Southeast Europe

Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe (SEE) is a geographical region of Europe, consisting primarily of the coterminous Balkan Peninsula. There are overlapping and conflicting definitions as to where exactly Southeastern Europe begins or ends or how it relates to other regions of the continent. Sovereign states that are most frequently included in the region are, in alphabetical order: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Kosovo,[a] Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, and Slovenia.

These boundaries can vary greatly and are widely disputed, due to political, economic, historical, cultural, and geographical considerations and point of view of the observer.

Adriatic–Ionian motorway
Geographic features of southeast Europe


Balkan Peninsula
The Balkan Peninsula, as defined by the Danube-Sava-Kupa line

The first known use of the term "Southeast Europe" was by Austrian researcher Johann Georg von Hahn (1811–1869) as a broader term than the traditional "Balkans".[1]

Balkans model

This concept is based on the boundaries of the Balkan peninsula. The countries that have been described as being entirely within the region are: Albania, Kosovo,[a] Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Montenegro, and North Macedonia.[2]

Geographical Southeast Europe

Countries that are geographically, at least partially, described to be within the region are as follows:[3]

Notable views

  • The Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe (SPSEE) included Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Kosovo, Moldova, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania and Serbia as member partners.
  • The South-East European Cooperation Process (SEECP) includes Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Kosovo, Moldova, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia and Turkey as member partners.
  • The Southeast European Cooperative Initiative (SECI) includes Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Moldova, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia and Turkey as member partners.
  • The EU-co-funded South East Europe Transnational Cooperation Programme[7] includes the whole territory of Albania, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Hungary, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Moldova, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and parts of Italy and Ukraine as part of the "programme area".[8]
  • Studies of the World Bank treat Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Moldova, North Macedonia, Romania and Serbia as the eight South Eastern European countries (SEE8).[9]
  • A 2006 publication of the World Health Organization (WHO) and Council of Europe Development Bank (CEB) listed Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, North Macedonia, Moldova, Romania and Serbia and Montenegro as 'south-eastern European countries'.[10]
  • The World Bank does not include the EU countries in its reports, and lists only Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia, and Serbia (SEE6).[11]
  • CIA's The World Factbook lists Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia and Turkey (only European part),[12] but not Greece and Moldova,[13] as geographically part of Southeastern Europe.
  • UNHCR's Regional Office in South Eastern Europe[14] currently lists Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, North Macedonia and Montenegro as part of 'South Eastern Europe'.

See also


  1. ^ a b c Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo has been recognized as an independent state by 112 out of 193 United Nations member states. 10 states have recognized Kosovo only to later withdraw their recognition.


  1. ^ Hösch, Nehring, Sundhaussen (Hrsg.), Lexikon zur Geschichte Südosteuropas, S. 663, ISBN 3-8252-8270-8
  2. ^ Istituto Geografico De Agostini, L'Enciclopedia Geografica – Vol.I – Italia, 2004, Ed. De Agostini p.78
  3. ^ a b Jelavich 1983a, p. 1-3.
  4. ^ Armstrong, Werwick. Anderson, James (2007). "Borders in Central Europe: From Conflict to Cooperation". Geopolitics of European Union Enlargement: The Fortress Empire. Routledge. p. 165. ISBN 978-1-134-30132-4.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  5. ^ Andrew Geddes, Charles Lees, Andrew Taylor : "The European Union and South East Europe: The Dynamics of Europeanization and multilevel governance", 2013, Routledge
  6. ^ Klaus Liebscher, Josef Christl, Peter Mooslechner, Doris Ritzberger-Grünwald : "European Economic Integration and South-East Europe: Challenges and Prospects", 2005, Edward Elgar Publishing Limited
  7. ^ "South-East Europe".
  8. ^ "Programme summary", South East Europe (SEE): Operational Programme, South East Europe Transnational Cooperation Programme, 28 November 2013, p. 6
  9. ^ Harry G. Broadman (2004). Building Market Institutions in South Eastern Europe: Comparative Prospects for Investment and Private Sector Development. World Bank Publications. p. xviii. ISBN 978-0-8213-5776-7.
  10. ^ World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe; Council of Europe Development Bank (2006). Health and Economic Development in South-eastern Europe. World Health Organization. pp. 5–. ISBN 978-92-890-2295-8.
  11. ^ "South East Europe Regular Economic Report". World Bank.
  12. ^ See "Albania". CIA., "Bosnia and Herzegovina". CIA., "Bulgaria". CIA., "Croatia". CIA., "Kosovo". CIA., "Macedonia". CIA., "Montenegro". CIA., "Romania". CIA., "Serbia". CIA., "Turkey". CIA.
  13. ^ See "Greece". CIA., "Moldova". CIA.
  14. ^ "Regional Office in South Eastern Europe - Global Focus".


Further reading

External links

1958 FIBA European Champions Cup

The 1958 FIBA European Champions Cup was the inaugural season of the European top-tier level professional basketball club competition FIBA European Champions Cup (now called EuroLeague). It was won by Rīgas ASK, after they won both EuroLeague Finals games against Academic. Previously, they had not played the semifinals, as Real Madrid was not allowed to travel to Soviet Riga by the Francoist authorities. The first game was held on February 22, 1958, in Brussels, Belgium, where Belgian League champion Royal IV, defeated the Luxembourger League champions, Etzella Ettelbruck, by a score of 82–43. The most notable contributors to Riga's first title included center Jānis Krūmiņš and head coach Alexander Gomelsky.


Albanian may refer to:

Pertaining to Albania in Southeast Europe; in particular:

Albanians, an ethnic group native to the Balkans

Albanian language

Albanian culture

Demographics of Albania, includes other ethnic groups within the country

Pertaining to other places:

Albania (disambiguation)

Albany (disambiguation)

St Albans (disambiguation)Albanian cattle

Albanian horseThe Albanian, a 2010 German-Albanian film

Arba'ah Turim

Arba'ah Turim (Hebrew: אַרְבָּעָה טוּרִים), often called simply the Tur, is an important Halakhic code composed by Jacob ben Asher (Cologne, 1270 – Toledo, Spain c. 1340, also referred to as Ba'al Ha-Turim). The four-part structure of the Tur and its division into chapters (simanim) were adopted by the later code Shulchan Aruch. This was the first book to be printed in Southeast Europe and the Near East.

Baden culture

The Baden culture, c. 3600–2800 BC, is a Chalcolithic culture found in Central and Southeast Europe. It is known from Moravia (Czech Republic), Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, northern Serbia, western Romania and eastern Austria. Imports of Baden pottery have also been found in Germany and Switzerland (Arbon-Bleiche III), where it could be dated by dendrochronology.

Balkan Insight

Balkan Insight is a publication of the Balkan Investigative Reporting Network (BIRN), that focuses on news, analysis, commentary and investigative reporting from southeast Europe. It is run by journalists in southeast Europe—the Balkans—including BIRN regional director Gordana Igric, an international award-winner for her reporting on human rights abuses and war crimes.

Balkan Insight reports from Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania and Serbia. Balkan Insight articles have been republished by 95 media outlets in southeast Europe.


The Balkans, also known as the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various definitions and meanings, including geopolitical and historical. The region takes its name from the Balkan Mountains that stretch throughout the whole of Bulgaria from the Serbian-Bulgarian border to the Black Sea coast. The Balkan Peninsula is bordered by the Adriatic Sea on the northwest, the Ionian Sea on the southwest, the Aegean Sea in the south and southeast, and the Black Sea on the east and northeast. The northern border of the peninsula is variously defined. The highest point of the Balkans is Mount Musala, 2,925 metres (9,596 ft), in the Rila mountain range.

The concept of the Balkan peninsula was created by the German geographer August Zeune in 1808, who mistakenly considered the Balkan Mountains the dominant mountain system of Southeast Europe spanning from the Adriatic Sea to the Black Sea. The term of Balkan Peninsula was a synonym for European Turkey in the 19th century, the former provinces of the Ottoman Empire in Southeast Europe. It had a geopolitical rather than a geographical definition, further promoted during the creation of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in the early 20th century. The definition of the Balkan peninsula's natural borders do not coincide with the technical definition of a peninsula and hence modern geographers reject the idea of a Balkan peninsula, while scholars usually discuss the Balkans as a region. The term has acquired a stigmatized and pejorative meaning related to the process of Balkanization, and hence the rather used alternative term for the region is Southeast Europe.


A caravanserai () was a roadside inn where travelers (caravaners) could rest and recover from the day's journey. Caravanserais supported the flow of commerce, information and people across the network of trade routes covering Asia, North Africa and Southeast Europe, most notably the Silk Road.

Caravanserais were a common feature not only along the Silk Road, but also along the Achaemenid Empire's Royal Road, a 2,500-kilometre-long (1,600 mi) ancient highway that stretched from Sardis to Susa according to Herodotus: "Now the true account of the road in question is the following: Royal stations exist along its whole length, and excellent caravanserais; and throughout, it traverses an inhabited tract, and is free from danger." Other significant urban caravanserais were built along the Grand Trunk Road in the Indian subcontinent, especially in the region of Mughal Delhi.

Celtic settlement of Southeast Europe

From their new bases in northern Illyria and Pannonia, the Gallic invasions climaxed in the early 3rd century BC, with the invasion of Greece. The 279 BC invasion of Greece proper was preceded by a series of other military campaigns waged in the southern Balkans and against the kingdom of Macedonia, favoured by the state of confusion ensuing from the disputed succession after Alexander the Great's death. A part of the invasion crossed over to Anatolia and eventually settled in the area that came to be named after them, Galatia.

Dinaric race

The Dinaric race, also known as the Adriatic race, were terms used by certain physical anthropologists in the early to mid-20th century to describe the perceived predominant phenotype of the contemporary ethnic groups of southeast Europe (a sub-type of Caucasoid race).

Early 2012 European cold wave

The early 2012 European cold wave was a deadly cold wave that started on January 27, 2012, and brought snow and freezing temperatures to much of the European continent. There were more than 824 reported deaths in both Europe and North Africa. Particularly low temperatures hit several Eastern and Northern European countries, reaching as low as −42.7 °C (−44.9 °F) in Finland. The heaviest snow was recorded in the Balkan region. The cold weather was a result of an extensive area of very high pressure located in over the north east of the continent in northern Russia, which circulated cold air from the east.

East Thrace

East Thrace or Eastern Thrace (Turkish: Doğu Trakya or simply Trakya; Greek: Ανατολική Θράκη, Anatoliki Thraki; Bulgarian: Източна Тракия, Iztochna Trakiya), also known as Turkish Thrace or European Turkey, is the part of the modern Republic of Turkey that is geographically part of Southeast Europe. It accounts for 3% of Turkey's land area but comprises 14% of Turkey's total population. The rest of the country is located on the Anatolian peninsula, geographically in Western Asia. East Thrace is of historic importance as it is next to a major sea-based trade corridor and constitutes what remains of the once-vast Ottoman Empire region of Rumelia. It is currently also of specific geostrategic importance because the sea corridor, which includes two narrow straits, provides access to the Mediterranean Sea from the Black Sea for the navies of five countries: Russia, Ukraine, Romania, Bulgaria, and Georgia. The region also serves as a future connector of existing Turkish, Bulgarian, and Greek high speed rail networks.

List of companies of Serbia

Serbia is a sovereign state situated at the crossroads between Central and Southeast Europe, covering the southern part of the Pannonian Plain and the central Balkans. Relative to its small territory, it is a diverse country distinguished by a transitional character, situated along cultural, geographic, climatic and other boundaries. Serbia is landlocked and borders Hungary to the north; Romania and Bulgaria to the east; Macedonia to the south; and Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Montenegro to the west; it also claims a border with Albania through the disputed territory of Kosovo. Serbia numbers around 7 million residents, and its capital, Belgrade, ranks among the largest cities in Southeast Europe.

For further information on the types of business entities in this country and their abbreviations, see "Business entities in Serbia".

List of diplomatic missions of Croatia

This is a list of diplomatic missions of Croatia, excluding honorary consulates. Croatia is a European country located at the crossroads of Central Europe, Southeast Europe, and the Mediterranean.

Mesoregion (geography)

A mesoregion is a medium-sized region between the size of a city or district and that of a nation. Examples of conceptual meso-regions in Southeast Europe include Istria, Kosovo, Epirus, etc. An example of the official usage of the term is Mesoregion (Brazil), a grouping of municipalities for statistical purposes.

Milan Živadinović

Milan Živadinović (Serbian Cyrillic: Милан Живадиновић, pronounced [mǐlan ʒiʋadǐːnoʋitɕ]; born 15 December 1944) is a Serbian former football player and coach, most recently as manager of Myanmar. He is the scout for Ghana footballers for Southeast Europe.

Sarajevo Film Festival

The Sarajevo Film Festival (Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian: Sarajevski filmski festival / Сарајевски филмски фестивал) is the premier and largest film festival in Southeast Europe, and is one of the largest film festivals in Europe. It was founded in Sarajevo in 1995 during the siege of Sarajevo in the Bosnian Independence War, and brings international and local celebrities to Sarajevo every year. It is held in August and showcases an extensive variety of feature and short films from around the world. The current director of the festival is Mirsad Purivatra, former CEO of the Bosnian branch of McCann Erickson.

South Slavs

The South Slavs are a subgroup of Slavic peoples who speak the South Slavic languages. They inhabit a contiguous region in the Balkan Peninsula and the eastern Alps, and in the modern era are geographically separated from the body of West Slavic and East Slavic people by the Romanians, Hungarians, and Austrians in between. The South Slavs today include the nations of Bosniaks, Bulgarians, Croats, Macedonians, Montenegrins, Serbs and Slovenes. They are the main population of the Eastern and Southeastern European countries of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia and Slovenia.

In the 20th century, the country of Yugoslavia (lit. "South Slavia") united the regions inhabited by South Slavic nations – with the key exception of Bulgaria – into a single state. The concept of Yugoslavia, a single state for all South Slavic peoples, emerged in the late 17th century and gained prominence through the 19th century Illyrian movement. The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, renamed to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929, was proclaimed on 1 December 1918, following the unification of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs with the kingdoms of Serbia and Montenegro.

Southeast European Cooperative Initiative

The Southeast European Cooperative Initiative (SECI) was launched in December 1996 to help provide regional peace and stability among the countries of southeastern Europe through cooperative activities, and to help the countries integrate into the rest of Europe. The organization, founded by Erhard Busek and Richard Schifter, has provided regional stability, and has found support in international organizations and countries.

In 2009, the SECI created a Regional Cooperation Council (RCC), owned and run by countries mainly in southeast Europe, aimed at strengthening peace, democracy and the economy.

The SECI headquarters are located within the Hofburg Palace in Vienna.


Thrace (; Greek: Θράκη, Thráki; Bulgarian: Тракия, Trakiya; Turkish: Trakya) is a geographical and historical region in Southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east. It comprises southeastern Bulgaria (Northern Thrace), northeastern Greece (Western Thrace) and the European part of Turkey (East Thrace).

Geographically fully located
Significantly located
Mostly outside of the peninsula
See also
Earth's primary regions

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