South American coati

The South American coati or ring-tailed coati (Nasua nasua) is a species of coati and a member of the raccoon family (Procyonidae), from tropical and subtropical South America.[3] In Brazilian Portuguese, it is known as quati. An adult generally weighs 2–7.2 kg (4.4–15.9 lb) and is 85–113 cm (33–44 in) long, with half of that being its tail.[4] Its color is highly variable and the rings on the tail may be only somewhat visible, but its distinguishing characteristic is that it lacks the largely white snout (or "nose") of its northern relative, the white-nosed coati.[4]

South American coati[1]
Nasenbaer Nasua nasua Zoo Augsburg-04
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Phylum:
Class:
Order:
Suborder:
Family:
Genus:
Species:
N. nasua
Binomial name
Nasua nasua
(Linnaeus, 1766)
Subspecies

13, see text

South American Coati area
South American coati range. Note: Also found in west Ecuador, and west and north Colombia, see text.
Synonyms

Viverra nasua Linnaeus, 1766

Distribution

The South American coati is widespread in tropical and subtropical South America. Most of its distribution is in the lowlands east of the Andes (locally, it occurs as high as 2,500 m or 8,200 ft), from Colombia and The Guianas south to Uruguay and northern Argentina. Chile is the only South American country where the species is not found.[2][4]

The status of coatis west of the Andes has caused some confusion,[5] but specimen records from west Ecuador, and north and west Colombia are South American coatis.[6][7] The only documented records of white-nosed coatis in South America are from far northwestern Colombia (Gulf of Urabá region, near Colombian border with Panama).[6][7] The smaller mountain coatis are mainly found at altitudes above the South American coati, but there is considerable overlap.[8]

Behavior

Nasua nasua Ilha Anchieta
South American coatis are variable in color and can be orange-red[4]

South American coatis are diurnal animals, and they live both on the ground and in trees.[9] They typically live in the forest.[10] They are omnivorous and primarily eat fruit, invertebrates, other small animals and bird eggs.[9] Coatis search for fruit in trees high in the canopy, and use their snouts to poke through crevices to find animal prey on the ground.[9] They also search for animal prey by turning over rocks on the ground or ripping open logs with their claws.[9]

Uchunari Meja
A coati eating coffee bean

Females typically live in large groups, called bands, consisting of 15 to 30 animals.[9][10] Males, on the other hand, are usually solitary.[10] Solitary males were originally considered a separate species due to the different social habits and were called "coatimundis",[10] a term still sometimes used today. Neither bands of females nor solitary males defend a unique territory, and territories therefore overlap.[10]

Group members produce soft whining sounds, but alarm calls are different, consisting of loud woofs and clicks.[9] When an alarm call is sounded, the coatis typically climb trees, and then drop down to the ground and disperse.[9] Coatis typically sleep in the trees.[9] Predators of the South American coati include foxes, jaguars, jaguarundis, domestic dogs, and people.[11]

Reproduction

Iguassu Falls, Brazil-Argentina - the omnipresent South American Coati (Nasua nasua) - or coatimundi - (24214892214)
A family of coati in Iguazu Falls

All females in a group come into heat simultaneously when fruit is in season.[10] Females mate with multiple males.[10] Gestation period is 77 days.[10] Females give birth to 2–4 young at a time, which are raised in a nest in the trees for 4–6 weeks.[9][10] Females leave the group during this time.[9][10] Females tend to remain with the group they were born in but males generally disperse from their mothers' group after 3 years.[10]

Other

South American coatis generally live for up to 7 years in the wild, but can live up to 14 years in captivity.[10]

In a case of circular reporting, the coati has become known as the Brazilian aardvark due to a joke posted onto this Wikipedia article in 2008.[12]

Subspecies

The South American coati has 13 recognized subspecies:[1]

  • Nasua nasua nasua
  • Nasua nasua aricana Vieira, 1945
  • Nasua nasua boliviensis Cabrera, 1956
  • Nasua nasua candace Thomas, 1912
  • Nasua nasua cinerascens Lönnberg, 1921
  • Nasua nasua dorsalis Gray, 1866
  • Nasua nasua manium Thomas, 1912
  • Nasua nasua molaris Merriam, 1902
  • Nasua nasua montana Tschundi, 1844
  • Nasua nasua quichua Thomas, 1912
  • Nasua nasua solitaria Schinz, 1823
  • Nasua nasua spadicea Olfers, 1818
  • Nasua nasua vittata Tschudi, 1844

References

  1. ^ a b Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M., eds. (2005). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  2. ^ a b Duckworth, J.W. & Schipper, J. (2008). "Nasua nasua". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  3. ^ Gompper, Matthew E., and Denise M. Decker. "Nasua nasua." Mammalian species 580 (1998): 1-9.
  4. ^ a b c d Kays, R. (2009). South American Coati (Nasua nasua), pp. 526-528 in: Wilson, D. E., and R. A. Mittermeier, eds. (2009). Handbook of the Mammals of the World. Vol. 1, Carnivores. ISBN 978-84-96553-49-1
  5. ^ Eisenberg, J., and K. H. Redford (1999). Mammals of the Neotropics: The Central Neotropics. Vol. 3, p. 288. ISBN 0-226-19541-4
  6. ^ a b Decker, D. M. (1991). Systematics Of The Coatis, Genus Nasua (Mammalia, Procyonidae) Archived 2014-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 104: 370-386
  7. ^ a b Guzman-Lenis, A. R. (2004). Preliminary Review of the Procyonidae in Colombia. Archived 2014-04-26 at the Wayback Machine Acta Biológica Colombiana 9(1): 69-76
  8. ^ Helgen, K. M., R. Kays, L. E. Helgen, M. T. N. Tsuchiya-Jerep, C. M. Pinto, K. P. Koepfli, E. Eizirik, and J. E. Maldonado (2009). Taxonomic boundaries and geographic distributions revealed by an integrative systematic overview of the mountain coatis, Nasuella (Carnivora: Procyonidae). Small Carnivore Conservation 41: 65–74.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Emmons, Louise (1997). Neotropical Rainforest Mammals, A Field Guide (2nd ed.). pp. 153–154. ISBN 978-0-226-20721-6.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "BBC Ring-tailed Coati". Archived from the original on 2009-01-14. Retrieved 2007-07-13.
  11. ^ "Southern Coati". Archived from the original on 2008-07-09. Retrieved 2007-07-13.
  12. ^ Randall, Eric. "How a Raccoon Became an Aardvark". The New Yorker. 19 May 2014. Accessed 4 March 2018
Bassaricyon

The genus Bassaricyon consists of small Neotropical procyonids, popularly known as olingos . They are native to the rainforests of Central and South America from Nicaragua to Peru. They are arboreal and nocturnal, and live at elevations from sea level to 2,750 m. Olingos closely resemble the kinkajou in morphology and habits, though they lack prehensile tails and extrudable tongues, have more extended muzzles, and possess anal scent glands. They also resemble galagos and certain lemurs, which are primates.

Genetic studies have shown that the closest relatives of the olingos are actually the coatis; the divergence between the two groups is estimated to have occurred about 10.2 million years (Ma) ago during the Tortonian age, while kinkajous split off from the other extant procyonids about 22.6 Ma ago during the Aquitanian age. The similarities between kinkajous and olingos are thus an example of parallel evolution.

Bassariscus

Bassariscus is a genus in the family Procyonidae. There are two species in the genus: the ring-tailed cat or ringtail (B. astutus) and the cacomistle (B. sumichrasti). Genetic studies have indicated that the closest relatives of Bassariscus are raccoons, from which they diverged about 10 million years ago. The two lineages of Bassariscus are thought to have separated after only another two million years, making it the extant procyonid genus with the earliest diversification.

The name is a Greek word for fox ("bassaris") with a Latinized diminutive ending ("-iscus"). The genus was first described by Elliott Coues in 1887. He proposed the word "bassarisk" as the English term for animals in this genus. Its habitat includes semi-arid areas in the southwestern United States, the whole of Mexico, as well as moist tropical forests in Central America.

Cacomistle

The cacomistle, Bassariscus sumichrasti, is a nocturnal, arboreal and omnivorous member of the carnivoran family Procyonidae. Its preferred habitats are wet, tropical, evergreen woodlands and mountain forests, though seasonally it will venture into drier deciduous forests.

Nowhere in its range (from southern Mexico to western Panama) is B. sumichrasti common. This is especially true in Costa Rica, where it inhabits only a very small area. It is completely dependent on forest habitat, making it particularly susceptible to deforestation.

The term cacomistle is from the Nahuatl language (tlahcomiztli) and means "half cat" or "half mountain lion"; it is sometimes also used to refer to the ringtail, Bassariscus astutus, a similar species that inhabits arid northern Mexico and the American Southwest.

Coati

Coatis, also known as the coatimundis (), are members of the raccoon family (Procyonidae) in the genera Nasua and Nasuella. They are diurnal mammals native to South America, Central America, and southwestern North America. The name coatimundi is purportedly derived from the Tupian languages of Brazil.The coati is also known in English as the hog-nosed coon.

Coatimundi

Coatimundi may refer to:

South American coati, or ring-tailed coati (Nasua nasua); mammals of the raccoon family

Coati (Nasua), the genus of which the South American coati is a species

Coati Mundi (musician), a musician whose birth name is Andy Hernandez

Eastern lowland olingo

The eastern lowland olingo (Bassaricyon alleni) is a species of olingo from South America, where it is known from the lowlands east of the Andes in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru and Venezuela. It is the only olingo species found east of the Andes. The Latin species name honors Joel Asaph Allen, the American zoologist who first described the genus Bassaricyon.

Guadeloupe raccoon

The Guadeloupe raccoon (Procyon lotor minor) is a common raccoon endemic on the two main islands Basse-Terre Island and Grande-Terre of Guadeloupe in the Lesser Antilles.

Lutrogale

Lutrogale is a genus of otters, with only one extant species—the smooth-coated otter.

Nasua

Nasua is a genus of coatis of the family Procyonidae. Two additional species of coatis, commonly known as mountain coatis, are placed in the genus Nasuella.

Nasuella

Mountain coatis are two species of procyonid mammals from the genus Nasuella. Unlike the larger coatis from the genus Nasua, mountain coatis only weigh 1.0–1.5 kilograms (2.2–3.3 lb) and are endemic to the north Andean highlands in South America.

Nasuella meridensis

The eastern mountain coati or eastern dwarf coati (Nasuella meridensis) is a small procyonid found in cloud forest and páramo at altitudes of 2,000–4,000 metres (6,600–13,100 ft) in the Andes of western Venezuela. Until 2009, it was usually included as a subspecies of the western mountain coati, but the eastern mountain coati is overall smaller, somewhat shorter-tailed on average, has markedly smaller teeth, a paler olive-brown pelage, and usually a dark mid-dorsal stripe on the back (versus more rufescent or blackish, and usually without a dark mid-dorsal stripe in the western mountain coati). When the two were combined, they were rated as Data Deficient by the IUCN, but following the split the eastern mountain coati is considered endangered.

Nasuella olivacea

The western mountain coati or western dwarf coati (Nasuella olivacea) is a small procyonid, found in cloud forest and páramo at altitudes of 1,300–4,250 metres (4,270–13,940 ft) in the Andes of Colombia and Ecuador. A population discovered in the Apurímac–Cuzco region of southern Peru (more than 1,000 km or 620 mi south of the previous distribution limit) has tentatively been identified as the western mountain coati, but may represent an undescribed taxon.Until 2009, the western mountain coati (then simply known as the mountain coati) usually included the eastern mountain coati as a subspecies, but that species is overall smaller, somewhat shorter-tailed on average, has markedly smaller teeth, a paler olive-brown pelage, and usually a dark mid-dorsal stripe on the back (versus more rufescent or blackish, and usually without a dark mid-dorsal stripe in the western mountain coati). When the two were combined, they were rated as Data Deficient by the IUCN, but following the split the western mountain coati is considered Near Threatened.There are two subspecies of the western mountain coati: N. o. olivacea and the slightly smaller and darker N. o. quitensis with less distinct rings on the tail. The former is known from Colombia and the latter from Ecuador, but the exact distribution limit between the two is not known.

Northern olingo

The northern olingo (Bassaricyon gabbii), also known as the bushy-tailed olingo or as simply the olingo (due to it being the most commonly seen of the species), is a tree-dwelling member of the family Procyonidae, which also includes raccoons. It was the first species of olingo to be described, and while it is considered by some authors to be the only genuine olingo species, a recent review of the Bassaricyon genus has shown that there are a total of four olingo species, although two of the former species should now be considered as a part of this species. Its scientific name honors William More Gabb, who collected the first specimen. It is native to Central America.

Olinguito

The olinguito , Bassaricyon neblina, is a mammal of the raccoon family Procyonidae that lives in montane forests in the Andes of western Colombia and Ecuador. The species was described as new in 2013. The species name neblina is Spanish for fog or mist, referring to the cloud forest habitat of the olinguito.On 22 May 2014 the International Institute for Species Exploration declared the olinguito as one of the "Top 10 New Species of 2014" among species discovered in 2013. It is the first new carnivoran mammal described in the Western Hemisphere in 35 years.

Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve

Pacaya–Samiria National Reserve, is a protected area located in the region of Loreto, Peru and spans an area of 20,800 km2 (8,000 sq mi). It protects an area of low hills and seasonally flooded forest in the Amazon rainforest.

Procyon (genus)

Procyon is a genus of nocturnal mammals, comprising three species commonly known as raccoons, in the family Procyonidae. The most familiar species, the common raccoon (P. lotor), is often known simply as "the" raccoon, as the two other raccoon species in the genus are native only to the tropics and less well known. Genetic studies have shown that the closest relatives of raccoons are the ring-tailed cats and cacomistles of genus Bassariscus, from which they diverged about 10 million years ago.

Procyonidae

Procyonidae is a New World family of the order Carnivora. It comprises the raccoons, coatis, kinkajous, olingos, olinguitos, ringtails, and cacomistles. Procyonids inhabit a wide range of environments and are generally omnivorous.

Space Farms Zoo and Museum

Space Farms Zoo and Museum is a combination of a natural environment for animals and a historical museum located at 218 Route 519, in the Beemerville section of Wantage Township in Sussex County, New Jersey, in the United States.

Founded in 1927, the zoo is home to a wide selection of mammals and reptiles of the North America region and all over the world, including some endangered species. At one time, Space Farms was host to the largest bear in captivity in the world, a Kodiak bear named Goliath. The 2,000-pound (900 kg) Goliath still stands tall in front of a diverse taxidermy exhibit in the main hall of the museum. He was preserved in an imposing upright position after his death in 1991. His abnormally large skull is upstairs, where one can compare it to skulls of other animals.

The Space Farms museum houses an extensive variety of antique vehicles and items used during the early history of the United States, such as horse-drawn carriages and early motorcycles. The vehicles are largely unrestored, being in much the same remarkable condition as when they were acquired. There are also colonial period tools and weapons on display.

Children can feed young animals by hand and there is a large food and drink area for picnics. There is also a gift shop and playground area where people can explore nature without being in the wild. The atmosphere is very relaxed, with family members giving talks and performing (animal) infant feedings.

Space Farms was named one of the Top 10 Worst Zoos by Parade Magazine in 1984. An article from the Associated Press about the list stated, "The 10 worst, 'animal slums' with bare, cell-like environments that can cause physical and emotional damage to animals, according to the magazine, were [...] Space Games Farm Zoo, Sussex, N.J." More recently, enclosures have been designed for enhanced enrichment and privacy. In 2011, Space Farms built outside enclosures for two African Serval, that included locust tree branches and a privacy den, and for two South American Coati, with a branched tree and several boulders. In 2014, a new Kodiak Bear exhibit was scheduled to open.

Western lowland olingo

The western lowland olingo (Bassaricyon medius) is a species of olingo from Central and South America, where it is known from Panama and from Colombia and Ecuador west of the Andes.

Extant species of family Procyonidae
Procyoninae
Potosinae
Extant Carnivora species

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