and San Diego, as well as three of the country's largest metropolitan areas.[7] With a population of 4,042,000, Los Angeles is the most populous city in California and the second most populous in the United States. South of Los Angeles and with a population of 1,307,402 is San Diego, the second most populous city in the state and the eighth most populous in the nation.

Three Arch Bay Photo Taken by pilot D Ramey Logan
Three Arch Bay in Laguna

The counties of Los Angeles, Orange, San Diego, San Bernardino, and Riverside are the five most populous in the state, and are in the top 15 most populous counties in the United States.[8]

The motion picture, television, and music industry are centered in the Los Angeles area in southern California. Hollywood, a district of Los Angeles, gives its name to the American motion picture industry, which is synonymous with the neighborhood name. Headquartered in southern California are The Walt Disney Company (which owns ABC), Sony Pictures, Universal Pictures, MGM, Paramount Pictures, 20th Century Fox, and Warner Bros. Universal, Warner Bros., and Sony also run major record companies.

Southern California is also home to a large homegrown surf and skateboard culture. Companies such as Vans, Volcom, Quiksilver, No Fear, RVCA, and Body Glove are all headquartered here. Skateboarder Tony Hawk; surfers Rob Machado, Tim Curran, Bobby Martinez, Pat O'Connell, Dane Reynolds, and Chris Ward live in southern California. Some of the most famous surf locations are in southern California as well, including Trestles, Rincon, The Wedge, Huntington Beach, and Malibu. Some of the world's largest action sports events, including the X Games,[9] Boost Mobile Pro,[10] and the U.S. Open of Surfing, are held in southern California. The region is also important to the world of yachting with premier events including the annual Transpacific Yacht Race, or Transpac, from Los Angeles to Hawaii. The San Diego Yacht Club held the America's Cup, the most prestigious prize in yachting, from 1988 to 1995 and hosted three America's Cup races during that time. The first modern era triathlon was held in Mission Bay, San Diego, California in 1974. Since then, southern California, and San Diego in particular have become a mecca for triathlon and multi-sport racing, products and culture.

Southern California is home to many sports franchises and sports networks such as Fox Sports Net.

Many locals and tourists frequent the southern California coast for its beaches. The inland desert city of Palm Springs is also popular.

Northern boundary of southern California

Southern California
California counties below the 36th standard parallel

Southern California is not a formal geographic designation and definitions of what constitutes southern California vary. Geographically, California's North-South midway point lies at exactly 37° 9' 58.23" latitude, around 11 miles (18 km) south of San Jose; however, this does not coincide with the popular use of the term. When the state is divided into two areas (northern and southern California), the term southern California usually refers to the 10 southernmost counties of the state. This definition coincides neatly with the county lines at 35° 47′ 28″ North latitude, which form the northern borders of San Luis Obispo, Kern, and San Bernardino counties. Another definition for southern California uses Point Conception and the Tehachapi Mountains as the northern boundary.

Wpdms shdrlfi020l tehachapi mountains
Topography of the border region

Though there is no official definition for the northern boundary of southern California, such a division has existed from the time when Mexico ruled California and political disputes raged between the Californios of Monterey in the upper part and Los Angeles in the lower part of Alta California. Following the acquisition of California by the United States, the division continued as part of the attempt by several pro-slavery politicians to arrange the division of Alta California at 36 degrees, 30 minutes, the line of the Missouri Compromise. Instead, the passing of the Compromise of 1850 enabled California to be admitted to the Union as a free state, preventing southern California from becoming its own separate slave state.

Subsequently, Californians (dissatisfied with inequitable taxes and land laws) and pro-slavery Southerners in the lightly populated "cow counties" of southern California attempted three times in the 1850s to achieve a separate statehood or territorial status separate from Northern California. The last attempt, the Pico Act of 1859, was passed by the California State Legislature and signed by State Governor John B. Weller. It was approved overwhelmingly by nearly 75 percent of voters in the proposed Territory of Colorado. This territory was to include all the counties up to the then much larger Tulare County (that included what is now Kings, most of Kern, and part of Inyo counties) and San Luis Obispo County. The proposal was sent to Washington, D.C. with a strong advocate in Senator Milton Latham. However, the secession crisis following the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860 and the subsequent American Civil War led to the proposal never coming to a vote.[11][12]

In 1900, the Los Angeles Times defined southern California as including "the seven counties of Los Angeles, San Bernardino, Orange, Riverside, San Diego, Ventura and Santa Barbara." In 1999, the Times added a newer county, Imperial, to that list.[13]

Cal3 map
Map of the three Californias on the Cal 3 ballot proposal
  Northern California
  California
  Southern California

Southern California was the name of a proposed new state on the 2018 California ballot created by splitting the existing state into three parts.[14] The hypothetical state would exclude the coastal counties north of Orange County but include inland counties as far north as Inyo County.

The state is most commonly divided and promoted by its regional tourism groups, consisting of northern, central, and southern California regions. The two American Automobile Association (AAA) Auto Clubs of the state, the California State Automobile Association, and the Automobile Club of Southern California, choose to simplify matters by dividing the state along the lines where their jurisdictions for membership apply, as either northern or southern California, in contrast to the three-region point of view. Another influence is the geographical phrase South of the Tehachapis, which would split the southern region off at the crest of that transverse range, but in that definition, the desert portions of north Los Angeles County and eastern Kern and San Bernardino Counties would be included in the southern California region due to their remoteness from the central valley and interior desert landscape.

Population, land area & population density (07-01-2008 est.)
County
Ref.
Population Land
mi²
Land
km²
Pop.
/mi²
Pop.
/km²
Los Angeles County[15] 9,862,049 4,060.87 10,517.61 2,428.56 937.67
San Diego County[16] 3,095,313 4,199.89 10,877.67 714.56 275.89
Orange County[17] 3,010,759 789.40 2,044.54 3,813.98 1,472.59
Riverside County[18] 2,100,516 7,207.37 18,667.00 291.44 112.53
San Bernardino County[19] 2,015,355 20,052.50 51,935.74 100.50 38.80
Kern County[20] 800,458 8,140.96 21,084.99 98.32 37.96
Ventura County[21] 797,740 1,845.30 4,779.31 432.31 166.92
Santa Barbara County[22] 405,396 2,737.01 7,088.82 148.12 57.19
San Luis Obispo County[23] 265,297 3,304.32 8,558.15 80.29 31.00
Imperial County[24] 163,972 4,174.73 10,812.50 39.28 15.17
Southern California 22,422,614 56,512.35 146,366.31 396.77 153.19
California 36,756,666 155,959.34 403,932.84 235.68 91.00

Urban landscape

Distribution of high income households across LA County
Percent of households with incomes above $150k across LA County census tracts.

Southern California consists of a heavily developed urban environment, home to some of the largest urban areas in the state, along with vast areas that have been left undeveloped. It is the third most populated megalopolis in the United States, after the Great Lakes Megalopolis and the Northeastern Megalopolis. Much of southern California is famous for its large, spread-out, suburban communities and use of automobiles and highways. The dominant areas are Los Angeles, Orange County, San Diego, and Riverside-San Bernardino, each of which are the centers of their respective metropolitan areas, composed of numerous smaller cities and communities. The urban area is also host to an international metropolitan region in the form of San Diego–Tijuana, created by the urban area spilling over into Baja California.

Traveling south on Interstate 5, the main gap to continued urbanization is Camp Pendleton. The cities and communities along Interstate 15 and Interstate 215 are so interrelated that Temecula and Murrieta have as much connection with the San Diego metropolitan area as they do with the Inland Empire. To the east, the United States Census Bureau considers the San Bernardino and Riverside County areas, Riverside-San Bernardino area as a separate metropolitan area from Los Angeles County. Newly developed exurbs formed in the Antelope Valley, north of Los Angeles, the Victor Valley, and the Coachella Valley with the Imperial Valley. Also, population growth was high in the Bakersfield-Kern County, Santa Maria and San Luis Obispo areas.

The Downtown Los Angeles skyline seen at sunset on an October day. At 1,018 feet (310 m), 73 floors, the U.S. Bank Tower was the West Coast's tallest building when it was built in 1989.
The Downtown Los Angeles skyline seen at sunset on an October day. At 1,018 feet (310 m), 73 floors, the U.S. Bank Tower was the West Coast's tallest building when it was built in 1989.

Climate

Southern California Köppen
Köppen climate types of southern California

The climate is Mediterranean-Like, with Warm/dry Summers, Mild/wet Winters, where cool weather and freezing temperatures are rare. Southern California contains several different types of climate, including Mediterranean, semi-arid, desert and mountain, with infrequent rain and many sunny days. Summers are hot or warm, and dry, while winters are mild, and rainfall is low to moderate depending on the area. Although heavy rain can occur, it is unusual. This climatic pattern was alluded to in the hit song "It Never Rains (In Southern California)". While snow is very rare in the southwest region of the state, it occurs occasionally in the southeast region of the state.

Natural landscape

San Gabriel Mountains (2972839468)
Autumn of 2008 in southern California.

Southern California consists of one of the more varied collections of geologic, topographic, and natural ecosystem landscapes in a diversity outnumbering other major regions in the state and country. The region spans from Pacific Ocean islands, shorelines, beaches, and coastal plains, through the Transverse and Peninsular Ranges with their peaks, and into the large and small interior valleys, to the vast deserts of California.

Introductory categories include:
  • Category: Beaches of southern California
  • Category: Mountain ranges of Southern California
  • Category: Rivers of Southern California
  • Category: Deserts of California
  • Category: Parks in Southern California

Geography

Channelislandsca
Satellite view of southern California, including the Channel Islands

Southern California is divided into:

  • The Coastal Region, which is densely populated and includes the coastal interior valleys west of the coastal mountains with all of Orange County and portions of San Diego, Los Angeles, Ventura, Santa Barbara, and San Luis Obispo counties
    • A related florist province term is the Cismontane Region on the coastal side of the Transverse and Peninsular mountain ranges, with the term "southern California" popularly referring to this more populated and visited zone
  • The Desert Region, which is larger and sparsely populated with portions of Kern, Los Angeles, San Bernardino, Riverside, Imperial, and San Diego counties. The division between the Coastal Region and the Inland Empire/Imperial Valley winds along the backs of coastal mountain ranges such as the Santa Ana Mountains.
    • A related floristic province term is the Transmontane Region on the rain shadow side of the same mountain ranges, with the term southern California including this zone geographically and when distinguishing all the 'southland' from northern California

Geographic features

LaJolla California
View from La Jolla Cove in San Diego.
Telegraph Cucamonga and Ontario Peaks
Peaks in the eastern San Gabriel Mountains, Angeles National Forest, San Bernardino County.
Yucca Valley California 2017
Yucca Valley with Visitor Center in Background in June 2017.
Sunset pier
Ocean Beach Sunset in San Diego.

Geology

Earthquakes

Shake Map Northridge 1994
Northridge earthquake shake map

Each year, southern California has about 10,000 earthquakes. Nearly all of them are so small that they are not felt. Only several hundred have been greater than magnitude 3.0, and only about 15–20 have been greater than magnitude 4.0.[25] The magnitude 6.7 1994 Northridge earthquake was particularly destructive, causing a substantial number of deaths, injuries, and structural collapses as well as the most property damage of any earthquake in U.S. history at an estimated $20 billion.[26]

Many faults are able to produce a magnitude greater than 6.7 earthquake, such as the San Andreas Fault, which can produce a magnitude 8.0 event. Other faults include the San Jacinto Fault, the Puente Hills Fault, and the Elsinore Fault Zone. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has released a California earthquake forecast,[27] which models earthquake occurrence in California.

Regions

Divisions

Southern California is divided culturally, politically, and economically into distinct regions, each containing its own culture and atmosphere, anchored usually by a city with both national and sometimes global recognition, which is often the hub of economic activity for its respective region and being home to many tourist destinations. Each region is further divided into many culturally distinct areas but as a whole, combine to create the southern California atmosphere.

*Part of multiple regions

Population

As of the 2010 United States Census, southern California has a population of 22,680,010. Despite a reputation for high growth rates, southern California's rate grew less than the state average of 10.0 percent in the 2000s. This was due to California's growth becoming concentrated in the northern part of the state as result of a stronger, tech-oriented economy in the Bay Area and an emerging Greater Sacramento region.

Southern California consists of one Combined Statistical Area, eight Metropolitan Statistical Areas, one international metropolitan area, and multiple metropolitan divisions. The region is home to two extended metropolitan areas that exceed five million in population. These are the Greater Los Angeles Area at 17,786,419, and San Diego–Tijuana at 5,105,768.[28][29] Of these metropolitan areas, the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana metropolitan area, Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario metropolitan area, and Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura metropolitan area form Greater Los Angeles;[30] while the El Centro metropolitan area and San Diego-Carlsbad-San Marcos metropolitan area form the Southern Border Region.[31][32] North of Greater Los Angeles are the Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, and Bakersfield metropolitan areas.

Cities

Los Angeles (with a 2017 census-estimated population of 4.0 million people) and San Diego (at 1.4 million people) are the two largest cities in all of California and are in the top eight largest cities in the United States. In southern California, there are also 12 cities with more than 200,000 residents and 34 cities over 100,000 residents. Many of southern California's most developed cities lie along or in close proximity to the coast, with the exception of San Bernardino and Riverside.

Counties

Economy

Industries

Southern California has a diverse economy and is one of the largest economies in the United States. It is dominated and heavily dependent upon the abundance of petroleum, as opposed to other regions where automobiles are not nearly as dominant, due to the vast majority of transport that runs on this fuel. Southern California is famous for tourism and the entertainment industry. Other industries include software, automotive, ports, finance, biomedical, and regional logistics. The region was a leader in the housing bubble from 2001 to 2007 and has been heavily impacted by the housing crash.

Since the 1920s, motion pictures, petroleum, and aircraft manufacturing have been major industries. In one of the richest agricultural regions in the U.S., cattle and citrus were major industries until farmlands were turned into suburbs. Although military spending cutbacks have had an impact, aerospace continues to be a major factor.[33]

Major central business districts

Taco Bell Headquarters Irvine
Irvine Taco Bell Headquarters

Southern California is home to many major business districts. Central business districts (CBD) include Downtown Los Angeles, Downtown San Diego, Downtown San Bernardino and South Coast Metro. Within the Los Angeles Area are the major business districts of Downtown Pasadena, Downtown Burbank, Downtown Santa Monica, Downtown Glendale and Downtown Long Beach. Los Angeles itself has many business districts, such as Downtown Los Angeles and those lining the Wilshire Boulevard Miracle Mile, including Century City, Westwood, and Warner Center in the San Fernando Valley. The area of Santa Monica and Venice (and perhaps some of Culver City) is informally referred to as "Silicon Beach" because of the concentration of financial and marketing technology-centric firms located in the region.

The San Bernardino-Riverside area maintains the business districts of Downtown San Bernardino, Hospitality Business/Financial Centre, University Town which are in San Bernardino and Downtown Riverside.

Orange County is a rapidly developing business center that includes Downtown Santa Ana, the South Coast Metro, and Newport Center districts, as well as the Irvine business centers of The Irvine Spectrum, West Irvine, and international corporations headquartered at the University of California, Irvine. West Irvine includes the Irvine Tech Center and Jamboree Business Parks.

Downtown San Diego is the CBD of San Diego, though the city is filled with business districts. These include Carmel Valley, Del Mar Heights, Mission Valley, Rancho Bernardo, Sorrento Mesa, and University City. Most of these districts are located in Northern San Diego and some within North County regions.

Theme parks and waterparks

Los Angeles

Orange County

Riverside & San Bernardino

San Diego

Vinyard-Winery American Viticultural Area (AVA) districts

California wine AVA-American Viticultural Areas in southern California:

Transportation

See: Category: Transportation in Southern California

Southern California is home to Los Angeles International Airport, the second-busiest airport in the United States by passenger volume (see World's busiest airports by passenger traffic) and the third-busiest by international passenger volume (see Busiest airports in the United States by international passenger traffic); San Diego International Airport, the busiest single-runway airport in the world; Van Nuys Airport, the world's busiest general aviation airport; major commercial airports at Orange County, Bakersfield, Ontario, Burbank and Long Beach; and numerous smaller commercial and general aviation airports.

Six of the seven lines of the commuter rail system, Metrolink, run out of Downtown Los Angeles, connecting Los Angeles, Ventura, San Bernardino, Riverside, Orange, and San Diego counties with the other line connecting San Bernardino, Riverside, and Orange counties directly.

Southern California is also home to the Port of Los Angeles, the country's busiest commercial port; the adjacent Port of Long Beach, the country's second busiest container port; and the Port of San Diego.

Airports

The following table shows all airports listed by the Federal Aviation Association (FAA) as a hub airport:[34]

Airport ID City
(Metro area)
Category Enplanements
(2011) (mil)
Los Angeles International Airport LAX Los Angeles Large Hub 30.5m
San Diego International Airport SAN San Diego Large Hub 8.5m
John Wayne Airport SNA Orange County Medium Hub 4.2m
Ontario International Airport ONT San Bernardino, Riverside Medium hub 2.3m
Hollywood Burbank Airport BUR Burbank (LA) Medium Hub 2.1m
Long Beach Airport LGB Long Beach (LA) Small Hub 1.5m
Palm Springs International Airport PSP Palm Springs Small Hub 0.8m
Santa Barbara Municipal Airport SBA Santa Barbara Small Hub 0.4m
Lax sign
Sign at the Century Blvd. entrance to Los Angeles International Airport greets visitors
I-10m 215 Interchange traffic, San Bernardino, CA
I-10, 215 Interchange traffic, downtown San Bernardino.

Freeways and highways

Sections of the southern California freeway system are often referred to by names rather than by the official numbers.

Interstate Highways
Sign Interstate Freeway name
I-5 (CA).svg Interstate 5 Golden State Freeway
Santa Ana Freeway
San Diego Freeway
Montgomery Freeway
I-8 (CA).svg Interstate 8 Ocean Beach Freeway
Mission Valley Freeway
I-10 (CA).svg Interstate 10 Santa Monica (Rosa Parks) Freeway
Golden State Freeway
San Bernardino Freeway
Indio (Dr. June McCarroll) Freeway
Blythe Freeway
I-15 (CA).svg Interstate 15 Mojave Freeway
Barstow Freeway
Ontario Freeway
Corona Freeway
Temecula Valley Freeway
Escondido Freeway
I-105 (CA).svg Interstate 105 Century (Glenn Anderson) Freeway
I-110 (CA).svg Interstate 110 Harbor Freeway
I-210 (CA).svg Interstate 210 Foothill Freeway
I-215 (CA).svg Interstate 215 Barstow Freeway
San Bernardino Freeway
Moreno Valley Freeway
Escondido Freeway
I-405 (CA).svg Interstate 405 San Diego Freeway
I-605 (CA).svg Interstate 605 San Gabriel River Freeway
I-710 (CA).svg Interstate 710 Long Beach Freeway
I-805 (CA).svg Interstate 805 Jacob Dekema Freeway
I-905 (CA).svg Future Interstate 905
U.S. Highway system
Sign U.S. Route Freeway name
US 95 (1961 cutout).svg U.S. Route 95
US 101 (1961 cutout).svg U.S. Route 101 Ventura Freeway
Hollywood Freeway
Santa Ana Freeway
El Camino Real
US 395 (1961 cutout).svg U.S. Route 395

Public transportation

Union Station LA 2015 06
Union Station is southern California's busiest rail station.
See: Category: Public transportation in Southern California

Communication

Los Angeles area codes
Map of some major area codes in Greater Los Angeles

Telephone area codes

Colleges and universities

The Tech Coast is a moniker that has gained use as a descriptor for the region's diversified technology and industrial base as well as its multitude of prestigious and world-renowned research universities and other public and private institutions. Amongst these include five University of California campuses (Irvine, Los Angeles, Riverside, Santa Barbara, and San Diego), 12 California State University campuses (Bakersfield, Channel Islands, Dominguez Hills, Fullerton, Los Angeles, Long Beach, Northridge, Pomona, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Marcos, and San Luis Obispo); and private institutions such as the California Institute of Technology, Azusa Pacific University, Chapman University, the Claremont Colleges (Claremont McKenna College, Harvey Mudd College, Pitzer College, Pomona College, and Scripps College), Loma Linda University, Loyola Marymount University, Occidental College, Pepperdine University, University of Redlands, University of San Diego, and the University of Southern California.

Medical Facilities

Maximum cities of the region have world class medical facilities such as Imperial, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Santa Barbara, and Ventura.

Parks and recreation areas

Numerous parks provide recreation opportunities and open space. Locations include:

Sports

Major professional sports teams in southern California include:

Southern California also is home to a number of popular NCAA sports programs such as the UCLA Bruins, the USC Trojans, and the San Diego State Aztecs. The Bruins and the Trojans both field football teams in NCAA Division I in the Pac-12 Conference, and there is a longtime rivalry between the schools.

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.counties.org/pod/square-mileage-county
  2. ^ http://www.dof.ca.gov/Forecasting/Demographics/Estimates/E-1/documents/E-1_2018_InternetVersion.xls
  3. ^ a b "Figures Show California's Motoring Supremacy". Touring Topics. Los Angeles, California: Automobile Club of Southern California. 8 (2): 38–9. March 1916.
  4. ^ Cooley, Timothy J. (2014). Surfing about Music. University of California Press. p. 46. ISBN 9780520957213.
  5. ^ [1970 Census of Population and Housing: Final Report. General demographic trends for metropolitan areas, California, p. 7]
  6. ^ "Megaregions". Retrieved October 1, 2014.
  7. ^ The three metropolitan areas are:
    1. Los Angeles–Long Beach–Santa Ana (the second largest in the US),
    2. Riverside–San Bernardino–Ontario (the Inland Empire) and
    3. San Diego–Carlsbad–San Marcos – see: United States metropolitan areas
  8. ^ "California County Population Estimates" (PDF). California Department of Finance. January 7, 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 29, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2016.
  9. ^ Yoon, Peter (August 7, 2006). "X Games Take a Turn for the Better". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 23, 2010.
  10. ^ Higgins, Matt (September 13, 2006). "Construction Stirs Debate on Effects on 'Perfect Wave'". The New York Times. Retrieved September 13, 2008.
  11. ^ DiLeo, Michael; Smith, Eleanor (1983). Two Californias: The Myths And Realities Of A State Divided Against Itself. Covelo, California: Island Press. p. 30. ISBN 9780933280168. Retrieved October 17, 2016.
  12. ^ California, Historical Society of Southern; California, Los Angeles County Pioneers of Southern (1901). The Quarterly. Retrieved October 17, 2016.
  13. ^ Bernstein, Leilah (December 31, 1999). "L.A. Then AND NOW". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on February 27, 2017. Retrieved February 27, 2017.
  14. ^ Myers, John. "Radical plan to split California into three states earns spot on November ballot". latimes.com. Retrieved June 14, 2018.
  15. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), Los Angeles County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009
  16. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), San Diego County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009
  17. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), Orange County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009
  18. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), Riverside County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009
  19. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), San Bernardino County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009
  20. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), Kern County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009
  21. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), Ventura County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009
  22. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), Santa Barbara County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009
  23. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), San Luis Obispo County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009
  24. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), Imperial County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009
  25. ^ "USGS facts". data from southern California Earthquake Center. Archived from the original on February 26, 2009. Retrieved March 18, 2009.
  26. ^ "Northridge Earthquake". 2005. Archived from the original on July 12, 2006. Retrieved December 11, 2013.
  27. ^ "UCERF3: A New Earthquake Forecast for California's Complex Fault System" (PDF). USGS. March 3, 2015. Retrieved October 17, 2016.
  28. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Population of Combined Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009". 2009 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. March 23, 2010. Archived from the original (CSV) on March 27, 2010. Retrieved March 29, 2010.
  29. ^ "World Gazetteer; San Diego-Tijuana". World Gazetteer. Archived from the original on October 1, 2007. Retrieved March 20, 2011.
  30. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 17, 2011. Retrieved December 7, 2017.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  31. ^ "California Coast, Los Angeles to San Diego Bay".
  32. ^ Loucky, James, ed. (2008). Transboundary policy challenges in the Pacific border regions of North America. University of Calgary Press. p. 8. ISBN 1-55238-223-0. Retrieved February 19, 2011.
  33. ^ Peter J. Westwick, ed. Blue Sky Metropolis: The Aerospace Century in Southern California Huntington Library/University of California Press
  34. ^ "Calendar Year 2011 Primary Airports" (PDF). September 27, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2016.

Further reading

  • Castillo-Munoz, Veronica. The Other California: Land, Identity, and Politics on the Mexican Borderlands (University of California Press, 2016), 171 pp. $70.00.)
  • Deverell, William, and David Igler, eds. A companion to California history (John Wiley & Sons, 2013).
  • Fogelson, Robert M. The Fragmented Metropolis: Los Angeles, 1850–1930 (1967), focus on planning, infrastructure, water, and business
  • Friedricks, William. Henry E. Huntington and the Creation of Southern California (1992), on Henry Edwards Huntington (1850–1927), railroad executive and collector, who helped build LA and southern California through the Southern Pacific railroad and also trolleys.
  • Garcia, Matt. A World of Its Own: Race, Labor, and Citrus in the Making of Greater Los Angeles, 1900–1970. (2001). 330 pp.
  • Garcia, Mario T. "A Chicano Perspective on San Diego History," Journal of San Diego History (1972) 18#4 pp 14–21 online
  • Lotchin, Roger. Fortress California, 1910–1961 (2002) excerpt and text search, covers military and industrial roles
  • Mills, James R. San Diego: Where California Began (San Diego: San Diego Historical Society, 1960), revised edition online
  • O'Flaherty, Joseph S. An End and a Beginning: The South Coast and Los Angeles, 1850–1887. (1972). 222 pp.
  • O'Flaherty, Joseph S. Those Powerful Years: The South Coast and Los Angeles, 1887–1917 (1978). 356 pp.
  • Pryde, Philip R. San Diego: An Introduction to the Region (4th ed. 2004), a historical geography
  • Shragge, Abraham. "'A new federal city': San Diego during World War II," Pacific Historical Review (1994) 63#3 pp 333–61 in JSTOR
  • Starr, Kevin. The Dream Endures: California Enters the 1940s (1997) pp 90–114, covers 1880s–1940
  • Starr, Kevin. Golden Dreams: California in an Age of Abundance, 1950–1963 (2011) pp 57–87
  • Starr, Kevin. Coast of Dreams: California on the Edge, 1990–2003 (2004) 372-81

External links

Coordinates: 34°00′N 117°00′W / 34.000°N 117.000°W

College World Series

The College World Series (CWS) is an annual June baseball tournament held in Omaha, Nebraska. The CWS is the culmination of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I Baseball Championship tournament—featuring 64 teams in the first round—which determines the NCAA Division I college baseball champion. The eight participating teams are split into two, four-team, double-elimination brackets, with the winners of each bracket playing in a best-of-three championship series.

Gateway Cities

The Gateway Cities Region, or Southeast Los Angeles County (also shortened to Southeast Los Angeles and Southeast LA) is a largely urbanized region located in southeastern Los Angeles County, Southern California between the City of Los Angeles, Orange County, and the Pacific Ocean. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), and has a population of approximately two million.Despite its predominating urban fabric of single-family homes with low-scale multifamily residential structures, Southeast LA County comprises some of the most densely populated municipalities in the United States.The "Gateway Cities Council of Governments" (GCCOG) is located in the city of Paramount.

Jerry Buss

Gerald Hatten Buss (January 27, 1933 – February 18, 2013) was an American businessman, investor, chemist, and philanthropist. He was the majority owner of the Los Angeles Lakers professional basketball team in the National Basketball Association (NBA), winning 10 league championships that were highlighted by the team's Showtime era during the 1980s. He is a member of the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame as a contributor. Buss owned other professional sports franchises in Southern California.

KNBC

KNBC, channel 4, is an NBC owned-and-operated television station in Los Angeles, California, United States. The station is owned by the NBC Owned Television Stations subsidiary of the NBCUniversal division of Comcast, as part of a duopoly with Corona-licensed Telemundo owned-and-operated station KVEA (channel 52). The two stations share studios and offices on Lankershim Boulevard in northern Universal City; KNBC's transmitter is located on Mount Wilson.

In the few areas of the western United States where an NBC station is not receivable over-the-air, KNBC is available on satellite television through DirecTV.

Kit fox

The kit fox (Vulpes macrotis) is a fox species of North America. Its range is primarily in the Southwestern United States and northern and central Mexico. Some mammalogists classify it as conspecific with the swift fox, V. velox, but molecular systematics imply that the two species are distinct.

LA84 Foundation

The LA84 Foundation (known until June 2007 as the Amateur Athletic Foundation of Los Angeles) is a private, nonprofit institution created by the Los Angeles Olympic Organizing Committee to manage Southern California's endowment from the 1984 Olympic Games. Under an agreement made in 1979, 40 percent of any surplus was to stay in Southern California, with the other 60 percent going to the United States Olympic Committee. The total surplus was $232.5 million. Southern California's share was approximately $93 million.

The LA84 Foundation's mission is to promote and expand youth sports opportunities in Southern California and to increase knowledge of sport and its impact on people's lives. Since inception, the Foundation has invested more than $225 million in Southern California by awarding grants to youth sports organizations, initiating sports and coaching education programs, and operating the world's premier sports library.Grants are awarded to organizations that provide on-going, structured youth sports programs combining the essential elements of teaching, learning and competition. The Foundation makes grants in the eight southernmost counties of California (Imperial, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Santa Barbara and Ventura). Youth organizations in the Los Angeles area receive priority. The LA84 Foundation has made grants to more than 1,100 Southern California organizations since 1985.

The LA84 Foundation has initiated programs to meet the youth sports needs of Southern California and to create models that can be applied elsewhere. These include the LA84 Foundation Coaching Education Program as well as large-scale sports programs such as Summer Swim and Run 4 Fun, which serve nearly 20,000 children and teenagers each year.

The Foundation's headquarters is the historic Eugene W. Britt House, a Registered Historic Place located at 2141 West Adams Boulevard in Los Angeles' Jefferson Park neighborhood. It was formerly a sports museum that featured the Helms Athletic Foundation's collection of sports books, film, photographs and memorabilia. First Interstate Bank and the Peter and Ginny Ueberroth Foundation donated the Helms Collection, house and grounds to the LA84 Foundation in the summer of 1985.

The Paul Ziffren Sports Resource Center houses the world's premier sports library. The library maintains an extensive collection of books, periodicals, photograph and moving footage, with a special emphasis on the Olympic Games. The traditional library has been supplemented by the development of an extensive electronic collection of 100,000 PDFs including scholarly publications, popular magazine and primary historical documents available at no cost on the LA84 Foundation website.

The LA84 Foundation also hosts conferences and sponsors research on a variety of sport topics. The LA84 Foundations practical knowledge, acquired through years of direct involvement in youth sports, combined with its wide range of education services enables the Foundation to serve as a leading forum for the exchange of ideas and exploration of issues in sport.

In June 2007, the Foundation adopted the name LA84 Foundation to establish a unique identity and honor the spirit of the 1984 Olympic Games, which created the Foundation's endowment.

The swimming stadium used for the 1932 Olympic Games has been renamed the LA84 Foundation/John C. Argue Swim Stadium. Argue was instrumental in bringing the 1984 Olympic Games to Los Angeles. He later served as chair of the LA84 Foundation.

Metrolink (California)

Metrolink (reporting mark SCAX) is a commuter rail system in Southern California consisting of seven lines and 62 stations operating on 534 miles (859 km) of rail network.The system operates in Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, and Ventura counties, as well as to Oceanside in San Diego County. It connects with the Los Angeles County Metro Rail and Metro Busway system, the San Diego Coaster commuter rail and Sprinter light rail services, and with Amtrak's Pacific Surfliner, Coast Starlight, Southwest Chief, and Sunset Limited intercity rail services.The system, founded in 1991 as the Southern California Regional Rail Authority (SCRRA) and adopting "Metrolink" as its moniker, started operation in 1992. Average weekday ridership was 39,838 as of 2017.

Peninsular Ranges

The Peninsular Ranges (also called the Lower California province) are a group of mountain ranges that stretch 1,500 km (930 mi) from Southern California to the southern tip of the Baja California Peninsula; they are part of the North American Coast Ranges, which run along the Pacific Coast from Alaska to Mexico. Elevations range from 500 to 10,834 feet (152 to 3,302 m).

Regina King

Regina Rene King (born January 15, 1971) is an American actress and television director. She is the recipient of various accolades including an Academy Award, a Golden Globe Award, and three Primetime Emmy Awards. Time magazine named King one of the 100 most influential people in the world in 2019.King first gained attention in 1985 as Brenda Jenkins in the NBC television series 227. She would go on to star in both television and film, rising to greater prominence with roles like Dana Jones in Friday (1995), Marcee Tidwell in Jerry Maguire (1996), Riley and Huey Freeman on the hit animated series The Boondocks, and Detective Lydia Adams on Southland. For Southland, she earned two Critics' Choice Award nominations for Best Supporting Actress in a Drama Series in 2012 and 2013. In 2018, her performance as Sharon Rivers in the film If Beale Street Could Talk earned her the Academy Award and Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress.

From 2015 to 2017, King starred in the ABC anthology series American Crime, for which she received three Primetime Emmy Award nominations, winning twice, and was also nominated for a Golden Globe Award. Also from 2015 to 2017, she played Erika Murphy in the HBO drama The Leftovers, for which she received a Critics' Choice Television Award nomination. In 2018, she starred in the Netflix miniseries Seven Seconds, for which she won her third Emmy Award. King has a recurring role as Janine Davis in the CBS sitcom The Big Bang Theory, and has starred in various films, including Ray, Poetic Justice, Friday, and Legally Blonde 2.

San Andreas Fault

The San Andreas Fault is a continental transform fault that extends roughly 1,200 kilometers (750 mi) through California. It forms the tectonic boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate, and its motion is right-lateral strike-slip (horizontal). The fault divides into three segments, each with different characteristics and a different degree of earthquake risk. The slip rate along the fault ranges from 20 to 35 mm (0.79 to 1.38 in)/yr.The fault was identified in 1895 by Professor Andrew Lawson of UC Berkeley, who discovered the northern zone. It is often described as having been named after San Andreas Lake, a small body of water that was formed in a valley between the two plates. However, according to some of his reports from 1895 and 1908, Lawson actually named it after the surrounding San Andreas Valley. Following the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, Lawson concluded that the fault extended all the way into southern California.

In 1953, geologist Thomas Dibblee concluded that hundreds of miles of lateral movement could occur along the fault. A project called the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) near Parkfield, Monterey County, was drilled through the fault during 2004 – 2007 to collect material and make physical and chemical observations to better understand fault behavior.

San Miguel Mountain

San Miguel Mountain is a mountain located in Chula Vista, California. It is 2,567' high, and is the 84th highest peak in San Diego County.Because San Miguel is "the highest point close in to the San Diego metro area" it has been home to radio and TV transmitters since the 1960s.

Southern California Edison

Southern California Edison (or SCE Corp), the largest subsidiary of Edison International, is the primary electricity supply company for much of Southern California. It provides 14 million people with electricity across a service territory of approximately 50,000 square miles. However, the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, San Diego Gas & Electric, Imperial Irrigation District, and some smaller municipal utilities serve substantial portions of the southern California territory. The northern part of the state is generally served by the Pacific Gas & Electric Company of San Francisco.

Southern California Edison (SCE) still owns all of its electrical transmission facilities and equipment, but the deregulation of California's electricity market in the late 1990s forced the company to sell many of its power plants, though some were probably sold by choice. In California, SCE retained only its hydroelectric plants, totaling about 1,200 MW, and its 75% share of the 2,150-MW San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, which has been shut down since January 2012; in June 2013 the company announced its intention to permanently close and decommission the nuclear plant. Also, SCE still owns about half of the 1,580-MW coal-fired Mohave Generating Station in Laughlin, Nevada, which supplied electricity to California, Nevada, and Arizona; Mohave closed in December 2005, amid concerns regarding water rights and coal supplies. The utility lost all of its natural gas-fired plants, which provided most of its electrical generation. The large, aging plants were bought by out-of-state companies such as Mirant and Reliant Energy, which allegedly used them to manipulate the California energy market.Southern California Edison's power grid is linked to PG&E's by the Path 26 wires that generally follow Interstate 5 over Tejon Pass. The interconnection takes place at a massive substation at Buttonwillow. PG&E's and WAPA's Path 15 and Path 66, respectively, from Buttonwillow north eventually connect to BPA's grid in the Pacific Northwest. There are several other interconnections with local and out-of-state utilities, such as Path 46.

In addition, SCE operates a regulated gas and water utility. SCE is the sole commercial provider of natural gas and fresh water service to Santa Catalina Island, including the city of Avalon, California. SCE operates the utilities under the names of Catalina Island Gas Company and Catalina Island Water Company.

Southern California Intercollegiate Athletic Conference

The Southern California Intercollegiate Athletic Conference (SCIAC) is a college athletic conference that operates in the NCAA's Division III. The conference was founded in 1915 and it consists of twelve small private schools that are located in Southern California and organized into nine athletic programs. Claremont-Mudd-Scripps and Pomona-Pitzer are combined teams for sports purposes.

The SCIAC currently sponsors men's baseball, men's and women's basketball, men's and women's cross country, football, men's and women's golf, women's lacrosse, men's and women's soccer, softball, men's and women's swimming and diving, men's and women's tennis, men's and women's track and field, women's volleyball and men's and women's water polo.

USC School of Cinematic Arts

The USC School of Cinematic Arts (commonly referred to as SCA)—formerly the USC School of Cinema-Television, otherwise known as CNTV—is a private media school within the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, California. The school offers multiple undergraduate and graduate programs covering film production, screenwriting, cinema and media studies, animation and digital arts, media arts + practice, and interactive media & games. Additional programs include the Peter Stark Producing Program and the Business of Entertainment (offered in conjunction with the USC Marshall School of Business MBA Program).

It is the oldest, largest, and arguably most reputable such school in the United States, established in 1929 as a joint venture with the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Having been ranked as one of the best film schools in the world on several occasions, SCA has most notably topped THR's ranking for seven consecutive years. As such, admissions into the school are extremely competitive, with an estimated 2–3% acceptance rate.

USC Trojans football

The USC Trojans football program represent University of Southern California in the sport of American football. The Trojans compete in the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and the South Division of the Pac-12 Conference (Pac-12).

Formed in 1888, the program has over 830 wins and claims 11 consensus Division I Football National Championships. USC has had 13 undefeated seasons including 8 perfect seasons, and 39 conference championships. USC has produced 7 Heisman Trophy winners, 81 first-team Consensus All-Americans, including 27 Unanimous selections, and 500 NFL draft picks, most all-time by any university, the Trojans also have had more players drafted in the first round than any other university, with 80 as of the 2017 draft. USC has had 34 members inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame, including former players Matt Leinart, O.J. Simpson, and Ronnie Lott and former coaches John McKay and Howard Jones. The Trojans boast 12 inductees in the Pro Football Hall Of Fame, the 2nd-most of any school, including Junior Seau, Bruce Matthews, Marcus Allen, and Ron Yary.

The Trojans have 52 bowl appearances, 39 of which are among the New Year's Six Bowls. With a record of 34–18, USC has the highest all-time post-season winning percentage of schools with 25 or more bowl appearances.

The Trojans play their home games in the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, located across the exposition Park Rose Garden from USC's University Park, Los Angeles campus. The stadium is also known as "The Grand Old Lady", having been built almost 100 years ago.

Ultimate Pro Wrestling

Ultimate Pro Wrestling (UPW) was a California-based independent pro wrestling company owned and operated by Rick Bassman, that operated from 1999 to 2007.

The company had working relationships with Pro Wrestling Zero1 and World Wrestling Entertainment. It served as a developmental company for WWE, where they would scout wrestlers and send others for training, from 2006 to 2007. Some of the major names to go on to stardom are, John Cena, Samoa Joe, The Miz and Christopher Daniels. The promotion was featured on a Discovery Channel special called Inside Pro Wrestling School.

University of Southern California

The University of Southern California (USC or SC) is a private research university in Los Angeles, California. Founded in 1880, it is the oldest private research university in California. For the 2018–19 academic year, there were 20,000 students enrolled in four-year undergraduate programs. USC also has 27,500 graduate and professional students in a number of different programs, including business, law, engineering, social work, occupational therapy, pharmacy, and medicine. It is the largest private employer in the city of Los Angeles, and generates $8 billion in economic impact on Los Angeles and California.USC was one of the earliest nodes on ARPANET and is the birthplace of the Domain Name System. Other technologies invented at USC include DNA computing, dynamic programming, image compression, VoIP, and antivirus software.USC's alumni include a total of 11 Rhodes Scholars and 12 Marshall Scholars. As of October 2018, nine Nobel laureates, six MacArthur Fellows, and one Turing Award winner have been affiliated with the university.

USC sponsors a variety of intercollegiate sports and competes in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) as a member of the Pac-12 Conference. Members of USC's sports teams, the Trojans, have won 104 NCAA team championships, ranking them third in the United States, and 399 NCAA individual championships, ranking them second in the United States. Trojan athletes have won 288 medals at the Olympic Games (135 golds, 88 silvers and 65 bronzes), more than any other university in the United States. In 1969, it joined the Association of American Universities. USC has had a total of 521 football players drafted to the National Football League, the second-highest number of drafted players in the country.

Van Halen

Van Halen is a Grammy Award-winning American hard rock band formed in Pasadena, California in 1972. Credited with "restoring hard rock to the forefront of the music scene", Van Halen is known for its energetic live shows and for the work of its acclaimed lead guitarist, Eddie Van Halen. The band was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2007.

From 1974 until 1985, Van Halen consisted of Eddie Van Halen; Eddie's brother, drummer Alex Van Halen; vocalist David Lee Roth; and bassist Michael Anthony. Upon its release, the band's self-titled debut album reached No. 19 on the Billboard pop music charts. By the early 1980s, Van Halen was one of the most successful rock acts of the time. The album 1984 was a hit; its lead single, "Jump", is the band's only U.S. number one single to date and was internationally known.

In 1985, Van Halen replaced Roth with former Montrose lead vocalist Sammy Hagar. With Hagar, the group would release four U.S. number-one albums over the course of 11 years (5150 in 1986, OU812 in 1988, For Unlawful Carnal Knowledge in 1991, and Balance in 1995). Hagar left the band in 1996 shortly before the release of the band's first greatest hits collection, Best Of – Volume I. Former Extreme frontman Gary Cherone replaced Hagar, remaining with the band until 1999; Van Halen then went on hiatus until reuniting with Hagar for a worldwide tour in 2003. The following year, the band released The Best of Both Worlds, its second greatest hits collection. Hagar again left Van Halen in 2005; in 2006, Roth returned as lead vocalist. Anthony was fired from the band in 2006 and was replaced on bass guitar by Wolfgang Van Halen, Eddie's son. In 2012, the band released the commercially and critically successful A Different Kind of Truth.

As of March 2019, Van Halen is 20th on the RIAA list of best-selling artists in the United States; the band has sold 56 million albums in the States and more than 80 million worldwide. As of 2007, Van Halen was one of only five rock bands with two studio albums that sold more than 10 million copies in the United States. Additionally, Van Halen has charted 13 number-one hits in the history of Billboard's Mainstream Rock chart. VH1 ranked the band seventh on a list of the top 100 hard rock artists of all time.

Vanguard University

Vanguard University of Southern California is an accredited, private, non-profit Christian university of liberal arts and professional studies in Costa Mesa, California, United States.

Vanguard University was the first-four year college in Orange County and offers over 30 undergraduate degrees and emphases in 15 different departments. Vanguard University also offers adult-learning programs in its professional studies department and features six graduate degrees. It is accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges (WASC).

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