Southeast Asia Treaty Organization

The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) was an international organization for collective defense in Southeast Asia created by the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, or Manila Pact, signed in September 1954 in Manila, Philippines. The formal institution of SEATO was established on 19 February 1955 at a meeting of treaty partners in Bangkok, Thailand.[1] The organization's headquarters were also in Bangkok. Eight members joined the organization.

Primarily created to block further communist gains in Southeast Asia, SEATO is generally considered a failure because internal conflict and dispute hindered general use of the SEATO military; however, SEATO-funded cultural and educational programs left long-standing effects in Southeast Asia. Southeast Asia Treaty Organization was dissolved on 30 June 1977 after many members lost interest and withdrew.

Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
SEATO flag
SEATO's flag
Map of SEATO member countries - en
Map of SEATO members, shown in blue.
Formation8 September 1954
Extinction30 June 1977
TypeIntergovernmental military alliance
HeadquartersBangkok, Thailand
Region served
Southeast Asia

States protected by SEATO

Origins and structure

CongressBuilding SEATO
The leaders of some of the SEATO nations in front of the Congress Building in Manila, hosted by Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos on 24 October 1966

The Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, or Manila Pact, was signed on 8 September 1954 in Manila,[2] as part of the American Truman Doctrine of creating anti-communist bilateral and collective defense treaties.[3] These treaties and agreements were intended to create alliances that would contain communist powers (Communist China, in SEATO's case).[4] This policy was considered to have been largely developed by American diplomat and Soviet expert George F. Kennan. President Dwight D. Eisenhower's Secretary of State John Foster Dulles (1953–1959) is considered to be the primary force behind the creation of SEATO, which expanded the concept of anti-communist collective defense to Southeast Asia,[2] and then-Vice President Richard Nixon advocated an Asian equivalent of NATO upon returning from his late-1953 Asia trip.[5] The organization, headquartered in Bangkok, was created in 1955 at the first meeting of the Council of Ministers set up by the treaty, contrary to Dulles's preference to call the organization "ManPac".

SEATO was intended to be a Southeast Asian version of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO),[6] in which the military forces of each member would be coordinated to provide for the collective defense of the member states. Organizationally, SEATO was headed by the Secretary General, whose office was created in 1957 at a meeting in Canberra,[7][8] with a council of representatives from member nations and an international staff. Also present were committees for economics, security, and information.[8] SEATO's first Secretary General was Pote Sarasin, a Thai diplomat and politician who had served as Thailand's ambassador to the U.S. between 1952 and 1957,[9][10] and as Prime Minister of Thailand from September 1957 to 1 January 1958.[11]

Unlike the NATO alliance, SEATO had no joint commands with standing forces.[12] In addition, SEATO's response protocol in the event of communism presenting a "common danger" to the member nations was vague and ineffective, though membership in the SEATO alliance did provide a rationale for a large-scale U.S. military intervention in the region during the Vietnam War (1955–1975).[13]


SEATO Conference in Manila
1966 SEATO conference in Manila

Despite its name, SEATO mostly included countries located outside of the region but with an interest either in the region or the organization itself. They were Australia (which administered Papua New Guinea), France (which had recently relinquished French Indochina), New Zealand, Pakistan (including East Pakistan, now Bangladesh), the Philippines, Thailand, the United Kingdom (which administered Hong Kong, North Borneo and Sarawak) and the United States.[12]

The Philippines and Thailand were the only Southeast Asian countries that actually participated in the organization. They shared close ties with the United States, particularly the Philippines, and they faced incipient communist insurgencies against their own governments.[14] Thailand became a member upon the discovery of the newly founded "Thai Autonomous Region" (the Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture) in Yunnan (in South West China) – apparently feeling threatened by potential Chinese communist subversion on its land.[15] Other regional countries like Burma and Indonesia were far more mindful of domestic internal stability rather than any communist threat,[14] and thus rejected joining it.[16] Malaya (including Singapore) also chose to not participate formally, though it was kept updated with key developments due to its close relationship with the United Kingdom.[14]

The states newly formed from French Indochina (North Vietnam, South Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos) were prevented from taking part in any international military alliance as a result of the Geneva Agreements signed 20 July of the same year concluding the end of the First Indochina War.[17] However, with the lingering threat coming from communist North Vietnam and the possibility of the domino theory with Indochina turning into a communist frontier, SEATO got these countries under its protection – an act that would be considered to be one of the main justifications for the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War.[18] Cambodia, however rejected the protection in 1956.[19]

The majority of SEATO members were not located in Southeast Asia. To Australia and New Zealand, SEATO was seen as a more satisfying organization than ANZUS – a collective defense organization with the U.S.[20] The United Kingdom and France joined partly due to having long maintained colonies in the region, and partly due to concerns over developments in Indochina. Last but not least, the U.S. upon perceiving Southeast Asia to be a pivotal frontier for Cold War geopolitics saw the establishment of SEATO as essential to its Cold War containment policy.[14]

All in all, the membership reflected a mid-1950s combination of anti-communist Western nations and such nations in Southeast Asia. The United Kingdom, France and the United States, the latter of which joined after the U.S. Senate ratified the treaty by an 82–1 vote,[21] represented the strongest Western powers.[22] Canada also considered joining, but decided against it in order to concentrate on its NATO responsibilities.[18]


Average of contributions to civil and military budgets between 1958 and 1973[23] :

  • United States: 25%
  • United Kingdom: 16%
  • France: 13.5%
  • Australia: 13.5%
  • Pakistan: 8%
  • Philippines: 8%
  • Thailand: 8%
  • New Zealand: 8%


Secretaries-General of SEATO:

Name Country From To
Pote Sarasin Thailand 5 September 1957 22 September 1957
William Worth (acting)  Australia 22 September 1957 10 January 1958
Pote Sarasin Thailand 10 January 1958 13 December 1963
William Worth (acting)  Australia 13 December 1963 19 February 1964
Konthi Suphamongkhon Thailand 19 February 1964 1 July 1965
Jesus M. Vargas  Philippines 1 July 1965 5 September 1972
Sunthorn Hongladarom Thailand 5 September 1972 30 June 1977

Military aspects

Sabre Mk32s RAAF in Thailand early 1960s
Australian No. 79 Squadron Sabres at Ubon Royal Thai Air Force Base in Thailand, deployed as part of Australia's commitment to SEATO

After its creation, SEATO quickly became insignificant militarily, as most of its member nations contributed very little to the alliance.[18] While SEATO military forces held joint military training, they were never employed because of internal disagreements. SEATO was unable to intervene in conflicts in Laos because France and the United Kingdom rejected use of military action.[19] As a result, the U.S. provided unilateral support for Laos after 1962.[19] Though sought by the U.S., involvement of SEATO in the Vietnam War was denied because of lack of British and French cooperation.[21][19]

Both the United States and Australia cited the alliance as justification for involvement in Vietnam.[18] U.S. membership in SEATO provided the United States with a rationale for a large-scale U.S. military intervention in Southeast Asia.[13] Other countries, such as the UK and key nations in Asia, accepted the rationale.[13] In 1962, as part of its commitment to SEATO, the Royal Australian Air Force deployed CAC Sabres of its No. 79 Squadron to Ubon Royal Thai Air Force Base, Thailand. The Sabres began to play a role in the Vietnam War in 1965, when their air defence responsibilities expanded to include protection of USAF aircraft using Ubon as a base for strikes against North Vietnam.[24][25]

Cultural effects

In addition to joint military training, SEATO member states worked on improving mutual social and economic issues.[26] Such activities were overseen by SEATO's Committee of Information, Culture, Education, and Labor Activities, and proved to be some of SEATO's greatest successes.[26] In 1959, SEATO's first Secretary General, Pote Sarasin, created the SEATO Graduate School of Engineering (currently the Asian Institute of Technology) in Thailand to train engineers.[9] SEATO also sponsored the creation of the Teacher Development Center in Bangkok, as well as the Thai Military Technical Training School, which offered technical programs for supervisors and workmen.[27] SEATO's Skilled Labor Project (SLP) created artisan training facilities, especially in Thailand, where ninety-one training workshops were established.[27]

SEATO also provided research funding and grants in agriculture and medical fields.[28] In 1959, SEATO set up the Cholera Research Laboratory in Bangkok, later establishing a second Cholera Research Laboratory in Dhaka, Bangladesh.[28] The Dhaka laboratory soon became the world's leading cholera research facility and was later renamed the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh.[29] SEATO was also interested in literature, and a SEATO Literature Award was created and given to writers from member states.[30]

Criticism and dissolution

Though Secretary of State Dulles considered SEATO an essential element in U.S. foreign policy in Asia, historians have considered the Manila Pact a failure and the pact is rarely mentioned in history books.[2] In The Geneva Conference of 1954 on Indochina, Sir James Cable, a diplomat and naval strategist,[31] described SEATO as "a fig leaf for the nakedness of American policy", citing the Manila Pact as a "zoo of paper tigers".[2]

Consequently, questions of dissolving the organization arose. Pakistan withdrew in 1972, after East Pakistan seceded and became Bangladesh on 16 December 1971.[8] France withdrew financial support in 1975,[12] and the SEATO council agreed to the phasing out of the organization.[32] After a final exercise on 20 February 1976, the organization was formally dissolved on 30 June 1977.[12][33]

See also


  1. ^ Leifer 2005
  2. ^ a b c d Franklin 2006, p. 1
  3. ^ Jillson 2009, p. 439
  4. ^ Ooi 2004, pp. 338–339
  5. ^ "Nixon Alone," by Ralph de Toledano, pp. 173–74
  6. ^ Boyer et al. 2007, p. 836
  7. ^ Franklin 2006, p. 184
  8. ^ a b c Page 2003, p. 548
  9. ^ a b Franklin 2006, p. 186
  10. ^ Weiner 2008, p. 351
  11. ^ "History of Thai Prime Ministers". Royal Thai Government. Archived from the original on 26 April 2011. Retrieved 22 April 2011.
  12. ^ a b c d Encyclopædia Britannica (India) 2000, p. 60
  13. ^ a b c Maga 2010
  14. ^ a b c d "Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO), 1954". Office of the Historian. U.S. Department of State. Archived from the original on 7 October 2012. Retrieved 3 October 2012.
  15. ^ US PSB, 1953 United States Psychological Studies Board (US PSB). (1953). US Psychological Strategy Based on Thailand, 14 September. Declassified Documents Reference System, 1994, 000556–000557, WH 120.
  16. ^ Nehru Has Alternative To SEATO. (5 August 1954). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842–1954), p. 1. Retrieved 3 October 2012.
  17. ^ "Milestones: 1953–1960 – Office of the Historian". Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  18. ^ a b c d Blaxland 2006, p. 138
  19. ^ a b c d Grenville 2001, p. 366
  20. ^ W. Brands, Jr., Henry (May 1987). "From ANZUS to SEATO: United States Strategic Policy towards Australia and New Zealand, 1952–1954". The International History Review. No. 2. 9: 250–270. doi:10.1080/07075332.1987.9640442.
  21. ^ a b Hearden 1990, p. 46
  22. ^ Tarling 1992, p. 604
  23. ^ Pierre Journoud, De Gaulle et le Vietnam : 1945–1969, Éditions Tallandier, Paris, 2011, 542 p. ISBN 978-2847345698
  24. ^ Stephens 1995, p. 36
  25. ^ Independent Review Panel (9 July 2004). Report to the Minister Assisting the Minister for Defence (PDF). Retrieved 1 May 2011.
  26. ^ a b Franklin 2006, p. 183
  27. ^ a b Franklin 2006, p. 188
  28. ^ a b Franklin 2006, p. 189
  29. ^ Franklin 2006, pp. 189–190
  30. ^ Boonkhachorn, Trislipa. "Literary Trends and Literary Promotions in Thailand". Retrieved 24 April 2011.
  31. ^ "Sir James Cable". Telegraph Media Group. 13 October 2001. Retrieved 29 March 2011.
  32. ^ "Thai given mandate to dissolve SEATO". The Montreal Gazette. 25 September 1975. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  33. ^ "Thailand" (PDF). Army Logistics University. United States Army. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 May 2014. Retrieved 6 July 2012. Despite the dissolution of the SEATO in 1977, the Manila Pact remains in force and, together with the Thanat-Rusk communiqué of 1962, constitutes the basis of U.S. security commitments to Thailand.


  • Blaxland, John C. (2006). Strategic Cousins: Australian and Canadian Expeditionary Forces and the British and American Empires. McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 978-0-7735-3035-5.
  • Boyer, Paul; Clark, Jr., Clifford; Kett, Joseph; Salisbury, Neal; Sitkoff, Harvard; Woloch, Nancy (2007). The Enduring Vision (6th AP ed.). Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 978-0-618-80163-3.
  • Encyclopædia Britannica (India) (2000). Students' Britannica India, Volume Five. Popular Prakashan. ISBN 978-0-85229-760-5.
  • Franklin, John K. (2006). The Hollow Pact: Pacific Security and the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization. ProQuest. ISBN 978-0-542-91563-5.
  • Grenville, John; Wasserstein, Bernard, eds. (2001). The Major International Treaties of the Twentieth Century: A History and Guide with Texts. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-14125-3.
  • Hearden, Patrick J., ed. (1990). Vietnam: Four American Perspectives. Purdue University Press. ISBN 978-1-55753-003-5.
  • Jillson, Cal (2009). American Government: Political Development and Institutional Change. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-99570-2.
  • Leifer, Michael (2005). Chin Kin Wah, Leo Suryadinata (ed.). Michael Leifer: Selected Works on Southeast Asia. ISBN 978-981-230-270-0.
  • Maga, Timothy P. (2010). The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Vietnam War, 2nd Edition. Penguin. ISBN 978-1-61564-040-9.
  • Ooi, Keat Gin, ed. (2004). Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, From Angkor Wat to East Timor, Volume 2. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-770-2.
  • Page, Melvin E., ed. (2003). Colonialism: An International Social, Cultural, and Political Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-335-3.
  • Stephens, Alan (1995). Going Solo: The Royal Australian Air Force, 1946–1971. Australian Govt. Pub. Service. ISBN 978-0-644-42803-3.
  • Tarling, Nicholas (1992). The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia: Volume 2. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-35506-3.
  • Weiner, Tim (2008). Legacy of Ashes: The History of the CIA. Random House Digital. ISBN 978-0-307-38900-8.

Further reading

  • Buszynski, Leszek. SEATO: The Failure of an Alliance Strategy. Singapore: Singapore University Press, 1983.
  • Haas, Michael (1989). The Asian Way to Peace: A Story of Regional Cooperation. Praeger. ISBN 0-275-93216-8.
  • Dreisbach, Kai (2004). USA und ASEAN. Amerikanische Aussenpolitik und regionale Kooperation in Südostasien vom Vietnamkrieg bis zur Asienkrise (in German). Wissenschaftlicher Verlag. ISBN 3-88476-656-2.

External links

1955 in Australia

The following lists events that happened during 1955 in Australia.

1972 Bhutto visit to Soviet Union

In March 1972, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, president of Pakistan, visited the Soviet Union. The visit became an important step in normalising foreign relations between the two countries. Bhutto engaged in substantive discussions with Soviet leaders in Moscow, including meeting with Chairman Alexei Kosygin and Secretary-General Leonid Brezhnev.The meeting was marked as a reconciliation between the states and as a restoration of industrial co-operation. It also signaled a wider shift towards an independent foreign policy, in particular to reduce Pakistan’s dependency on the United States.Even before being elected in 1971, Bhutto had spoken of the necessity of independent foreign policy and stronger relations with the Soviet Union, which had been fractured during the direct war with India and the Indo-Soviet Treaty.Held from 2 March till 5 March 1972, the meeting also strengthened trade between the two states. Trade was increased from 36.2 million rubles (Рубль) to 92.3 million rubles. The repercussions of Bhutto's visit were vast, including the ₨.4.5 billion worth of Pakistan Steel Mills established in Karachi, the Guddo Thermal Power Plant, and Pakistan's official departure from the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) and the Central Treaty Organization (CENTO).In 1974, Bhutto again visited Moscow as part of a goodwill mission, aimed at strengthening ties. That visit yielded mixed results: the Pakistan Steel Mills were established and inaugurated in 1985; however, the closer ties with China, difficulties with India and Afghanistan, and the discovery of Soviet arms made influential impacts on the relations between Pakistan and Soviet Union.

Defense pact

A defense pact is a type of treaty or military alliance in which the signatories promise to support each other militarily and to defend each other. In general, the signatories point out the threats in the treaty and concretely prepare to respond to it together.

East Pakistan

East Pakistan was the eastern provincial wing of Pakistan between 1955 and 1971, covering the territory of the modern country Bangladesh. Its land borders were with India and Myanmar, with a coastline on the Bay of Bengal.

East Pakistan was renamed from East Bengal by the One Unit scheme of Pakistani Prime Minister Mohammad Ali of Bogra. The Constitution of Pakistan of 1956 replaced the British monarchy with an Islamic republic. Bengali politician H. S. Suhrawardy served as the Prime Minister of Pakistan between 1956 and 1957 and a Bengali bureaucrat Iskandar Mirza became the first President of Pakistan. The 1958 Pakistani coup d'état brought general Ayub Khan to power. Khan replaced Mirza as president and launched a crackdown against pro-democracy leaders. Khan enacted the Constitution of Pakistan of 1962 which ended universal suffrage. By 1966, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman emerged as the preeminent opposition leader in Pakistan and launched the six point movement for autonomy and democracy. The 1969 uprising in East Pakistan contributed to Ayub Khan's overthrow. Another general, Yahya Khan, usurped the presidency and enacted martial law. in 1970, Yahya Khan organized Pakistan's first federal general election. The Awami League emerged as the single largest party, followed by the Pakistan Peoples Party. The military junta stalled in accepting the results, leading to civil disobedience, the Bangladesh Liberation War and the 1971 Bangladesh genocide. East Pakistan seceded with the help of India.

The East Pakistan Provincial Assembly was the legislative body of the territory.

Due to the strategic importance of East Pakistan, the Pakistani union was a member of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization. The economy of East Pakistan grew at an average of 2.6% between 1960 and 1965. The federal government invested more funds and foreign aid in West Pakistan, even though East Pakistan generated a major share of exports. However, President Ayub Khan did implement significant industrialization in East Pakistan. The Kaptai Dam was built in 1965. The Eastern Refinery was established in Chittagong. Dacca was declared as the second capital of Pakistan and planned as the home of the national parliament. The government recruited American architect Louis Kahn to design the national assembly complex in Dacca.

Foreign policy of the Dwight D. Eisenhower administration

The foreign policy of Dwight D. Eisenhower administration was the foreign policy of the United States from 1953 to 1961, when Dwight D. Eisenhower served as the President of the United States. Eisenhower held office during the Cold War, a period of sustained geopolitical tension between the United States and the Soviet Union.

The Eisenhower administartion continued the Truman administration's policy of containment, which called for the United States to prevent the spread of Communism to new states. Eisenhower's New Look defense policy stressed the importance of nuclear weapons as a deterrent to military threats, and the United States built up a stockpile of nuclear weapons and nuclear delivery systems during Eisenhower's presidency. a major uprising broke out in Hungary in 1956; the Eisenhower administration did not become directly involved, but condemned the Soviet military response. As part of a move towards détente, Eisenhower sought to reach a nuclear test ban treaty with the Soviet Union, but the 1960 U-2 incident derailed a Cold War summit in Paris.

Soon after taking office, Eisenhower negotiated an end to the Korean War, resulting in the partition of Korea. The following year, he played a major role in the defeat of the Bricker Amendment, which would have limited the president's treaty making power and ability to enter into executive agreements with foreign nations. The Eisenhower administration used propaganda and covert action extensively, and the Central Intelligence Agency instigated or took part in the 1953 Iranian coup d'état and the 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état. The Eisenhower administration played a role in the partition of Vietnam at the 1954 Geneva Conference, and the U.S. subsequently directed aid to the newly-formed country of South Vietnam. The Eisenhower administration also established the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization as an alliance of anti-Communist states in Southeast Asia, and resolved two crises with China over Taiwan.

In 1956, Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal, sparking the Suez Crisis, in which a coalition of France, Britain, and Israel took control of the canal. Concerned about the economic and political impacts of the invasion, Eisenhower pressured Britain and France to withdraw. In the aftermath of the crisis, Eisenhower announced the Eisenhower Doctrine, under which any country in the Middle East could request American economic assistance or aid from U.S. military forces. The Cuban Revolution broke out during Eisenhower's second term, resulting in the replacement of pro-U.S. President Fulgencio Batista with Fidel Castro. In response to the revolution, the Eisenhower administration broke ties with Cuba and began preparations for an invasion of Cuba by Cuban exiles, ultimately resulting in the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion after Eisenhower left office.

Harry Rozmiarek

Harry Rozmiarek (March 27, 1939 – June 15, 2013) was a noted veterinarian, academic, and laboratory animal care specialist.

Rozmiarek was born in Pulaski, Wisconsin. He graduated from the University of Minnesota in 1962 with a veterinary degree. He joined the United States Army and was assigned as an attending army veterinarian at Fort Myer, Virginia. Among his duties, Rozmiarek attended to Black Jack, the famous riderless horse in the funeral of President John F. Kennedy. He also consulted on the health of the Kennedy family dog and cared for some Irish deer that had been a gift to Kennedy from the people of Ireland. The remainder of his 20-year military career took him to Thailand where he conducted infectious disease research with the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO). And he spent several years as director of The U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) in Frederick, Maryland. He retired from the Army in 1983 with the rank of Colonel.

After the Army, Rozmiarek spent the next two decades in academia as a professor of laboratory animal medicine. In 1983 he went to The Ohio State University where he served as Professor of Laboratory Animal Medicine and Director of University Laboratory Animal Resources through 1986. In 1987 he joined the University of Pennsylvania as University Veterinarian and Professor and Director of University Laboratory Animal Resources. He retired from the University of Pennsylvania in 2004. He was the Director of Laboratory Animal Medicine and Facilities at the Fox Chase Cancer Center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania from 2004 until his death in 2013.

During his career, Rozmiarek was active in the development of guidelines for the proper care and use of laboratory animals in research. He served in leadership positions of national and international organizations that promote the humane treatment of animals in science including AAALAC, AALAS, ACLAM, and ICLAS. He was a contributing author to the IACUC Handbook.Rozmiarek represented the United States as the National Member to the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS) from 2003-2013; was elected to the ICLAS Governing Board in 2007; and served as Secretary-General, 2011-2013, at the time of his death. ICLAS is an international scientific organization advancing human and animal health by promoting the ethical care and use of laboratory animals in research worldwide.Rozmiarek was the recipient of numerous awards for his lifetime of accomplishments in the area of laboratory animal care: the AALAS Research Award (1983); the AALAS Griffin Award (1995), the AVMA Charles River Prize (1996); the AAALAC Bennett J. Cohen Award (2012); the AALAS Nathan R. Brewer Lifetime Achievement Award (2013).Harry Rozmiarek died in Boston, Massachusetts on June 15, 2013.

Hugh Anthony Prince

Major-General Hugh Anthony Prince CBE (11 August 1911 – 6 November 2005) was an Indian Army and British Army officer who became Chief of the Military Planning Office for the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization.

Jesus M. Vargas

Jesus M. Vargas (22 March 1905 – 25 March 1994) served as Secretary of National Defense and chief of staff of the Philippines. In his later years, he was the Secretary General of Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) which was based in Bangkok, Thailand.

John Foster Dulles

John Foster Dulles (; February 25, 1888 – May 24, 1959) was an American diplomat. A Republican, he served as United States Secretary of State under President Dwight D. Eisenhower from 1953 to 1959. He was a significant figure in the early Cold War era, advocating an aggressive stance against communism throughout the world.

Born in Washington, D.C., Dulles joined the New York City law firm of Sullivan & Cromwell after graduating from George Washington University Law School. His grandfather, John W. Foster, and his uncle, Robert Lansing, both served as United States Secretary of State, while his brother, Allen Dulles, served as the Director of Central Intelligence from 1953 to 1961. John Foster Dulles served on the War Industries Board during World War I and he was a U.S. legal counsel at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. He became a member of the League of Free Nations Association, which supported American membership in the League of Nations. Dulles also helped design the Dawes Plan, which sought to stabilize Europe by reducing German war reparations.

Dulles served as the chief foreign policy adviser to Thomas E. Dewey, the Republican presidential nominee in 1944 and 1948. He also helped draft the preamble to the United Nations Charter and served as a delegate to the United Nations General Assembly. In 1949, Dewey appointed Dulles to fill the Senate vacancy caused by the resignation of Sen. Robert F. Wagner. He served for four months but left office after being defeated in a special election by Herbert H. Lehman.

After Eisenhower won the 1952 presidential election, he chose Dulles as Secretary of State. As Secretary of State, Dulles concentrated on building and strengthening Cold War alliances, most prominently the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. He was the architect of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, an anti-Communist defensive alliance between the United States and several nations in and near Southeast Asia. He also helped instigate the 1953 Iranian coup d'état and the 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état. He favored a strategy of massive retaliation in response to Soviet aggression. He advocated support of the French in their war against the Viet Minh in Indochina but rejected the Geneva Accords that France and the communists agreed to, and instead supported South Vietnam after the Geneva Conference in 1954. Suffering from colon cancer, Dulles resigned from office in 1959 and died later that year.

Kagmari Conference

Kagmari Conference was a historic council meeting of Awami League that called for autonomy for East Pakistan and created the path for the Independence of Bangladesh.

Mian Ghulam Jilani

Major General Mian Gulam Jilani (SQA, Imtiazi Sanad) (1 March 1913 – 1 March 2004) was a two-star general officer in the Pakistan Army who, as an Indian Army officer during the Second World War had survived a Japanese PoW camp at Singapore. He subsequently rose to help negotiate Pakistan's membership in the Baghdad Pact and the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization. An ethnic Pashtun, he retired from the Pakistan Army in 1962 and was jailed 1973 for his political beliefs. Amnesty International declared him a prisoner of conscience in 1974. He escaped from custody and took political asylum in the United States in 1975.

National Defense College of the Philippines

The National Defense College of the Philippines (NDCP) (Filipino: Dalubhasaan ng Tanggulang Pambansa ng Pilipinas) is an educational, training, and research agency of the Philippine government located inside Camp General Emilio Aguinaldo, Quezon City. It is responsible for providing continued and intensive studies of the diverse problems relating to national defense and security. It is under the Department of National Defense.

New Zealand–Philippines relations

New Zealand–Philippines relations refer to bilateral relations between New Zealand and the Philippines. The Philippines has an embassy in Wellington and 2 other consulates, one in Auckland and in Christchurch and New Zealand has an embassy in Manila. Both countries are members of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation.

Pote Sarasin

Pote Sarasin (Thai: พจน์ สารสิน, RTGS: Phot Sarasin, pronounced [pʰót sǎː.rā.sǐn]; 25 March 1905 – 28 September 2000) was a Thai diplomat and politician from the influential Sarasin family. He served as foreign minister from 1949 to 1951 and then served as ambassador to the United States. In September 1957 when Sarit Thanarat seized power in a military coup, he appointed Pote to be the acting prime minister. He resigned in December 1957. Pote also served as the first Secretary General of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization from September 1957 until 1964.

Puey Ungphakorn

Puey Ungphakorn, MBE (Thai: ป๋วย อึ๊งภากรณ์; RTGS: Puai Uengphakon; IPA: [pǔaj ʔɯ́ŋ.pʰāː.kɔ̄ːn]; Chinese: 黃培謙; pinyin: Huáng Péiqiān; 9 March 1916 – 28 July 1999), was a Thai economist who served as Governor of the Bank of Thailand and Rector of Thammasat University. He was the author of From Tomb to Womb: The Quality of Life of a South-East Asian, which to date remains one of the most influential writings about social security in Thailand.

Born to a Thai Chinese family, Puey was a graduate of the first class of Thammasat University, teaching as a lecturer of French until winning a scholarship to study economics at the London School of Economics in 1938. His studies were interrupted by the Second World War, when he joined the Free Thai resistance movement opposed to the pro-Japanese military regime of Plaek Phibunsongkhram. He was captured as a prisoner of war in 1944 after parachuting into Chai Nat Province on a reconnaissance mission.

Puey completed his studies after the war, receiving a doctorate in 1948. He joined the Ministry of Finance in 1949, serving in a progression of senior posts before becoming central bank governor in 1959. At 43, and serving for over 12 years, until 1971, Puey is to date both the youngest person appointed as, and the longest serving, Governor of the Bank of Thailand. As governor, he played a central role in shaping Thailand's economic development policies during the governments of Field Marshals Sarit Dhanarajata and Thanom Kittikachorn. He also was a proponent of financial co-operation in Southeast Asia, leading to the establishment of regional financial and institutions such as SEACAN. He was awarded the Magsaysay Award in the field of government service in 1965.

An active academic, Puey was simultaneously Dean of the Faculty of Economics of Thammasat University from 1964 to 1972. In 1975 he was appointed Rector of Thammasat University, but resigned in protest following the massacre of student protesters on 6 October 1976. Tarred by nationalists as a leftist subversive, he was subsequently forced to flee the country for fear of his is safety, residing in the United Kingdom until his death in 1999.

Security community

A security community is a region in which a large-scale use of violence (such as war) has become very unlikely or even unthinkable. The concept of a security community is related to a group of states that enjoy relations of dependable expectations of a peace. The term was coined by the prominent political scientist Karl Deutsch in 1957. In their seminal work Political Community and the North Atlantic Area: International Organization in the Light of Historical Experience, Deutsch and his collaborators defined a security community as "a group of people" believing "that they have come to agreement on at least this one point: that common social problems must and can be resolved by processes of 'peaceful change'". Peaceful change was defined as "the resolution of social problems, normally by institutionalized procedures, without resort to large-scale physical force". People in a security community are also bound by the "sense of community", the mutual sympathy, trust, and common interests.The concept has not become a mainstream term in the field of international security despite its long history. After the end of the Cold War, the concept of a security community was adapted by constructivist scholars. A major impetus was the book Security Communities (1998), edited by Emanuel Adler and Michael Barnett. They redefined the security community by shared identities, values, and meanings; many-sided direct interactions; and reciprocal long-term interest. Several regions of the world have been studied in the security community framework since then, most notably the European Union, the Canada–United States and Mexico–United States dyads, Mercosur, and Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN). Michael Haas compared the Asian and Pacific Council, Asian-Pacific Parliamentarians Union, ASEAN, Indochinese Foreign Ministers Conference, South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, and the South Pacific Forum (later renamed the Pacific Islands Forum).

USS Cape Esperance

USS Cape Esperance (CVE-88) was a Casablanca class escort carrier of the United States Navy.

She was ordered under the name Tananek Bay, but the name was changed on 6 November 1943. She was launched on 3 March 1944 by Kaiser Co., Inc., Vancouver, Washington, under a Maritime Commission contract; sponsored by Mrs. W. M. McDade; transferred to the Navy on 9 April 1944; and commissioned the same day, with Captain R. W. Bockius in command.

USS Carp (SS-338)

USS Carp (SS/AGSS/IXSS-338), a Balao-class submarine, was the second ship of the United States Navy to be named for the carp.

William Worth (diplomat)

William Worth (born 13 December 1912) was an Australian diplomat who served two terms as the acting secretary general of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO).

Frozen conflicts
Foreign policy
See also


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