Sorghum

Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae. Seventeen of the 25 species are native to Australia,[2][3] with the range of some extending to Africa, Asia, Mesoamerica, and certain islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans.[4][5] One species is grown for grain, while many others are used as fodder plants, either cultivated in warm climates worldwide or naturalized, in pasture lands.[6] Sorghum is in the subfamily Panicoideae and the tribe Andropogoneae (the tribe of big bluestem and sugarcane).

Sorghum
Sorghum
Sorghum bicolor
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Clade: Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Subfamily: Panicoideae
Supertribe: Andropogonodae
Tribe: Andropogoneae
Genus: Sorghum
Moench 1794, conserved name not Sorgum Adanson 1763
Type species
Sorghum bicolor
Synonyms[1]
  • Blumenbachia Koeler 1802, rejected name not Schrad. 1825 (Loasaceae)
  • Sarga Ewart
  • Vacoparis Spangler
  • Andropogon subg. Sorghum Hackel.

Cultivation and uses

One species, Sorghum bicolor,[7] native to Africa with many cultivated forms now,[8] is an important crop worldwide, used for food (as grain and in sorghum syrup or "sorghum molasses"), animal fodder, the production of alcoholic beverages, and biofuels. Most varieties are drought- and heat-tolerant, and are especially important in arid regions, where the grain is one of the staples for poor and rural people. These varieties form important components of forage in many tropical regions. S. bicolor is an important food crop in Africa, Central America, and South Asia, and is the fifth-most important cereal crop grown in the world.[9]

In the early stages of the plants' growth, some species of sorghum can contain levels of hydrogen cyanide, hordenine, and nitrates which are lethal to grazing animals. When stressed by drought or heat, plants can also contain toxic levels of cyanide and nitrates at later stages in growth. [10][11]

Global demand for sorghum increased dramatically between 2013 and 2015 when China began purchasing US sorghum crops to use as livestock feed as a substitute for domestically grown corn. China purchased around $1 billion worth of American sorghum per year until April 2018 when China imposed retaliatory duties on American sorghum as part of the trade war between the two countries.[12]

Diversity

Accepted species[13]
  1. Sorghum amplum – northwestern Australia
  2. Sorghum angustum – Queensland
  3. Sorghum arundinaceum – Africa, Indian Subcontinent, Madagascar, islands of the western Indian Ocean
  4. Sorghum bicolor – cultivated sorghum, often individually called sorghum, also known as durra, jowari, or milo. Native to Sahel region of Africa; naturalized in many places
  5. Sorghum brachypodum – Northern Territory of Australia
  6. Sorghum bulbosum – Northern Territory, Western Australia
  7. Sorghum burmahicum – Thailand, Myanmar
  8. Sorghum controversum – India
  9. Sorghum × drummondii – Sahel and West Africa
  10. Sorghum ecarinatum – Northern Territory, Western Australia
  11. Sorghum exstans – Northern Territory of Australia
  12. Sorghum grande – Northern Territory, Queensland
  13. Sorghum halepense – Johnson grass – North Africa, islands of eastern Atlantic, southern Asia from Lebanon to Vietnam; naturalized in East Asia, Australia, the Americas
  14. Sorghum interjectum – Northern Territory, Western Australia
  15. Sorghum intrans – Northern Territory, Western Australia
  16. Sorghum laxiflorum – Philippines, Lesser Sunda Islands, Sulawesi, New Guinea, northern Australia
  17. Sorghum leiocladum – Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria
  18. Sorghum macrospermum – Northern Territory of Australia
  19. Sorghum matarankense – Northern Territory, Western Australia
  20. Sorghum nitidum – East Asia, Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia, New Guinea, Micronesia
  21. Sorghum plumosum – Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia
  22. Sorghum propinquum – China, Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia, New Guinea, Christmas Island, Micronesia, Cook Islands
  23. Sorghum purpureosericeum – Sahel from Mali to Tanzania; Yemen, Oman, India
  24. Sorghum stipoideum – Northern Territory, Western Australia
  25. Sorghum timorense – Lesser Sunda Islands, Maluku, New Guinea, northern Australia
  26. Sorghum trichocladum – Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras
  27. Sorghum versicolor – eastern + southern Africa from Ethiopia to Namibia; Oman
  28. Sorghum virgatum – dry regions from Senegal to Israel
Formerly included

Many species once considered part of Sorghum, but now considered better suited to other genera include: Andropogon, Arthraxon, Bothriochloa, Chrysopogon, Cymbopogon, Danthoniopsis, Dichanthium, Diectomis, Diheteropogon, Exotheca, Hyparrhenia, Hyperthelia, Monocymbium, Parahyparrhenia, Pentameris, Pseudosorghum, Schizachyrium, and Sorghastrum.

See also

References

  1. ^ "World Checklist of Selected Plant Families: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew". Retrieved 4 September 2016.
  2. ^ Sally L. Dillon; Peter K. Lawrence; Robert J. Henry; et al. "Sorghum laxiflorum and S. macrospermum, the Australian native species most closely related to the cultivated S. bicolor based on ITS1 and ndhF sequence analysis of 28 Sorghum species". Southern Cross Plant Science. Southern Cross University. Retrieved 28 February 2016.
  3. ^ Australia, Atlas of Living. "Sorghum - Atlas of Living Australia". Retrieved 4 September 2016.
  4. ^ "Tropicos, ''Sorghum'' Moench". Tropicos.org. Retrieved 2018-05-31.
  5. ^ "Flora of China Vol. 22 Page 600 高粱属 gao liang shu ''Sorghum'' Moench, Methodus. 207. 1794". Efloras.org. Retrieved 2018-05-31.
  6. ^ "Sorghum". County-level distribution maps from the North American Plant Atlas (NAPA). Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 2014. Retrieved 4 September 2016.
  7. ^ Mutegi, Evans; Sagnard, Fabrice; Muraya, Moses; et al. (2010-02-01). "Ecogeographical distribution of wild, weedy and cultivated Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench in Kenya: implications for conservation and crop-to-wild gene flow". Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 57 (2): 243–253. doi:10.1007/s10722-009-9466-7.
  8. ^ Stefan Hauser, Lydia Wairegi, Charles L. A. Asadu, Damian O. Asawalam, Grace Jokthan, Utiang Ugbe (2015). "Sorghum- and millet-legume cropping systems" (PDF). CABI and Africa Soil Health Consortium. Retrieved 7 October 2018.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  9. ^ Tove Danovich (15 December 2015). "Move over, quinoa: sorghum is the new 'wonder grain'". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 July 2018.
  10. ^ "Cyanide (prussic acid) and nitrate in sorghum crops Primary industries and fisheries. Queensland Government". Retrieved 2018-10-15.
  11. ^ "Sorghum". Retrieved 2018-10-15.
  12. ^ "Sorghum, targeted by tariffs, is a U.S. crop China started buying only five years ago". LA Times. Apr 18, 2018. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  13. ^ "The Plant List: Sorghum". Royal Botanic Gardens Kew and Missouri Botanic Garden. Retrieved 28 February 2017.

Further reading

  • Watson, Andrew M. (1983). Agricultural Innovation in the Early Islamic World: The Diffusion of Crops and Farming Techniques, 700–1100. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-24711-X.

External links

Agkud

Agkud is a traditional Filipino fermented rice paste or rice wine of the Manobo people from Bukidnon. Agkud specifically refers to fermented three-day-old paste made with rice, ginger, sugarcane juice, and agonan or tapey (the yeast starter culture, also known as bubud or tapay in Tagalog and Visayan languages). However, it can also refer to the rice wine made from agkud (more properly pangasi, gasi, or lihing), since it is made with the same process except fermented longer for at least one month. Modern versions of the agkud can use other sources of starch like cassava, sorghum, or corn. Hot peppers may also be used instead of ginger. Agkud is drank during celebrations, rituals, and various social events.

Baijiu

Baijiu (Chinese: 白酒; pinyin: báijiǔ; literally: 'white (clear) liquor'), also known as shaojiu, is a category of at least a dozen Chinese liquors made from grain. Báijiǔ literally means "white (clear) alcohol" or liquor.

Báijiǔ is a clear liquid usually distilled from fermented sorghum, although other grains may be used; some southeastern Chinese styles may employ rice or glutinous rice, while other Chinese varieties may use wheat, barley, millet, or even Coix lacryma-jobi var. ma-yuen (yìyǐ) in their mash bills. The qū starter culture used in the production of baijiu is usually made from pulverized wheat grain or steamed rice.Because of its clarity, baijiu can appear similar to several other East Asian liquors, but it often has a significantly higher alcohol content than, for example, Japanese shōchū (25%) or Korean soju (20–45%). Despite being a white spirit, it more closely resembles a dark spirit like whisky in terms of complexity and mouthfeel.

It is the largest spirit category in the world, with 5 billion litres sold in 2016.

Banana beer

Banana beer is an alcoholic beverage made from fermentation of mashed bananas. Sorghum, millet or maize flour are added as a source of wild yeast.

Chadian cuisine

Chadian cuisine is the cooking traditions, practices, foods and dishes associated with the Republic of Chad. Chadians use a medium variety of grains, vegetables, fruits and meats. Commonly consumed grains include millet, sorghum, and rice as staple foods. Commonly eaten vegetables include okra and cassava. A variety of fruits are also eaten. Meats include mutton, chicken, pork, goat, fish, lamb and beef. The day's main meal is typically consumed in the evening on a large communal plate, with men and women usually eating in separate areas. This meal is typically served on the ground upon a mat, with people sitting and eating around it.

Commercial sorghum

Commercial sorghum is the cultivation and commercial exploitation of species of grasses within the genus Sorghum (often S. bicolor). These plants are used for grain, fibre and fodder. The plants are cultivated in warmer climates worldwide. Commercial Sorghum species are native to tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and Asia.

Other names include durra, Egyptian millet, feterita, Guinea corn, jwari ज्वारी (Marathi), jowar, juwar, milo, shallu, Sudan grass, cholam (Tamil), jola/ಜೋಳ (Kannada), jonnalu (Telugu), gaoliang (zh:高粱), great millet, kafir corn, dura, dari, mtama, and solam.

Sorghum has been, for centuries, one of the most important staple foods for millions of poor rural people in the semiarid tropics of Asia and Africa. For some impoverished regions of the world, sorghum remains a principal source of energy, protein, vitamins and minerals. Sorghum grows in harsh environments where other crops do not grow well, just like other staple foods, such as cassava, that are common in impoverished regions of the world. It is usually grown without application of any fertilizers or other inputs by a multitude of small-holder farmers in many countries.Grain sorghum is the third most important cereal crop grown in the United States and the fifth most important cereal crop grown in the world. In 2010, Nigeria was the world's largest producer of grain sorghum, followed by the United States and India. In developed countries, and increasingly in developing countries such as India, the predominant use of sorghum is as fodder for poultry and cattle. Leading exporters in 2010 were the United States, Australia and Argentina; Mexico was the largest importer of sorghum.

An international effort is under way to improve sorghum farming. The International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) has improved sorghum using traditional genetic improvement and integrated genetic and natural resources management practices. New varieties of sorghum from ICRISAT has now resulted in India producing 7 tons per hectare. Some 194 improved cultivars are now planted worldwide. In India, increases in sorghum productivity resulting from improved cultivars have freed up six million hectares of land, enabling farmers to diversify into high-income cash crops and boost their livelihoods. Sorghum is used primarily as poultry feed, and secondarily as cattle feed and in brewing applications.

Cuisine of Eswatini

The cuisine of Eswatini is largely determined by the seasons and the geographical region. Staple foods in Swaziland include sorghum and maize, often served with goat meat, a very popular livestock there. The farming industry mainly depends on sugar cane, tobacco, rice, corn, peanuts, and the exportation of goat meat and beef. Many Swazis are subsistence farmers who supplement their diet with food bought from markets.

Freshwater produce and imports from coastal nations are also part of the cuisine of Eswatini . Some local markets have food stalls with traditional Swazi meat stew, maize meal and seasonal roasted corn on the cob.

Emasi emabele

Ground sorghum mixed with sour milk

Sidvudvu

Porridge made of pumpkin mixed with cornmeal

Umncweba

Dried uncooked meat (biltong)

Cuisine of Mozambique

The cuisine of Mozambique has deeply been influenced by the Portuguese, who introduced new crops, flavorings, and cooking methods. The staple food for many Mozambicans is ncima, a thick porridge made from maize/corn flour. Cassava and rice are also eaten as staple carbohydrates. All of these are served with sauces of vegetables, meat, beans or fish. Other typical ingredients include cashew nuts, onions, bay leaves, garlic, coriander, paprika, pepper, red pepper, sugar cane, corn, millet, sorghum and potatoes.

Jolada rotti

Jolada rotti (Kannada: ಜೋಳದ ರೊಟ್ಟಿ) is an unleavened Indian bread made out of jowar (sorghum), originating from North Karnataka. It is coarser than a roti. It can be either soft or hard in texture, compared to a khakhra or cracker with respect to hardness. The name literally translates into sorghum bread, jolada rotti is also called as jwarichi Bhakri in neighboring Maharastra.

Jolada rotti is part of the staple diet of most of the districts of North Karnataka, where it is eaten with pulse curries such as jhunka, enne gai or with assorted chutnies.

Kaoliang liquor

Kaoliang liquor, Gaoliang liquor or sorghum liquor is a strong distilled liquor of Chinese origin made from fermented sorghum. It is a type of unflavoured baijiu. The liquor originates from Dazhigu (大直沽, located east of Tianjin), first appearing in the Ming Dynasty. It is now primarily made and sold in China and Taiwan and is also popular in Korea, where it is called goryangju (hangul: 고량주; hanja: 高粱酒) or bbaegal (which is originates from Chinese character 白乾). Kaoliang is an important product of the islands Kinmen and Matsu which are part of the Republic of China (Taiwan). Kaoliang ranges usually between 38 and 63 percent alcohol by volume. At present, world’s highest alcohol content of kaoliang liquor is up to 92%.

Malawian cuisine

Malawian cuisine includes the foods and culinary practices of Malawi. Tea and fish are popular features of Malawian cuisine. Sugar, coffee, corn, potatoes, sorghum, cattle and goats are also important components of the cuisine and economy. Lake Malawi is a source of fish including chambo (similar to bream) usipa (similar to sardine), mpasa (similar to salmon and kampango). Nsima is a staple food made from ground corn and served with side dishes of meat, beans and vegetable. It can be eaten for lunch and dinner.Additional Malawi cuisine includes:

Kachumbari, a type of tomato and onion salad, known locally in Malawi as 'Sumu' or 'Shum' or simply 'tomato and onion salad'.

Thobwa, a fermented drink made from white maize and millet or sorghum.

Kondowole, made from cassava flour and water. It is primarily from northern Malawi and is a very sticky meal resembling Malawian nsima, Tanzanian ugali, or English posho. It is mostly cooked on the floor because of its texture as it is normally tough to run a cooking stick through hence a lot of strength is needed. Kondowole is normally eaten with fish.

Mo Yan

Guan Moye (simplified Chinese: 管谟业; traditional Chinese: 管謨業; pinyin: Guǎn Móyè; born 17 February 1955), better known by the pen name Mo Yan (, Chinese: 莫言; pinyin: Mò Yán), is a Chinese novelist and short story writer. Donald Morrison of U.S. news magazine TIME referred to him as "one of the most famous, oft-banned and widely pirated of all Chinese writers", and Jim Leach called him the Chinese answer to Franz Kafka or Joseph Heller.He is best known to Western readers for his 1987 novel Red Sorghum Clan, of which the Red Sorghum and Sorghum Wine volumes were later adapted for the film Red Sorghum. In 2012, Mo was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature for his work as a writer "who with hallucinatory realism merges folk tales, history and the contemporary".

Molasses

Molasses (American English) or black treacle (British English) is a viscous product resulting from refining sugarcane or sugar beets into sugar. Molasses varies by amount of sugar, method of extraction, and age of plant. Sugarcane molasses is primarily used for sweetening and flavoring foods in the United States, Canada, and elsewhere. Molasses is a defining component of fine commercial brown sugar.Sweet sorghum syrup may be colloquially called "sorghum molasses" in the southern United States. Similar products include honey, maple syrup, corn syrup, and invert syrup. Most of these alternative syrups have milder flavors.

North China Plain

The North China Plain (Chinese: 華北平原; pinyin: Huáběi Píngyuán) is a large-scale downfaulted rift basin formed in late Paleogene and Neogene and then modified by the deposits of the Yellow River and is the largest alluvial plain of China. The plain is bordered to the north by the Yanshan Mountains, to the west by the Taihang Mountains, to the south by the Dabie and Tianmu Mountains, and to the east by the Yellow Sea. The Yellow River flows through the middle of the plain into the Bohai Sea.

Below the Sanmenxia Dam is the multipurpose Xiaolangdi Dam, located in the river's last valley before the North China Plain, a great delta created from silt dropped at the Yellow River's mouth over the millennia. The North China Plain extends over much of Henan, Hebei, and Shandong provinces. and merges with the Yangtze Delta in northern Jiangsu and Anhui provinces. The Yellow River meanders over the fertile, densely populated plain emptying into the Bohai Sea. The plain is one of China's most important agricultural regions, producing corn, sorghum, winter wheat, vegetables, and cotton. Its nickname is "Land of the yellow earth."

The southern part of the plain is traditionally referred to as the Central Plain (pinyin: Zhōngyuán), which formed the cradle of Chinese civilization.The plain covers an area of about 409,500 square kilometers (158,100 sq mi), most of which is less than 50 metres (160 ft) above sea level. This flat yellow-soil plain is the main area of sorghum, millet, maize, and cotton production in China. Wheat, sesame seed, and peanuts are also grown here. The plain is one of the most densely populated regions in the world.

Beijing, the national capital, is located on the northeast edge of the plain, with Tianjin, an important industrial city and commercial port, near its northeast coast. Shengli Oil Field in Shandong is an important petroleum base. It is also home to the Yellow River.

Pendhā

Pendhā (or pindia) was an intoxicating beverage made by the Pindari community of mercenaries in central India in the 18th and 19th centuries, and possibly the etymological origin or the group's name. The drink was said to have been made by fermenting sorghum (jowār), or possible Indigofera linifolia (pandhi, pandheri pati).

Porridge

Porridge (also historically spelled porage, porrige, parritch) is a food commonly eaten as a breakfast cereal dish, made by boiling ground, crushed or chopped starchy plants—typically grain—in water or milk. It is often cooked or served with added flavorings such as sugar, honey, fruit or syrup to make a sweet cereal or mixed with spices or vegetables to make a savoury dish. It is usually served hot in a bowl.

Red Sorghum (TV series)

Red Sorghum (Chinese: 红高粱) is a 2014 Chinese television series based on Nobel laureate Mo Yan's 1986 novel of the same name. Directed by Zheng Xiaolong, it also features the highly anticipated return of actress Zhou Xun to television after 10 years. The series chronicles the struggles of the protagonist Jiu'er (played by Zhou) in rural Shandong province in early 1930s. It aired simultaneously on four satellite television channels from 27 October to 17 November 2014 for 60 episodes.

Red Sorghum (film)

Red Sorghum is a 1988 Chinese film about a young woman's life working on a distillery for sorghum liquor. It is based on the novel Red Sorghum Clan by Nobel laureate Mo Yan.

The film marked the directorial debut of internationally acclaimed filmmaker Zhang Yimou, and the acting debut of film star Gong Li. With its lush and lusty portrayal of peasant life, it immediately vaulted Zhang to the forefront of the Fifth Generation directors. The film won the Golden Bear Award at Berlin Film Festival.

Sorghum bicolor

Sorghum bicolor, commonly called sorghum () and also known as great millet, durra, jowari, or milo, is a grass species cultivated for its grain, which is used for food for humans, animal feed, and ethanol production. Sorghum originated in Africa, and is now cultivated widely in tropical and subtropical regions. Sorghum is the world's fifth-most important cereal crop after rice, wheat, maize, and barley. S. bicolor is typically an annual, but some cultivars are perennial. It grows in clumps that may reach over 4 m high. The grain is small, ranging from 2 to 4 mm in diameter. Sweet sorghums are sorghum cultivars that are primarily grown for forage, syrup production, and ethanol; they are taller than those grown for grain.S. bicolor is the cultivated species of sorghum; its wild relatives make up the botanical genus Sorghum.

Staple food

A staple food, food staple, or simply a staple, is a food that is eaten routinely and in such quantities that it constitutes a dominant portion of a standard diet for a given people, supplying a large fraction of energy needs and generally forming a significant proportion of the intake of other nutrients as well. A staple food of a specific society may be eaten as often as every day or every meal, and most people live on a diet based on just a small number of food staples. Specific staples vary from place to place, but typically are inexpensive or readily available foods that supply one or more of the macronutrients needed for survival and health: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Typical examples include tubers and roots, grains, legumes, and seeds.

Early agricultural civilizations valued the foods that they established as staples because, in addition to providing necessary nutrition, they generally are suitable for storage over long periods of time without decay. Such nonperishable foods are the only possible staples during seasons of shortage, such as dry seasons or cold temperate winters, against which times harvests have been stored. During seasons of plenty, wider choices of foods may be available.

Staple foods are derived either from vegetables or animal products, and common staples include cereals (such as rice, wheat, maize, millet, and sorghum), starchy tubers or root vegetables (such as potatoes, cassava, sweet potatoes, yams, or taro), meat, fish, eggs, milk, and cheese. Other staple foods include pulses (dried legumes), sago (derived from the pith of the sago palm tree), and fruits (such as breadfruit and plantains). Staple foods may also include (depending on the region): olive oil, coconut oil and sugar (e.g. from plantains).

Cereals
Pseudocereals

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