South American gray fox

The South American gray fox (Lycalopex griseus), also known as the Patagonian fox, the chilla or the gray zorro, is a species of Lycalopex, the "false" foxes. It is endemic to the southern part of South America.

South American gray fox[1]
Zorrito Chile
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Canidae
Genus: Lycalopex
Species:
L. griseus
Binomial name
Lycalopex griseus
(Gray, 1837)
Pseudalopex griseus range map
Distribution of the South American gray fox
Synonyms[3]
  • Dusicyon griseus
  • Pseudalopex griseus (Gray, 1837)

Description

Pareja Zorro Chilla, Volcán Lonquimay 08jun14
Couple found by Lonquimay volcano, Araucanía Region, Chile

The South American gray fox is a small fox-like canid, weighing 2.5 to 5.45 kilograms (5.5 to 12.0 lb), and measuring 65 to 110 centimetres (26 to 43 in) in length including a tail of 20 to 43 cm (8 to 17 in). The head is reddish-brown flecked with white. The ears are large and there is a distinct black spot on the chin. The pelage is brindled, with agouti guard hairs and a short, dense pale undercoat. The underparts are pale grey. The limbs are tawny and the thighs are crossed by a dark bar. The long, bushy tail has a dark dorsal stripe and dark tip with a paler, mottled underside.[3]

Range and habitat

The South American gray fox is found in the Southern Cone of South America, particularly in Argentina and Chile. Its range comprises a stripe, both sides of the Andes Mountain Range between parallels 17ºS (northernmost Chile) and 54ºS (Tierra del Fuego).[2]

In Argentina, this species inhabits the western semiarid region of the country, from the Andean spurs (ca. 69ºW) to meridian 66ºW. South from the Río Grande, the distribution of the fox widens reaching the Atlantic coast. In Chile, it is present throughout the country. Its presence in Peru has been mentioned; to date, however, there has been no confirmation of it. The South American gray fox was introduced to the Falkland Islands in the late 1920s early 1930s and is still present in quite large numbers on Beaver and Weddell Islands plus several smaller islands.[2]

The South American gray fox occurs in a variety of habitats, from the warm, arid scrublands of the Argentine uplands and the cold, arid Patagonian steppe to the forests of southernmost Chile.[2]

Diet

The diet varies in different parts of its range and at different times of year. It consists mainly of mammals, birds, arthropods, bird eggs, reptiles, fruit and carrion. The main prey items seem to be small mammals, especially rodents. Fruits eaten include Cryptocarya alba, Lithraea caustica and Prosopanche spp.[4]

Reproduction

The South American gray fox breeds in late austral fall, around March. After a gestation period of two months, two to four kits are born in a den. Not much else is recorded about its lifestyle.

Interaction with environment

Fox pan de azucar
A chilla in Pan de Azucar National Park in the coast of Atacama Desert.

Urban

The South American gray fox is a largely solitary animal that has long been hunted for its pelt. The foxes sometimes go near human habitations in search of food such as chickens and sheep, but tend to avoid areas visited by dogs. They are useful in their role as scavengers of carrion and as dispersers of the seeds of the fruit they eat.[5][6]

Country

Where their ranges overlap, the South American gray fox is in competition with the larger culpeo fox. The former consumes a greater proportion of rodents, and arthropods make a significant portion of its diet, while the culpeo tends to consume larger prey, including the non-native European hare which has been introduced into Chile. These prey animals are partitioned between these two species, with the gray fox being excluded from the best prey territories by the larger culpeo.[7]

References

  1. ^ Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  2. ^ a b c d Jiménez; et al. (2008). "Pseudalopex griseus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 6 May 2008.
  3. ^ a b "Lycalopex griseus (mammal)". Global Invasive Species Database. Invasive Species Specialist Group. 10 August 2010. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
  4. ^ Claudio Sillero-Zubiri; Michael Hoffmann; David Whyte Macdonald (2004). "South American gray fox" (PDF). Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals and Dogs: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN. pp. 56–63. Retrieved 2015-01-24.
  5. ^ Peterson, L. (2011). "Lycalopex griseus: Culpeo". Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan. Retrieved 2015-04-08.
  6. ^ SILVA-RODRÍGUEZ, EDUARDO A.; ORTEGA-SOLÍS, GABRIEL R.; JIMÉNEZ, JAIME E. (2010). "Conservation and ecological implications of the use of space by chilla foxes and free-ranging dogs in a human-dominated landscape in southern Chile". Austral Ecology. 35 (7): 765–777. doi:10.1111/j.1442-9993.2009.02083.x.
  7. ^ Sonia C. Zapata; Alejandro Travaini; Miguel Delibes; Rolando Martínez-Peck (2005). "Food habits and resource partitioning between grey and culpeo foxes in southeastern Argentine Patagonia". Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment. 40 (2): 97–103. doi:10.1080/01650520500129836. hdl:10261/50241.

External links

Asiatic linsang

The Asiatic linsang (Prionodon) is a genus comprising two species native to Southeast Asia: the banded linsang (Prionodon linsang) and the spotted linsang (Prionodon pardicolor). Prionodon is considered a sister taxon of the Felidae.

Chilla

Chilla may refer to:

Chilla (Rajaji National Park), a wilderness area in Rajaji National Park in India

Chilla katna, in Hindustani classical music, chilla or chilla katna is a stage of training

Chilla (retreat), a Sufi practice of penance and solitude. Also practiced by Hindustani classical music artists.

Chilla Saroda Bangar, a census town in East Delhi District

South American gray fox, better known as the chilla

Culpeo

The culpeo (Lycalopex culpaeus), sometimes known as the zorro culpeo or Andean fox, is a South American fox species. It is the second-largest native canid on the continent, after the maned wolf. In appearance, it bears many similarities to the widely recognized red fox. It has grey and reddish fur, a white chin, reddish legs and a stripe on its back that may be barely visible.

The culpeo's diet consists largely of rodents, rabbits, birds and lizards, and to a lesser extent, plant material and carrion. The culpeo does attack sheep on occasion and is therefore often hunted or poisoned. In some regions it has become rare, but overall the species is not threatened with extinction.

The culpeo was domesticated to form the Fuegian dog, but this animal became extinct some time between 1880 and 1919.

Darwin's fox

Darwin's fox or Darwin's zorro (Lycalopex fulvipes) is an endangered canine from the genus Lycalopex. It is also known as the zorro chilote or zorro de Darwin in Spanish and lives on Nahuelbuta National Park (Araucanía Region), the Valdivian Coastal Range (Los Ríos Region) in mainland Chile and Chiloé Island. This small, dark canine weighs 1.8 to 3.95 kg (4.0 to 8.7 lb), has a head-and-body length of 48 to 59 cm (19 to 23 in) and a tail that is 17.5 to 25.5 cm (7 to 10 in).Darwin's fox was first collected from San Pedro Island off the coast of Chile by the naturalist Charles Darwin in 1834. It was long held that Darwin's fox was a subspecies of the South American gray fox (L. griseus); however, the discovery of a small population of Darwin's fox on the mainland in Nahuelbuta National Park in 1990 and subsequent genetic analysis has clarified the fox's status as a unique species. In 2012 and 2013 the presence of the Darwin's fox at Oncol Park, Alerce Costero National Park and the Valdivian Coastal Reserve was confirmed through camera trapping.

Fox

Foxes are small-to-medium-sized, omnivorous mammals belonging to several genera of the family Canidae. Foxes have a flattened skull, upright triangular ears, a pointed, slightly upturned snout, and a long bushy tail (or brush).

Twelve species belong to the monophyletic "true foxes" group of genus Vulpes. Approximately another 25 current or extinct species are always or sometimes called foxes; these foxes are either part of the paraphyletic group of the South American foxes, or of the outlying group, which consists of bat-eared fox, gray fox, and island fox. Foxes live on every continent except Antarctica. By far the most common and widespread species of fox is the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) with about 47 recognized subspecies. The global distribution of foxes, together with their widespread reputation for cunning, has contributed to their prominence in popular culture and folklore in many societies around the world. The hunting of foxes with packs of hounds, long an established pursuit in Europe, especially in the British Isles, was exported by European settlers to various parts of the New World.

Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk

Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk, also known as the Patagonian hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus humboldtii) is a type of hog-nosed skunk indigenous to the open grassy areas in the Patagonian regions of Argentina and Chile. It belongs to the order Carnivora and the family Mephitidae.

Indian brown mongoose

The Indian brown mongoose (Herpestes fuscus) looks similar to the short-tailed mongoose from Southeast Asia and is sometimes believed to be only a subspecies of this latter. The Indian brown mongoose is found in southwest India and Sri Lanka.

Lutrogale

Lutrogale is a genus of otters, with only one extant species—the smooth-coated otter.

Maned wolf

The maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) is the largest canid of South America. Its markings resemble those of foxes, but it is not a fox, nor is it a wolf. It is the only species in the genus Chrysocyon (meaning "golden dog").

This mammal is found in open and semiopen habitats, especially grasslands with scattered bushes and trees, in south, central-west, and southeastern Brazil, Paraguay, northern Argentina, Bolivia east and north of the Andes, and far southeastern Peru (Pampas del Heath only). It is very rare in Uruguay, possibly being displaced completely through loss of habitat. IUCN lists it as near threatened, while it is considered a vulnerable species by the Brazilian government (IBAMA).

It is known locally as aguará guazú (meaning "large fox" in the Guarani language), or kalak in the Toba Qom language, lobo de crin, lobo de los esteros, or lobo colorado, and lobo-guará in Brazil. It also is called borochi in Bolivia.

Mustelinae

Mustelinae is a subfamily of family Mustelidae, which includes weasels, ferrets amd minks.It was formerly defined in a paraphyletic manner to also include wolverines, martens, and many other mustelids, to the exclusion of the otters (Lutrinae).

Nyctereutes

Nyctereutes is an Old World genus of the family Canidae, consisting of just one living species, the raccoon dog of East Asia. Nyctereutes appeared about 9.0 million years ago (Mya), with all but one species becoming extinct before the Pleistocene.

Native to East Asia, the raccoon dog has been intensively bred for fur in Europe and especially in Russia during the twentieth century. Specimens have escaped or have been introduced to increase production and formed populations in Eastern Europe. It is currently expanding rapidly in the rest of Europe, where its presence is undesirable because it is considered to be a harmful and invasive species.

Paradoxurinae

The Paradoxurinae are a subfamily of the viverrids that was denominated and first described by John Edward Gray in 1864.Pocock subordinated the oriental genera Paradoxurus, Paguma and Arctictis to this subfamily.

Paradoxurus

Paradoxurus is a genus within the viverrid family that was denominated and first described by Frédéric Cuvier in 1822. As of 2005, this genus was defined as comprising three species native to Southeast Asia:

the Asian palm civet (P. hermaphroditus)

the golden palm civet (P. zeylonensis)

the brown palm civet (P. jerdoni)In 2009, it was proposed to also include the golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus), the Sri Lankan brown palm civet (P. montanus) and the golden dry-zone palm civet (P. stenocephalus), which are endemic to Sri Lanka.

Patagonian fox

Patagonian fox may refer to:

Culpeo

South American gray fox

Ruddy-headed goose

The ruddy-headed goose (Chloephaga rubidiceps) is a large sheldgoose, which breeds in southernmost South America.

It breeds on open grassy plains in Tierra del Fuego, Chile and the Falkland Islands. The South American birds are now very rare. They winter on lowlands in southern Argentina, some distance north of the breeding range. The Falklands population is resident.

The lined nest is built amongst grass tussocks, and 4-11 eggs are laid. This terrestrial species favours damp upland forest clearings and feeds by grazing; it rarely swims. It forms flocks outside the breeding season, often mixed with ashy-headed goose.

Ruddy-headed goose is a stocky 45–50 cm bird with a pale grey back, and black-barred rich buff underparts. The head and upper neck are chestnut brown. Sexes are similar, but immature birds are duller.

In flight this species shows black primaries, with the rest of the wing white except for a broad green bar. The male's call is a soft whistle, and the female's is a harsh cackle.

This species remains numerous in the Falklands, despite competition from grazing cattle and sheep, but the South American population in Tierra del Fuego has been reduced to a few hundred birds not only by livestock farming, but especially predation by the South American gray fox, which was introduced to Tierra del Fuego in the 1950s to control rabbits.

South American fox

The South American foxes (Lycalopex), commonly called raposa in Portuguese, or zorro in Spanish, are a genus of the family Canidae from South America. Despite their name, they are not true foxes, but are a unique canid genus related to wolves and jackals, which some somewhat resemble foxes due to convergent evolution. The South American gray fox, Lycalopex griseus, is the most common species, and is known for its large ears and a highly marketable, russet-fringed pelt.

The oldest known fossils belonging to the genus were discovered in Chile, and date from 2.0 to 2.5 million years ago, in the mid- to late Pliocene.

Tolhuaca National Park

Tolhuaca National Park (Spanish pronunciation: [tolˈwaka]) is a Protected Area created on October 16, 1935 in an area of 3,500 ha that was previously part of the Malleco National Reserve. In 1985, a second section of Malleco National Reserve was also made part of the national park. Malleco National Reserve was the first protected wildlife area in both Chile and South America, so the land within Tolhuaca National Park is one of the oldest protected areas on the continent.

Extant Carnivora species

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