South Station—officially The Governor Michael S. Dukakis Transportation Center at South Station—is the largest railroad station and intercity bus terminal in Greater Boston and New England's second-largest transportation center after Logan International Airport. Located at the intersection of Atlantic Avenue and Summer Street in Dewey Square, Boston, Massachusetts, the historic station building was constructed in 1899 to replace the downtown terminals of several railroads. Today, it serves as a major intermodal domestic transportation hub, with service to the Greater Boston region and the Midwestern and Northeastern United States. It is used by thousands of commuter rail and intercity rail passengers daily. Connections to the rapid transit Red Line and bus rapid transit Silver Line are made through the adjacent subway station.
In September 2017, the Ashkenazy Acquisition Corporation, which also owns the Faneuil Hall Marketplace, purchased the 98-year lease on the office space and concourse areas of the station.from the Blackstone Group for $123.2 million.
The historic South Station headhouse facing Atlantic Avenue
|Location||700 Atlantic Avenue|
|Owned by||Massachusetts Department of Transportation|
|Connections|| Bus Terminal|
South Station Under
|Bicycle facilities||Bike lockers|
|Station code||BOS (Amtrak)|
|Fare zone||1A (MBTA Commuter Rail)|
|Electrified||25 kV 60 Hz|
|Passengers (2012)||21,772 daily boardings (MBTA Commuter Rail)|
|Passengers (FY2016)||1,574,450 1.96% (Amtrak)|
South Station Headhouse
|Area||0.5 acres (0.2 ha)|
|Architect||Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge; Norcross Bros.|
|Architectural style||Classical Revival|
|NRHP reference #||75000299|
|Added to NRHP||February 13, 1975|
When the railroads serving Boston were first laid out and built, each one stopped at its own terminal. The four terminals serving the south-side railroads were as follows:
By the late 19th century, the New England, Old Colony, and Boston & Providence had been acquired by the New York & New Haven Railroad, while the B&A was acquired by the New York Central Railroad. However, the four separate terminals remained. The Boston Terminal Company, established in 1897, was charged with the task of consolidating service from the four terminals at a single terminal (a union station).
South Station opened as South Central Station on January 1, 1899 at a cost of $3.6 million (1899 dollars). The architects were Shepley, Rutan and Coolidge of Boston, and the construction was undertaken by the engineering firm of Westinghouse, Church, Kerr & Co. It became the busiest station in the world by 1913. A stop on the Atlantic Avenue Elevated served South Station from 1901 to 1938; what is now the Red Line subway was extended from Park Street to South Station in 1913. The train shed, originally one of the largest in the world, was eliminated in a 1930 renovation due to corrosion caused by the nearby ocean's salt air.
In the original configuration, two tracks came off each approach to join into a four-track line and then run under the main platforms in a two-track loop. These tracks were never put into service, and later became a parking lot and bowling alley for employees.
While the station handled 125,000 passengers each day during World War II, post-war passenger rail traffic declined in the US. In 1959, the New Haven's Old Colony Division–successor of the Old Colony Railroad–which had served the South Shore and Cape Cod, stopped passenger service. The New Haven itself went bankrupt in 1961. South Station was sold to the Boston Redevelopment Authority (BRA) in 1965. Portions of the station were demolished and the land was used to build the Boston South Postal Annex and the Stone and Webster building.
In the early 1970s, the BRA developed plans to demolish the rest of the station and replace it with a multi-use development including a new train station, a bus station, a parking garage, and commercial structures. The plan was never realized, and South Station was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1975.
In 1978, the BRA sold what was left of the station to the MBTA, though the BRA retained air rights over the station. Funding was obtained for a major renovation of the station that was completed in 1989. A total of 13 tracks became available, all with high level platforms and some capable of handling 12-car trains. Piers were installed for the eventual construction of an office building and bus station above the tracks. This renovation also added direct access to the Red Line subway station from inside the surface station lobby; previously, the only access was via street stairwells.
After some delays, an inter-city bus terminal opened in October 1995, replacing one on top of the I-93 Dewey Square Tunnel diagonally across from the station between Summer Street and Congress Street. The new bus terminal has direct ramp connections to I-93 and the Massachusetts Turnpike. The renovations, including the bus terminal, cost $195 million in 2001 dollars.
The Red Line subway platforms were extended in 1985 to allow six-car trains, and renovated again in 2005 as part of the Silver Line Phase II project, which serves the waterfront and Logan Airport. The Phase II tunnel was constructed in conjunction with Boston's "Big Dig" project, and was originally referred to as the "South Boston Piers Transitway". Phase II opened on Friday, December 17, 2004, with the first route running only to Silver Line Way. A new Phase I Silver Line route, the SL4 was added on October 13, 2009, with a stop across the street from South Station.
The South Station head house and wings incorporate Neoclassical architecture. The building's symmetry and stone façade are common to the style. The granite came from nearby quarries in New England. The main doorways are located in a section that protrudes from the curving shape of the building. The doors are housed under tall arches that give the impression of grandeur while also making the building appear smaller from far away. This visual trick is common in classical buildings and is further amplified by the oversized windows and large balustrade on the third floor and roof.
Above the doorways are classical Ionic order columns that ostensibly hold up the frieze and pediment. Uncommon for Ionic order columns is the lack of fluting, which is usually used to draw the eye upward, increasing the grandeur of the facade. The numerous projections and recessions on the façade attribute to the planar quality of the building, while also creating interesting shading and lighting patterns on the stone and within the building.
Constructed over one hundred years ago, the clock on top of the main head house is the largest operating hand-wound clock mechanism in New England. The clock is styled after London's Big Ben, and has a 12-foot wide face. The mechanism weighs over 400 pounds. In 2008, the clock underwent a six-week restoration and repair. The clock mechanism was completely disassembled and transported to a nearby workshop, where replacement pieces had to be fabricated by hand. The clock, once one of many in the city, is a hallmark of a bygone era—something that commuters rely on to make their trains, and which visitors admire for its historical presence. The stone eagle that sits atop the clock is eight feet wide and weighs over eight tons. The eagle imitates the figurines commonly placed atop classically styled buildings.
The curved shape of the building facade pushes its presence into the surrounding area, making it much more prominent. This also gives the building a more distinctive and accessible main entrance from Atlantic Avenue, Summer Street, and Dewey Square. A similar concept is also seen in the Santa Maria della Pace in Rome, Italy. This church didn't directly influence South Station, but the designs clearly share the same effects on the immediate area.
In the 1980s, with South Station in disrepair, a great effort began to revitalize the station using Federal funding. The revitalization included addition of two wings that extend from each side of the head house, constructed with granite from the same quarries to provide a consistent appearance. Renovation and expansion was completed in 1989, reinvigorating the area with a vital transportation link and a strong focal point. Office buildings began rising nearby, expanding the downtown area. With the completion of the Big Dig and the Rose Kennedy Greenway, South Station has become an even more important feature in the area. The Greenway provides a pedestrian-friendly connection between South Station and North Station.
The station is accessible by the general public 24 hours a day, every day of the year.
Boston's main inter-city bus terminal, the South Station Bus Terminal, is housed in a separate building built over the train platforms along Atlantic Avenue. The bus terminal hosts service by Greyhound, Peter Pan, and other bus companies; to all of New England, New York City, upstate New York, Atlantic City (New Jersey), Philadelphia, Washington, D.C., the mid-Atlantic states, and Montreal, Canada. The bus terminal has its own concession area, and can be entered from the railway platform area or directly from Atlantic Avenue.
Several MBTA commuter rail lines, plus Amtrak's Downeaster service to Maine, originate from North Station, located about 1.2 miles (2 km) around the Boston peninsula from South Station; there has not been a direct connection between the two since the closure of the Atlantic Avenue Elevated in 1938. Transfers from North Station to all other Amtrak trains and the MBTA Commuter Rail's Providence/Stoughton, Needham, Franklin and Framingham/Worcester lines may be made at Back Bay (via a one-seat ride on the Orange Line); transfers from the Fitchburg Line to South Station lines can be made via Porter on the Red Line (a one-seat ride to South Station). All other transferring passengers have to change subway trains at either Park Street for the Green Line or Downtown Crossing for the Orange Line, both of which stop at North Station, thus requiring two different rapid transit lines for the relatively short traverse between South and North Stations.
A North–South Rail Link has been proposed to unify the two halves of the rail system, to make passenger transfers much easier and faster. However, as of May 2006, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts has withdrawn its sponsorship of the proposal due to its high cost. The North–South Rail Link is not mentioned in the MBTA's FY2010–FY2014 Capital Investment Program. Currently, passenger equipment is transferred between the two halves of the system via the Grand Junction Railroad, which is not used in revenue passenger service.
The commuter rail and Amtrak platforms are fully accessible, with level access from the main station entrance and the waiting area onto the high-level platforms. Most southside commuter rail stations are also handicapped accessible, but some stations (mostly on the Framingham/Worcester Line and Franklin Line) are not. Most Amtrak stations on the Lake Shore Limited and the Northeast Corridor routes are also accessible.
South Station reached its peak ridership in the early 1900s. But ridership declined after the bankrupt New Haven Railroad reduced service and automobile travel rose in popularity.
In recent decades, ridership has grown considerably, in part due to the reopening of Old Colony commuter rail service and the electrification of the Amtrak Northeast Corridor from New Haven to Boston, which allowed high-speed Acela service.
South Station daily weekday ridership (2014)
|MBTA Commuter Rail||41,720|
|Total daily passengers||91,608|
South Station Ridership (passengers/year)
|Commuter rail||2,774,000||19,207,977||36,992,648||35,323,276 (2013)|
As a major transfer station offering connections to multiple modes, South Station is expected to see additional passenger throughput as a result of system improvements and a general increase in ridership. The existing underground Red Line and Silver Line stations are adequate for the near future, but the surface-level commuter rail and Amtrak platforms are at capacity.
A proposed relocation of the Boston General Mail Facility, which is located on Dorchester Avenue next to the station tracks, would allow for increased capacity at South Station. Seven more tracks are planned to be added to the existing thirteen tracks, allowing increased use by both MBTA Commuter Rail and Amtrak trains.
A skyscraper, tentatively called the South Station Tower, has been proposed to be built on air rights over South Station tracks. The proposal had been on hold for several years, pending suitable market conditions, but in March 2016 the developer's website was changed to state that the tower would begin construction early in 2017.
In October 2010, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts was awarded a $32.5 million grant from the federal government to begin planning for this expansion. After deliberations, a $43 million contract (including $10.5 million in state funds) was awarded in August 2012. The planning project will advance the new station area, including a possible passenger mezzanine over the platforms, to the 30% design level. Other elements include a redesign of the South Station interlocking, new commuter rail layover facilities, and the restoration of public access to the adjacent section of Dorchester Avenue and the Fort Point Channel, filling in a missing half-mile segment of the Boston Harborwalk. The station expansion is intended to allow for increases in commuter rail service on the Fairmount Line and Framingham/Worcester Line, addition of South Coast Rail service, and increased Amtrak frequencies.
As of October 2014, purchasing of the postal facility is in limbo, as the Postal Service is not willing to accept the amount offered by the state. Part of this deal would include moving the facility to South Boston, with MassPort taking some of the Post Office's parking lot located across Fort Point Channel.
The Final Environmental Impact Report for the South Station Expansion Project was released on June 30, 2016. The project would begin with the demolition of the postal facility and take 5 years to complete. The Massachusetts Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs approved the FEIR on August 12, 2016.
The South Station Expansion Project has been opposed by a number of transportation advocates, community groups, and environmental groups, many of which instead advocate building a North–South Rail Link (NSRL) through connection to North Station and points beyond, rather than expanding the dead-end storage capacity for trains at South Station. Prominent NSRL supporters include former Governor Michael S. Dukakis (Democrat) and former Governor William F. Weld (Republican), who have made joint public appearances regarding this issue. Based on their advocacy, MassDOT agreed to fund a $2 million study in February 2016. The NSRL reevaluation report was released in June 2018. Its tunnel options included a four-track maximum-service plan, estimated to cost $21.5 billion and three double-track routes ranging in cost from $12.3 to 14.7 billion. South Station expansion was estimated to cost $4.7 billion. These costs are in 2028 dollars and include purchasing additional rolling stock, other required infrastructure improvements and a 3.5% annual inflation rate.
The Bandar Malaysia railway station is a railway station and a high-speed rail terminus under construction as part of the Bandar Malaysia project in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The station is planned to serve as a gateway to Kuala Lumpur with the under-planning Kuala Lumpur–Singapore High Speed Rail from Singapore, as well as a secondary transport hub after KL Sentral, connecting KLIA Transit, KTM Komuter and the Sungai Buloh–Serdang–Putrajaya MRT line. It will also primarily serve the south part of Bandar Malaysia, with the north being served by Bandar Malaysia North. The station will be built at the site of Simpang Airport together with Bandar Malaysia North station and the rest of the Bandar Malaysia development. However, the High Speed Rail and MRT Circle Line projects are cancelled until further notice.
The station will also be called the Bandar Malaysia South MRT station for the MRT station in the transport hub, set to be complete by 2022.Beijing South railway station
Beijingnan (Beijing South) railway station (Chinese: 北京南站; pinyin: Běijīngnán Zhàn) is a large railway station (mainly serving high speed trains) in Fengtai District, Beijing, about 7.5 km (4.7 mi) south of central Beijing, between the 2nd and 3rd ring roads. The station in its present form opened on 1 August 2008 and replaced the old Beijing South station, originally known as Majiapu railway station and later renamed Yongdingmen railway station, which stood 500 metres away. The old station was in use from 1897 to 2006.The new Beijing South railway station is the city's largest station, and is one of the largest in Asia. It joins the main Beijing railway station and the Beijing West railway station as one of three main passenger rail hubs in the Chinese capital. It serves as the terminus for high-speed trains on the Beijing–Tianjin intercity railway and Beijing–Shanghai high-speed Railway which can reach speeds up to 350 km/h (217 mph). CRH night sleepers to and from Shanghai also depart from this station.
The station integrates two Beijing Subway line stations, bus hubs (including an airport shuttle bus), and taxi stands, into the same building, and includes a wide variety of restaurants in the station itself.Bromley South railway station
Bromley South railway station is on the Chatham Main Line in England, serving the town centre and high street of Bromley, south-east London. It is 10 miles 71 chains (17.5 km) down the line from London Victoria and is situated between Shortlands and Bickley.
The station and most trains that call are operated by Southeastern, with some services also operated by Thameslink. It is in Travelcard Zone 5.Brookwood Cemetery
Brookwood Cemetery, also known as the London Necropolis, is a burial ground in Brookwood, Surrey, England. It is the largest cemetery in the United Kingdom and one of the largest in Europe. The cemetery is listed a Grade I site in the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens.Brussels-South railway station
Brussels-South (French: Bruxelles-Midi, Dutch: Brussel-Zuid, IATA code: ZYR) is one of the three major railway stations in Brussels (the other two are Brussels Central and Brussels North) and the busiest station in Belgium. It is located on the territory of the municipality of Saint-Gilles/Sint-Gillis.
The Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual; hence, both the French and Dutch names of the station are official. Outside Belgium, this often leads to the use of combined shorthands; for example in the Thomas Cook European Rail Timetable, Brussels-South is designated as Brussels Midi/Zuid; Dutch Railways announce the station as Brussel Zuid/Midi.
The station is also connected to the Gare du Midi/Zuidstation station of the Brussels Metro system.Capitol South station
Capitol South is an island-platformed Washington Metro station in the Capitol Hill neighborhood of Washington, D.C., United States. The station was opened on July 1, 1977, and is operated by the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA). The station currently provides service for the Blue, Orange, and Silver Lines.Dadeland South station
Dadeland South station is a transfer station on the Metrorail rapid transit system in the Dadeland district of Kendall, Florida, a CDP and unincorporated community located in Miami-Dade County. It is the southern terminus of the system. This station is located near the intersection of Dadeland Boulevard and Datran Boulevard, adjacent to South Dixie Highway (US 1), three blocks southwest of Kendall Drive and Dadeland Mall, and just east of the US 1–Palmetto Expressway (SR 826) junction. It opened to service May 20, 1984.
The station serves Downtown Dadeland as well as local shopping centers Dadeland Mall and Town Center One.Hongling South station
Hongling South station (Chinese: 红岭南站; pinyin: Hónglǐng Nán Zhàn) is a Metro station of Shenzhen Metro Line 9. It opened on 28 October 2016. This station is located under the southeast of the intersection of Hongling South Road and Shennan East Road. The station is an indirect interchange with Line 1 and Line 2 at Grand Theater Station.Hongshuwan South station
Hongshuwan South station (simplified Chinese: 红树湾南站; traditional Chinese: 紅樹灣南站; pinyin: Hóngshùwān Nán Zhàn; Jyutping: Hung4 Syu6 Waan1 Naam4 Zaam6; literally: 'Mangrove Bay South station') is an interchange station for Line 9 and Line 11 of the Shenzhen Metro. It was opened on 28 June 2016 with Line 11, whilst Line 9 was opened on 28 October 2016.Huaqiang South station
Huaqiang South station (Chinese: 华强南站; pinyin: Huá Qiáng Nán) is a Metro station of Shenzhen Metro Line 7. It opened on 28 October 2016.Humen railway station
Humen railway station (Chinese: 虎门站), formerly Dongguan South railway station (Chinese: 东莞南站), is a station in Baisha Village (Chinese: 白沙村), Humen, Dongguan City, Guangdong Province, China. It is one of the stations on the Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong Express Rail Link between Guangzhou South railway station in the Panyu District and Futian railway station in Shenzhen City.Humen railway station is connected to Dongchong Town in the Panyu District by the 10.8 kilometres (6.7 mi) long Shiziyang Tunnel under the Shiziyang Channel near the estuary of the Pearl River. The tunnel was completed in March 2011.North Station
North Station is a major transportation hub located at Causeway and Nashua Streets in Boston, Massachusetts, United States. It is one of the city's two inbound terminals for Amtrak and MBTA Commuter Rail trains, the other being South Station. The main concourse of North Station is located at the street level immediately below TD Garden, a major sports arena. The arena is also used for concerts and other events, taking advantage of the extensive transportation connections at the site.North–South Rail Link
The North–South Rail Link (NSRL) is a proposed rail tunnel, or pair of tunnels, that would connect North Station and South Station in downtown Boston, Massachusetts. New underground stations would be constructed near both existing stations. The route between the two stations is about 1.5 miles (2.4 km) long, but additional tunneling would be required to connect with existing surface lines.The tunnel connection would significantly benefit the MBTA Commuter Rail service by connecting its northern lines with South Station, Back Bay Station, and lines beyond Back Bay, including the Framingham/Worcester Line and the Northeast Corridor. A connection to commuter lines to the south is an option. The NSRL would also link Amtrak's various trains into and out of the city. Currently, the Amtrak Downeaster line from Maine has no direct connection with the Northeast Corridor trains to New York City and beyond. Both Amtrak and the MBTA commuter rail system currently have lines that terminate at the separate North and South Stations.
In June 2018, MassDOT released a North South Rail Link Feasibility Reassessment presentation that described several tunnel alternatives and compared them to a planned expansion of South Station (SSX), as well as to doing nothing (no build). The tunnel options include a four-track maximum-service plan, estimated to cost $21.5 billion and three double-track routes ranging in cost from $12.3 to 14.7 billion. South Station expansion was estimated to cost $4.7 billion. These costs are in 2028 dollars and include purchasing additional rolling stock, other required infrastructure improvements and a 3.5% annual inflation rate.Ortigas South station
Ortigas South station is a planned station on the Metro Manila Subway Line 9 . Like all other Line 9 stations, the station is underground. The station is planned to serve the southern portion of the Ortigas Center business district in San Antonio, Pasig City, where it derives its name.
The station is planned to be located underneath Meralco Avenue, a major road in the district, near its southern intersection at Shaw Boulevard, beside Capitol Commons
The station is slated to open in 2025, when the line commences full operationsRenmin South station
Renmin South station (Chinese: 人民南站; pinyin: Rénmín Nán Zhàn) is a Metro station of Shenzhen Metro Line 9. It opened on 28 October 2016. This station is located under the intersection of Renmin South Road and Chunfeng Road.Serdang Raya South station
The Serdang Raya South MRT station is a Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) station under construction that serving the suburb of Taman Serdang Raya and Taman Serdang Perdana in Selangor, Malaysia. It serves as one of the stations on Klang Valley Mass Rapid Transit (KVMRT) Sungai Buloh-Serdang-Putrajaya Line. The station will be built at the site of Vision Home Expo near North–South Expressway Southern Route.
The Serdang Raya South MRT station expected to complete and start operation on 2022.Shanghai South railway station
Shanghai South station (Chinese: 上海南站; pinyin: Shànghǎi Nánzhàn; Shanghainese: Zånhae Nuezae), is a railway station in the city of Shanghai, China. Located in the Xuhui District, its importance is second only to the Shanghai railway station. After extensive renovation that was finished in 2006, the station features a modern circular design, the first of its kind in the world. The station was expected to handle 15 million passengers annually.Shanghai South serves most trains to cities of Zhejiang (including Hangzhou, Shaoxing, Ningbo, Jinhua and Wenzhou) and the Southern provinces of China, excluding the Shanghai-Hong Kong Route. Without a Customs/Immigration checkpoint it is not capable of clearing passengers straight to Hong Kong; until such a checkpoint is constructed the Shanghai–Kowloon through train will continue to depart from Shanghai station. It is also possible to catch high-speed services to West Kowloon station in Hong Kong via Shanghai Hongqiao railway station: - customs and immigration clearance is done in Hong Kong.Shanghai South railway station also serves as the starting point for the Jinshan railway, running via Xinzhuang in Minhang District to Jinshanwei in Jinshan District, crossing the Huangpu River on a dedicated railway bridge.Silver Line (MBTA)
The Silver Line is the bus rapid transit (BRT) system of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA). It currently operates five routes in two sections that were built in separate phases.
The first section has two routes from Dudley Square in Roxbury, mostly via Washington Street, to Boston's Downtown Crossing (SL5) and South Station (SL4), using articulated buses operating in reserved lanes. The second section runs from South Station Under to Logan Airport in East Boston (SL1), South Boston in the Design Center area (SL2), and to Chelsea via the Chelsea Street Bridge (SL3). The second section runs dual-mode buses, partly in a dedicated bus tunnel and partly on shared roadway, including surface streets, the Ted Williams Tunnel, and airport roads. It also runs at dedicated busway in Chelsea. Riders can transfer between the sections and to other lines at South Station; transfers there between SL1, SL2, SL3, and the Red Line—but not SL4—are within fare control. A transfer between these lines and the SL4 can be made at street level just outside South Station.
Speed and schedule performance have disappointed some transit advocates, and the Silver Line routes fall short of the minimum BRT Standard promulgated by the Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (ITDP). Some sections have an exclusive right-of-way, but other sections are often delayed by street running in congested mixed traffic.South Station (subway)
South Station (also signed as South Station Under) is a transfer station on the MBTA rapid transit Red Line and bus rapid transit Silver Line, located at Summer Street and Atlantic Avenue in downtown Boston, Massachusetts. It is a part of the South Station complex, the second busiest transportation center in New England. Eight MBTA Commuter Rail and three Amtrak intercity rail services terminate at South Station; many of those passengers then transfer to the subway to reach other destinations in the city. With 25,037 daily boardings by a 2013 passenger count, South Station is the busiest station on the MBTA subway system.
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