South West Africa Territorial Force

The South West Africa Territorial Force (SWATF) was an auxiliary arm of the South African Defence Force (SADF) and comprised the armed forces of South West Africa (now Namibia) from 1977 to 1989.[1] It emerged as a product of South Africa's political control of the territory which was granted to the former as a League of Nations mandate following World War I.[2]

South West African Territorial Force
Insignia of the South West African Territorial Force
SWATF Insignia
Active1977–1989
CountrySouth Africa South West Africa
Branch South African Defence Force
Size10,100 (1981)
22,000 (1987)
Part ofDepartment of Defence for South West Africa
Garrison/HQWindhoek, South West Africa
LocationNamibia
Namibia, with a long Atlantic coastline, borders Angola, Botswana, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe

History and background

From 1966 until 1989, South African security forces waged a long and bitter counterinsurgency conflict against indigenous nationalists in what was then South West Africa, represented by the Marxist South West African People's Organisation (SWAPO) and its military wing, the People's Liberation Army of Namibia (PLAN). As the guerrilla war intensified, however, it became clear that the local civilian police alone were not enough to cope with SWAPO/PLAN incursions and escalating unrest. Consequently, military units were deployed for the first time; 60,000 South African combat troops were engaged in South West Africa by the late 1970s.[3]

Establishment

As part of a general policy of military and social reform, Pretoria initiated the establishment of local defence and police agencies for its protectorate beginning in 1977.[1]

Structure and activation

A start was also made with the regrouping of existing units into four formations:

SWATF Structure overview
  • a Formation Headquarters Staff,
  • a Reaction Force (conventional),
  • an Area Force (Territorial) and
  • an Air Wing.

As regarding the latter, the South African Air Force would remain responsible for aerial operations although provision was made for an air commando squadron consisting of private and commercially qualified air crews. Their main function was to assist the South African Air Force in reconnaissance and communication flights and to provide operational officers for the operational service.

The new South West African Territorial Force was officially created on 1 August 1980, from South West African citizens already serving with the South African Defence Force.[4]

Operationally, the SWATF was further divided into a Permanent Force infantry component, logistic/administrative divisions, a training wing, and a Citizen Force, which included at least three motorised infantry battalions.[4] The 'permanent force' comprised mostly volunteer auxiliaries and national servicemen, who formed eight battalions.[4] A militia system was also developed for local security, including over twenty 'area protection units'.[1]

By 1981, SWATF's total strength numbered some 10,100 men, organised into both tribal-based battalions (including separate units for Ovambo, Herero, and Coloured ethnic groups) and multiethnic units partially manned by at least 10,000[5] white South West African personnel.[1][6]

By 1987, SWATF had an estimated 22,000 troops, including additional units of engineers, signals personnel, mounted troops, a parachute battalion, and a commando squadron.[7]

Training

A school cadet program similar to that in South Africa was developed for South West Africa.

SWATF School Cadet program

Primarily all SWATF members received their initial training at 2 SA Infantry Battalion at Walvis Bay, (considered South African territory at that stage).[8]

Advanced training, NCOs and Officer development however occurred at the SWA Military School at Okhandja.

SWATF Military School emblem

Supervision

For all practical purposes, SWATF remained firmly integrated into existing SADF command structures.[1] Its primary goal was protection of the territory of SWA from SWAPO incursions.[9] The SWATF was placed under the control of the Department of Defence for South West Africa and was always headed by a SADF general. There was also a joint SWATF/SADF committee established for "planning, liaison, and coordination" efforts.[4]

Uniform, rank structure, corps emblems, proficiency and ops badges

The first major step in the establishment of an independent territorial defence force in SWA was the introduction of a new nutria uniform on 6 September 1979 through which SWA units could be distinguished from SADF units.

SWATF Nutria bush fieldwear

SWATF Nutria bush fieldwear

SWATF headgear

SWATF headgear

Ranks

The rank structure of the SWATF was identical to that of the SADF. The insignia however differed considerably.

Equivalent
NATO code
OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) and student officer
South Africa South West Africa
(Edit)
No equivalent
South West Africa-Army-OF-8.svg South West Africa-Army-OF-7.svg South West Africa-Army-OF-6.svg South West Africa-Army-OF-5.svg South West Africa-Army-OF-4.svg South West Africa-Army-OF-3.svg South West Africa-Army-OF-2.svg South West Africa-Army-OF-1b.svg South West Africa-Army-OF-1a.svg South West Africa-Army-OF-(D).svg
Lieutenant general
Major general
Brigadier
Colonel
Commandant
Major
Captain
Lieutenant
2nd Lieutenant
Officer candidate
Equivalent
NATO code
OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
South Africa South West Africa
(Edit)
SWATF Warrant Officer Chief Formation
SWATF Warrant officer Class 1 RSM
SWATF Warrant Officer Class 2
SWATF Brassard Staff Sergeant
SWATF Brassard Sergeant
No equivalent
SWATF Brassard Corporal
SWATF Brassard Lance Corporal
No insignia
Formation warrant officer
Warrant officer class 1
Warrant officer class 2
Staff sergeant
Sergeant
Corporal
Lance corporal
Private

SWATF Corps emblems

SWATF Corps emblems

SWATF Proficiency and Ops Badges

SWATF Proficiency and Ops Badges

SWATF Beret Bars

SWATF Beret Bars

Commanders

Commander Took office Left office Time in office Ref
1
Charles Lloyd
Major general
Charles Lloyd
19809 November 19832–3 years[10]
2
Georg Meiring SSA, SD, SM, MMM
Major general
Georg Meiring SSA, SD, SM, MMM
(born 1939)
9 November 198323 January 19873 years, 75 days[10]
3
Willie Meyer
Major general
Willie Meyer
23 January 198719891–2 years[10]

Tactical breakdown

Headquarters Formation

SWATF Headquarters

The Reaction Force

SWATF Reaction Force

Brigade

  • Reaction Force Brigade, mainly a Citizen and cross corps force, 91 Brigade had a motorised sub-brigade composing two (later three) infantry battalions, an armoured car regiment, and an artillery regiment. The Brigade also included a training battalion and a mobilisation center.
    SWATF 91 Brigade emblem
SWATF 91 Brigade emblem

SWATF 91 Brigade structure

SWATF 91 Brigade structure
  • Logistics Brigade

SWATF Logistics Brigade Structure

SWATF Logistics Brigade Structure

Battalions

  • Eight full-time battalions
    • 31 Bushman Battalion (became 201 Battalion) HQ at Omega Base,
      SWA 31 Battalion emblem
    • 32 Battalion at Buffalo,
      SADF 32 Battalion SSI
    • 33 Eastern Caprivi Battalion, (became 701 Battalion)
      SWATF 701 Battalion emblem
    • 34 Kavangoland Battalion, (became 202 Battalion)
      SWATF 202 Battalion emblem
    • 35 Ovamboland Battalion,
      SWA 101 Battalion emblem
      (became 101 Battalion) The Quick reaction force.
    • 36 Bushman Battalion, (became 203 Battalion)
      SWATF 36 203 Battalion emblem
    • 37 Kaokoland Battalion, (became 102 Battalion)
      SWATF 102 Battalion emblem
    • 41 Multi-ethnic Regiment Windhoek (became 911 Battalion) (As 911 Battalion – it became known as "Swing Force" due to its ability to operate as a conventional unit or as a Counter-insurgency (COIN) unit.
      SWATF 911 Battalion emblem
      It recruited from South West Africa at large and deployed predominantly as a reserve force. An infantry element, a mechanised contingent, artillery, and a regiment of Eland armoured cars was included.[11] The unit was never mobilised en masse.
SWA 31 Battalion emblem
SADF 32 Battalion SSI
SWATF 701 Battalion emblem
SWATF 202 Battalion emblem
SWA 101 Battalion emblem
SWATF 36 203 Battalion emblem
SWATF 102 Battalion emblem
SWATF 911 Battalion emblem

SWATF Special Forces

Although SWATF relied heavily on South Africa's special forces, over time it developed its own capability.

SWATF Special Forces
  • 1 SWA Recon Regiment: started out as a sub unit under the command of the Commanding General SWATF in 1982, staffed mainly by ex South African operators.
  • Front-line Recon Wings: most front-line battalions, such as 31, 36 and 101 also had their own Recon Wings.
SWATF 101 Battalion Recon Wing emblem
  • 1 SWA Specialist Unit:
    SWATF 1 Spes emblem
    at Otavi – containing trackers, dogs, horses and dirt bikes. By 1984, 1 SWA SPES was based at Omaruku and at Omathoni together with 32 Battalions Recce Wing.
  • 1 SWA Parachute Battalion: By 1987, 1 SWA Parachute Battalion and 32 Battalion's Recce Wing were amalgamated to become 2 SWA Specialist Unit or 2 SWA SPES and relocated to Luipersvallei, Windhoek.
SWATF 1 Spes emblem
SWATF 1 SWA Parachute Battalion proficiencies

The Area Force

SWATF Area Force

South West African Military Operations Sectors

By 1979, South West Africa was subdivided into Operational Sectors. Three Frontline Sectors, 10, 20 and 70 fell under direct South African Army Command. Four additional Sectors, 30, 40, 50 and 60 covered the rest of South West Africa and was commanded directly by SWATF officers from 1980.

SWATF Sector emblems

SWATF Sector emblems

Frontline Sectors

Frontline Sectors were used for the massing of forces in preparation for external operations into Angola, acting as a buffer with the rest of the territory and reaction to immediate threats.

Although theoretically under control of the Area Force, due to their proximity to Angola the vast majority of conventional forces was based in these areas and remained under the direct control of South West Africa Command, a SADF regional command.

Simplified map of the front line sectors of South West Africa (not all secondary bases marked)

Simplified map of the front line sectors of South West Africa (not all secondary bases marked)

Sector 10

(Kaokoland and Owambo) - HQ Oshakati

  • SADF's 51 Battalion at Ruacana,
    51 SADF Battalion
  • SADF's 52 Battalion at Oshakati,
    SADF 52 Battalion emblem
  • SADF's 53 Battalion at Ondangwa,
    SADF 53 Battalion emblem
  • SADF's 54 Battalion at Eenhana,
    SADF 54 battalion
  • 101 Battalion at Ondangwa and
  • 102 Battalion at Opuwa,
51 SADF Battalion
SADF 52 Battalion emblem
SADF 53 Battalion emblem
SADF 54 battalion
SWATF Oshivello Training Unit emblem
  • SADF's Air Force Base Ondangwa,
  • SADF's 5 Maintenance Unit at Ondangwa,
  • SADF's Sector 10 Training Unit at Oshivelo,
SWATF Sector 10 Signals Unit emblem
  • SADF's Sector 10 Signals Unit at Oshikati,
  • SADF's Sector 10 Maintenance Unit at Oshikati,
  • SADF's Sector 10 Provost Unit at Oshikati,
  • SADF's 25 Engineering Squadron at Oshakati, and
  • SADF's 61 Mechanised Battalion Group at Omuthiya (although not SWATF, 61 Mech had its origins in South West Africa)

Sector 20

(Kavango and Western Caprivi) - HQ Rundu

  • SADF's 55 Battalion at Nepara.
    SADF 55 Battalion
  • 32 Battalion at Buffalo.
    SADF 32 Battalion SSI
  • 201 Battalion at Omega base,
  • 202 Battalion at Rundu and
  • 203 Battalion at Mangeti.
SADF 55 Battalion
SADF 32 Battalion SSI

These frontline Sectors also had immediate reaction forces (Special Service Companies) to deal with any attack and were primarily infantry company strength and fully motorised.

SWATF Reaction Forces

SWATF Reaction Forces
  • 905 SSC was based at Nepara in Sector 20 and deployed on Buffels.
  • 906 SSC was based at Omahoni in Sector 20 and deployed on Buffels. Local Kwanyama troops made up the bulk of the personnel.
  • SADF's Air Force Base Rundu and
  • SADF's 6 Maintenance Unit at Rundu.

Sector 70

(Eastern Caprivi) - HQ Mpacha Encompassed the Eastern Caprivi covering the Zambian border from Cuado to the Zambezi River.

  • SWATF 701 Battalion, at Mpacha with attached SWATF armoured car and artillery battery.
    SWATF 701 Battalion emblem
SWATF 701 Battalion emblem
  • SADF's Air Force Base at Mpacha,
  • SADF's Navy Marine Company utilized for river patrols and
  • SADF's 9 Maintenance Unit at Mpacha.

Countrywide Sectors

Apart from the Frontline Sectors, four additional Sectors existed. 26 Area Force Units, similar to the South African commando system, was established for these less vulnerable parts of the territory.

Sector 30

HQ Otjiwarongo (Citadel).

  • 301 Bn at Otjiwarongo.
    SWA 301 Battalion emblem
SWA 301 Battalion emblem

SWATF Otjiwarongo AME (Area Force Unit - Area Mag Eenheid), Outjo AME, Grootfontein AME, Tsumeb AME, Herreroland AME, Ethosa AME, Otavi AME, Damaraland AME and UIS PL. Its area of responsibility was likewise the Grootfontein, Tsumeb, Otavi, Outjo, Otjiwarongo, Hereroland and Damaraland regions.

SWATF sector 30 Area Force Units

SWATF sector 30 Area Force Units
  • SADF's Air Force Base Grootfontein
  • SADF's Northern Logistics Command at Grootfontein comprising:
    • NLC 101 Workshop
    • NLC Provost Unit
    • NLC 6 Signals Unit
    • NLC 16 Maintenance Unit

Sector 40

HQ Windhoek.

SWATF Alte Feste AME, Khomas AME, Hochl AME, Okahandja AME, Omaruru AME, Swakopmund AME, Rehoboth AME, Katatura AME and Khomasdal AME.

SWATF Sector 40 Area Force Units emblems

SWATF Sector 40 Area Force Units emblems

Other Units in this Sector:

SWATF Regiment Windhoek emblem
  • Regiment Windhoek
SWATF 1 SWA Provost emblem
  • 1 SWA Provost Unit

Sector 50

HQ Gobabis.

SWATF Aranos AME, Auob AME, Bo-Nossob AME, Aminius PL, Gobabis AME, Rietfont AME, Mariental AME and Maltahohe AME.

SWATF Sector 50 Area Force Units

SWATF Sector 50 Area Force Units

Sector 60

HQ Keetmanshoop.

SWATF Karasburg AME, Keetmanshop AME, Hoop AME, Bethanien AME, Oranjemund AME, Luderitz AME and Namaland AME.

SWATF Sector 60 Area Force Units

SWATF Sector 60 Area Force Units

Air Wing

SWATF Air Wing

Aircrews

While the SWATF relied heavily on the South African Air Force for combat and heavy logistics transportation, it did have its own Air Wing, which consisted mainly of civilian aircraft.

1 SWATF Commando Squadron

1 SWATF Commando Squadron

1 SWA Commando Squadron was established as 112 Air Commando on 24 September 1963 in Windhoek. The unit was staffed by volunteer civilian aircraft. From 1968, control of 112 Commando squadron passed from the SA Army to the SAAF and it was transferred to Light Aircraft Command. In 1970, it was disbanded, but in 1980 it was re-established as part of the SWATF.

SWATF Aircrew emblems

SWATF Aircrew emblems

Medical Command

SWATF Medical Command emblem

Equipment

Small arms

Name Type Country of Origin Notes
Beretta 92 Semi-automatic pistol  Italy
Star Semi-Automatic Pistol  Spain Model 1920, 1921, 1922.
Uzi Submachine gun  Israel Some of local manufacture.
AK-47 Assault Rifle  Soviet Union Captured.
AKM Assault Rifle  Soviet Union Captured.
R1 Battle Rifle  Belgium Belgian design
Heckler & Koch G3 Battle Rifle  West Germany G3A3, received from Portugal.
R4 Assault Rifle  South Africa Derived from the Galil
Bren Light machine gun  United Kingdom Mk 3.
Browning M2 Heavy machine gun  United States
Browning M1919 Medium machine gun  United States Helicopter-mounted weapon.
FN MAG General purpose machine gun  Belgium MAG-58.
SS-77 machine gun General purpose machine gun  South Africa
PKM General purpose machine gun  Soviet Union Captured.
RPD Light machine gun  Soviet Union Captured.
RPK Light machine gun  Soviet Union Captured.
FN Browning Auto-5 Shotgun  United States
Armsel Striker Shotgun  South Africa
Dragunov Sniper rifle  Soviet Union Captured.
Armscor M963 Fragmentation grenade  South Africa Made in South Africa,
derived from INDEP's licence-made M26 grenade
Armscor 42 Zulu Anti-personnel rifle grenade  South Africa Derived from the Belgian PRB 424
Armscor AP-65[12] Anti-personnel rifle grenade  South Africa Successor to the 42 Zulu,
utilising a M26 and resembling a Dilagrama m/65
Mecar Energa Anti-tank rifle grenade  Belgium Made in South Africa
M18 Claymore Anti-personnel mine  United States
Mine G.S. Mk V Anti-tank mine  United Kingdom
M79 grenade launcher Grenade Launcher  United States Known as "snotneus"
Milkor MGL Grenade Launcher  South Africa
M20 Super Bazooka Anti-tank weapon  United States 3.5 inch rocket launcher.
STRIM 89mm rocket launcher Anti-tank weapon  France M20 replacement.
RPG-2 Anti-tank weapon  Soviet Union Captured.
RPG-7 Anti-tank weapon  Soviet Union Captured.

Vehicles

Armoured

Soft-skinned

  • Samil 20
  • Samil 50
  • Samil 100
  • Kwevoel 100
Buffel armoured personnel carrier (9673155629)

Buffel armoured personnel carrier (1978)

Noddymain

Eland Mk7 Armoured Car

SADF Kwevoel 100 horse carrier

Kwevoel 100 horse carrier

Counterinsurgency

A lot of effort was used to interdict insurgent groups that had crossed over the Angolan border. These Insurgents were on foot, but knew the land and moved fast. There have been stories of the insurgents moving incredible distances with little supplies, whilst being chased and if cornered putting up a good resistance to their followers. Adrenaline injections were found at some of the incident scenes after a fire fight.

These insurgents were normally stalked by using trained trackers, who directed the reaction force. In some instances a stopper group was choppered in to cut off the insurgents before they reached the border.

Demobilisation

Under UN resolution 435, the United Nations Transition Assistance Group was mobilised, while SWATF was demobilised, its strength in the last years of operation was at about 22,000. Special arrangements were made for two San units of SWATF, as they originated from local tribal communities. They were thus allocated land near their previous bases.

All citizen force units were demobilised.

The SWATF was completely demobilised on 1 June 1989.

Withdrawal of some units to South Africa

UN Resolution 435 additionally called on South Africa to reduce its forces in Namibia to 12,000 before the start of any peace process and finally to 1,500 by 1989. Several thousand former SWATF members, especially from the San people who feared reprisals or intimidation, left for South Africa with the retreating SADF.

SWA 31 Battalion emblem
SWATF 36 203 Battalion emblem

32 Battalion, whose members to a large extent could not claim Namibian citizenship, also withdrew to South Africa completely.

SADF 32 Battalion SSI

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Duignan, Peter. Politics and Government in African States 1960–1985. pp. 345–377.
  2. ^ "SWAPO – SWATF/Koevoet". Swapoparty.org. Retrieved 30 April 2013.
  3. ^ Fryxell, Cole. To Be Born a Nation. pp. 1–357.
  4. ^ a b c d Modern African Wars (3): South West Africa (Men-At-Arms Series, 242) by Helmoed-Romer Heitman (Author), Paul Hannon (Illustrator) Osprey Publishing (28 November 1991) ISBN 1-85532-122-X and ISBN 978-1-85532-122-9
  5. ^ Tonchi, Victor; Lindeke, William; Grotpeter, John. Historical Dictionary of Namibia. p. 405.
  6. ^ FishEagle (21 February 2010). "I Luv SA: The Namibian Border War: an appraisal of the South African strategy (Part 6)". Iluvsa.blogspot.com. Retrieved 30 April 2013.
  7. ^ "SADF.info". SADF.info. Retrieved 30 April 2013.
  8. ^ http://www.historicalpapers.wits.ac.za/inventories/inv_pdfo/AG1977/AG1977-A5-63-16-004-jpeg.pdf
  9. ^ "Military Chronicle of South West Africa". Rhodesia.nl. Retrieved 30 April 2013.
  10. ^ a b c "SWATF Operations". SADF.info. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  11. ^ Helmoed-Römer Heitman. Modern African Wars: South West Africa (1991 ed.). Osprey Publishing. p. 17. ISBN 978-1855321229.
  12. ^ "Armed soldier of the 911 Batallion" (image/jpeg). Bush of Ghosts. Photographed by John Liebenberg. Cape Town: www.uct.ac.za/. 1989. Retrieved 5 May 2016. 911 Battalion patrol, the front soldier armed with an R4 rifle with an AP-65 (anti-personnel) rifle grenade.CS1 maint: others (link)

Further reading

101 Battalion (South Africa)

101 Battalion (pronounced as one-o-one Battalion) was a quick-reaction unit of the South West African Territorial Force, composed of black and white commissioned and enlisted personnel.

101st Battalion

101st Battalion may refer to:

101 Battalion (Libya), a military insurgent unit

101 Battalion (South Africa), a unit of the South West Africa Territorial Force

101st Battalion (Winnipeg Light Infantry), CEF, a unit of the Canadian Expeditionary Force

101st Engineer Battalion, a unit of the United States Army

101st Signal Battalion, a unit of the United States Army

Reserve Police Battalion 101, a Nazi German paramilitary formation of Ordnungspolizei

34th Battalion

34th Battalion may refer to:

34th Battalion (Australia), 1st Australian Imperial Force

34th Battalion (New Zealand)

34th Battalion, CEF, Canadian Expeditionary Force

34 Battalion (SWATF), South West Africa Territorial Force

HDF 34th Bercsényi László Special Forces Battalion, Hungary

34th Battalion Virginia Cavalry

Alte Feste Commando

Alte Feste Commando was a light infantry regiment of the South West Africa Territorial Force. It formed part of the Area Force Units as well as the Territorial Reserve.

Bo-Nossob Commando

Bo-Nossob Commando was a light infantry regiment of the South West African Territorial Force. It formed part of the Area Force Units as well as the Territorial Reserve.

Citizen Force (South Africa)

The Citizen Force was a reserve component of the South African armed forces. It was established during the formation of the Union Defence Force (UDF) and reflected the UDF's mixed traditions, which drew on both the British model of a standing professional army as well as the Afrikaner model of a large citizen militia. The South African Defence Act (No. 13) of 1912 dictated that the UDF include a Permanent Force of career soldiers and a "Citizen Force" of volunteer reservists or conscripts mobilised during temporary crises.Prior to World War II, the Citizen Force consisted of a general manpower pool of white South African civilians who had received some military training in the past. They were periodically retrained for deployment in the event that they were mobilised for active service. The UDF had few professional career soldiers during the 1930s, so the bulk of its active manpower at any one time was vested in the Citizen Force. This was considered adequate for South Africa's defence requirements, as the country was far removed from potentially hostile forces in Europe and neighbouring territories represented no military threat.The Citizen Force was retained in the restructured South African Defence Force (SADF) after the UDF was disestablished in the late 1950s. White South Africans completing their national service were automatically enrolled in the Citizen Force for five years, being expected to serve at least nineteen days a year. In 1977 this was increased to thirty days a year for an eight year period. Thereafter they were considered part of the Citizen Force Reserve for another five years, and could still be called into military service if their skills were needed.The Citizen Force was made up wholly of white South African men until 1978, at which time Coloured South Africans who had previously served in the Cape Corps were enlisted in the Citizen Force as well. The first Coloured Citizen Force officers were commissioned in October 1978.By the late 1980s, the Citizen Force accounted for 68% of the SADF's total manpower. No black South Africans were enlisted in the Citizen Force, as the majority of the SADF's black recruits were professional soldiers and they lacked the part-time military tradition of the country's white community. In 1988 the racial composition of the Citizen Force was 96.3% white and 3.7% Coloured.The South African military establishment underwent another major restructuring process in 1994 with the formation of the South African National Defence Force (SANDF). The retention of preexisting Citizen Force units was favoured by the SANDF because they worked well with the new force design and structure placing an emphasis on domestic defence. Additionally, as a reserve formation the Citizen Force was seen as cost-effective. It was renamed the SANDF Conventional Reserve at some point between 1994 and 2003.

Etosha Commando

Etosha Commando was a light infantry regiment of the South West Africa Territorial Force. It formed part of the Area Force Units as well as the Territorial Reserve.

Georg Meiring

General Georg Meiring (born 18 October 1939) was a South African military commander. He served as Chief of the Army (1990–93) and Chief of the South African National Defence Force (1993–98).

Grootfontein Commando

Grootfontein Commando was a light infantry regiment of the South West African Territorial Force. It formed part of the Area Force Units as well as the Territorial Reserve.

Johannes Geldenhuys

General Johannes Jacobus Geldenhuys, (5 February 1935 – 10 September 2018) was a South African military commander who served as Chief of the South African Defence Force from 1985 to 1990.

Keetmanshoop Commando

Keetmanshoop Commando was a light infantry regiment of the South West Africa Territorial Force. It formed part of the Area Force Units as well as the Territorial Reserve.

Maltahohe Commando

Maltahohe Commando was a light infantry regiment of the South West Africa Territorial Force. It formed part of the Area Force Units as well as the Territorial Reserve.

Mariental Commando

Mariental Commando was a light infantry regiment of the South West Africa Territorial Force. It formed part of the Area Force Units as well as the Territorial Reserve.

Operation Boswilger

Operation Boswilger (English: Operation Bush Willow) was a military operation executed by the South West Africa Territorial Force in June 1985 during the South African Border War and Angolan Civil War. The SADF soldiers pursued SWAPO's, PLAN insurgents, who had attacked infrastructure, out of South West Africa/Namibia across the border into Angola.

Otjiwarongo Commando

Otjiwarongo Commando was a light infantry regiment of the South West Africa Territorial Force. It formed part of the Area Force Units as well as the Territorial Reserve.

Outjo Commando

Outjo Commando was a light infantry regiment of the South West African Territorial Force. It formed part of the Area Force Units as well as the Territorial Reserve.

Permanent Force

The Permanent Force was an integral part of both the South African Defence Force and the South West Africa Territorial Force and other British Commonwealth militaries. It consisted of all the full-time volunteers, volunteers of Auxiliaries and national servicemen.

South West Africa Command

South West Africa Command was a command of the South African Army.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 643

United Nations Security Council resolution 643, adopted unanimously on 31 October 1989, after reaffirming resolutions 435 (1978) and 629 (1989), 632 (1989) and 640 (1989), as well as noting a report by the Secretary-General Javier Pérez de Cuéllar, the Council expressed its full intention to implement Resolution 435 of 29 September 1978 regarding the situation in Namibia (South West Africa).

The Council went on to reaffirm its legal responsibility over Namibia until its independence, urging all parties to co-operate with the resolution. It also again demanded the disbandment of the Koevoet and the South West Africa Territorial Force, and the replacement of the South African Defence Force in the territory.

The resolution also demanded the repeal of all remaining restrictive and discriminatory laws in Namibia that would inhibit the elections taking place, mandating the Secretary-General to ensure all arrangements are in place, including the support for the Constituent Assembly. It called on Member States and international organisations to provide financial, material and technical support to Namibia.

Adopted by all members of the Council, it was the last resolution the Council adopted relating to the independence of Namibia.

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South African Army Units
Divisions and Brigades
Armoured Formation (SAAAF)
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