Sore throat

Sore throat, also known as throat pain, is pain or irritation of the throat.

It is usually caused by pharyngitis (inflammation of the throat) or tonsillitis (inflammation of the tonsils). It can also result from trauma.

About 7.5% of people have a sore throat in any three-month period.[1]

Sore throat
Pharyngitis
Viral pharyngitis, the most common cause of a sore throat.
Classification and external resources
SpecialtyOtorhinolaryngology
ICD-10J02, J31.2
ICD-9-CM472.1
DiseasesDB24580
MedlinePlus000655
eMedicineemerg/419
MeSHD010612

Definition

A sore throat is pain anywhere in the throat.[2]

Differential diagnosis

A sore throat is usually from irritation or inflammation. The most common cause (80%) is acute viral pharyngitis, a viral infection of the throat.[2] Other causes include other infections (such as streptococcal pharyngitis), trauma, and tumors.[2] Gastroesophageal (acid) reflux disease can cause stomach acid to back up into the throat and also cause the throat to become sore.[3] In children streptococcal pharyngitis is the cause of 37% of sore throats.[4]

Management

Pain medications such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and paracetamol (acetaminophen) help in the management of pain.[5][6] The use of corticosteroids seems to increase the likelihood of resolution and reduce the level of pain.[7][8] Antibiotics shorten the duration of pain symptoms by an average of about one day.[9]

The Mayo Clinic advises gargling with salty warm water and resting the voice.

Without active treatment, symptoms usually last two to seven days.[10]

Epidemiology

In the United States there are about 2.4 million emergency department visits with throat-related complaints per year.[2]

References

  1. ^ Jones, Roger (2004). Oxford Textbook of Primary Medical Care. Oxford University Press. p. 674. ISBN 9780198567820.
  2. ^ a b c d Marx, John (2010). Rosen's emergency medicine: concepts and clinical practice (7th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Mosby/Elsevier. p. Chapter 30. ISBN 978-0-323-05472-0.
  3. ^ "Sore Throat and Other Throat Problems-Topic Overview".
  4. ^ Shaikh N, Leonard E, Martin JM (September 2010). "Prevalence of streptococcal pharyngitis and streptococcal carriage in children: a meta-analysis". Pediatrics. 126 (3): e557–64. doi:10.1542/peds.2009-2648. PMID 20696723.
  5. ^ Thomas M, Del Mar C, Glasziou P (October 2000). "How effective are treatments other than antibiotics for acute sore throat?". Br J Gen Pract. 50 (459): 817–20. PMC 1313826. PMID 11127175.
  6. ^ Hayward, G; Thompson, MJ; Perera, R; Glasziou, PP; Del Mar, CB; Heneghan, CJ (Oct 17, 2012). Thompson, Matthew J, ed. "Corticosteroids as standalone or add-on treatment for sore throat". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 10: CD008268. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD008268.pub2. PMID 23076943.
  7. ^ Hayward, Gail; Thompson, Matthew J; Perera, Rafael; Glasziou, Paul P; Del Mar, Chris B; Heneghan, Carl J (2012-10-17). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. doi:10.1002/14651858.cd008268.pub2.
  8. ^ Sadeghirad, Behnam; Siemieniuk, Reed A C; Brignardello-Petersen, Romina; Papola, Davide; Lytvyn, Lyubov; Vandvik, Per Olav; Merglen, Arnaud; Guyatt, Gordon H; Agoritsas, Thomas (20 September 2017). "Corticosteroids for treatment of sore throat: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials". BMJ. 358: j3887. doi:10.1136/bmj.j3887. PMC 5605780. PMID 28931508.
  9. ^ Spinks, Anneliese; Glasziou, Paul P.; Del Mar, Chris B. (2013-11-05), "Antibiotics for sore throat", The Cochrane Library, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, doi:10.1002/14651858.cd000023.pub4/full, retrieved 2018-06-11
  10. ^ Thompson, M; Vodicka, TA; Blair, PS; Buckley, DI; Heneghan, C; Hay, AD; TARGET Programme, Team (Dec 11, 2013). "Duration of symptoms of respiratory tract infections in children: systematic review". BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 347: f7027. doi:10.1136/bmj.f7027. PMC 3898587. PMID 24335668.
Ambroxol

Ambroxol is a drug that breaks up phlegm, used in the treatment of respiratory diseases associated with viscid or excessive mucus. Recently, a hypothesis suggested that it may have a potential role in treatment of Paget's disease of bone, Parkinsonism, and other common diseases of aging-associated diseases involving dysfunction of autophagy. It is the active ingredient of Mucosolvan, Mucobrox, Mucol, Lasolvan, Mucoangin, Surbronc, Ambolar, and Lysopain. The substance acts on mucus membranes, restoring the physiological clearance mechanisms of the respiratory tract (which play an important role in the body’s natural defence mechanisms) through several mechanisms, including breaking up phlegm, stimulating mucus production, and stimulating synthesis and release of surfactant by type II pneumocytes. Surfactant acts as an anti-glue factor by reducing the adhesion of mucus to the bronchial wall, in improving its transport and in providing protection against infection and irritating agents. Ambroxol is often administered as an active ingredient in cough syrup.

Bandrek

Bandrek is a traditional hot, sweet and spicy beverage native to Sundanese of West Java, Indonesia. The Sundanese people who live in the cool, highlands consume bandrek to warm themselves at night and during cold weather.

This hot beverage is made of a mixture of jahe (ginger) essence, gula merah (palm sugar) and kayu manis (cinnamon). Other ingredients such as, star anise, cloves, coriander seeds, cardamom pods, lemongrass, and a small amount of black pepper are sometimes added. Milk can also be added to the mix, depending on one’s taste. Sweetened condensed milk or coconut milk is commonly used for this purpose.

It is believed that bandrek has a healing effect on minor health problems, such as sore throat.

Centor criteria

The Centor criteria are a set of criteria which may be used to identify the likelihood of a bacterial infection in adult patients complaining of a sore throat. They were developed as a method to quickly diagnose the presence of Group A streptococcal infection or diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis in "adult patients who presented to an urban emergency room complaining of a sore throat."

Chloraseptic

Chloraseptic is an American brand of oral analgesic produced by Prestige Brands Inc, used for the relief of minor sore throat and mouth pain. Its active ingredient is phenol (just in Sore Throat Spray, not in Sore Throat Lozenges), a compound whose antiseptic properties were discovered by Sir Joseph Lister.

Other Chloraseptic formulas are based on benzocaine.

Chloraseptic was invented and originally made by Robert Schattner; it was later bought by Richardson-Vicks, which merged with Procter & Gamble in 1985.

Its current spray products include Cherry Throat Spray, MAX Wild Berry Targeted Throat Spray, Menthol Throat Spray, Warming Honey Lemon Throat Spray, Cherry On-The-Go Throat Spray, and Citrus Throat Spray.

Its current lozenge products include MAX Wild berry, TOTAL Wild Cherry, Cherry with Soothing Liquid Center, TOTAL Sugar-Free Wild Cherry, Citrus with Soothing Liquid Center, and Warming Honey Lemon.

Cēpacol

Cepacol ( SEE-pə-kol), styled Cēpacol, is a brand of personal hygiene products, as well as for relief of sore throat. It is distributed in the US by Reckitt Benckiser. The brand was originally owned by J.B. Williams. Following acquisition by Combe Incorporated, Combe Incorporated sold Cepacol to Reckitt Benckiser in 2011.

They were originally recognized for their yellow mouthwash, the active ingredient of which is Ceepryn (cetylpyridinium chloride), hence the name. The distinctive flavor and color is known as "Original Gold". Cēpacol claims that their mouthwash is the most-used brand in hospitals.Cēpacol also makes oral anesthetics, such as its cherry flavored throat spray and soother that provides temporary pain relief for an "itchy" or sore throat. Cēpacol has released different health and hygiene products including throat lozenges. The major active ingredients of the sugar-free lozenges are cetylpyridinium chloride, benzocaine (which produces the numbing sensation), and menthol. The major active ingredient in the sore throat sprays is dyclonine hydrochloride.

In Australia, Cēpacol lozenges contain cetylpyridinium chloride and benzyl alcohol. Cepacaine lozenges contains lignocaine and cetylpyridinium chloride, and Cepacaine mouthwash contains benzocaine and cetylpyridinium chloride. The Australian brand is owned by Bayer, having been sold by Merrel Dow to Roche, who then divested their Australian and New Zealand over-the-counter drug business to Bayer.

In the US the Cēpacol lozenges have benzocaine while the mouthwash has Cetylpyridinium chloride

Dyclonine

Dyclonine (Dyclocaine) is an oral anaesthetic that is the active ingredient of Sucrets, an over the counter throat lozenge. It is also found in some varieties of the Cepacol sore throat spray. It is a local anesthetic, used topically as the hydrochloride salt.

Gargling

Gargling (same root as 'gurgle') is the act of bubbling liquid in the mouth. Vibration caused by the muscles in the throat and back of the mouth cause the liquid to bubble and flurry around inside the mouth cavity.

A traditional home remedy of gargling warm saltwater is sometimes recommended to soothe a sore throat. A study in Japan has shown that gargling water a few times a day will lower the chance of upper respiratory infections such as colds, though some medical authorities are skeptical.

Peaceville Records

Peaceville Records is a British independent heavy metal record label. The label was founded by Paul "Hammy" Halmshaw (of the bands Instigators and Civilised Society) in Dewsbury, England in 1987, who was also a one-time drummer of Sore Throat. Originally a tape label releasing anarcho punk, the releases moved towards metal through crust punk and similar forms of metal-influenced English hardcore punk. Halmshaw started running the label full-time in 1988, although the original tape label incarnation was founded in 1981 as a vehicle for releasing Instigators demo cassettes.

The label is therefore known for the connection between doom metal and the 1980s English crust punk scene. Sister labels 'Deaf' and 'Dreamtime' concentrated more on thrash metal (Deaf) and psychedelic electronica (Dreamtime).

However, the bands Autopsy, Darkthrone, My Dying Bride, Anathema, Opeth, Katatonia and Paradise Lost - known as the 'Peaceville Stable' - have been the label's most recognizable traits since the 1990s. Peaceville also became known for its anti-major label stance and left wing political outlook.

In November 2006, after 25 years at the helm, Halmshaw announced that he and co-manager Lisa Halmshaw would be leaving the label to concentrate on new projects, and that his former assistant, Paul Groundwell, would be taking over general management duties, following the sale of the label to back catalogue specialists Snapper Music, who had distributed Peaceville since 2001.

Peritonsillar abscess

Peritonsillar abscess (PTA), also known as a quinsy, is pus due to an infection behind the tonsil. Symptoms include fever, throat pain, trouble opening the mouth, and a change to the voice. Pain is usually worse on one side. Complications may include blockage of the airway or aspiration pneumonitis.They are typically due to infection by a number of types of bacteria. Often it follows streptococcal pharyngitis. They do not typically occur in those who have had a tonsillectomy. Diagnosis is usually based on the symptoms. Medical imaging may be done to rule out complications.Treatment is by removing the pus, antibiotics, sufficient fluids, and pain medication. Steroids may also be useful. Admission to hospital is generally not needed. In the United States about 3 per 10,000 people per year are affected. Young adults are most commonly affected.

Pharyngitis

Pharyngitis is inflammation of the back of the throat, known as the pharynx. It typically results in a sore throat and fever. Other symptoms may include a runny nose, cough, headache, and a hoarse voice. Symptoms usually last three to five days. Complications can include sinusitis and acute otitis media. Pharyngitis is a type of upper respiratory tract infection.Most cases are caused by a viral infection. Strep throat, a bacterial infection, is the cause in about 25% of children and 10% of adults. Uncommon causes include other bacteria such as gonorrhea, fungus, irritants such as smoke, allergies, and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Specific testing is not recommended in people who have clear symptoms of a viral infection, such as a cold. Otherwise a rapid antigen detection test (RAPD) or throat swab is recommended. Other conditions that can produce similar symptoms include epiglottitis, thyroiditis, retropharyngeal abscess, and occasionally heart disease.NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen, can be used to help with the pain. Topical lidocaine may also help. Strep throat is typically treated with antibiotics, such as either penicillin or amoxicillin. It is unclear if steroids are useful in acute pharyngitis, other than possibly in severe cases.About 7.5% of people have a sore throat in any three-month period. Two to three episodes in a year is not uncommon. This resulted in 15 million physician visits in the United States in 2007. Pharyngitis is the most common cause of a sore throat. The word comes from the Greek word pharynx meaning "throat" and the suffix -itis meaning "inflammation".

Rakomelo

Rakomelo (Greek: ρακόμελο (or racomelo) from raki (ρακή) + meli (μέλι), meaning honey) is a Greek mixed alcoholic drink. It is a digestive spirit, traditionally used by many Greeks as a home remedy for a sore throat or cough.

Scarlet fever

Scarlet fever is a disease which can occur as a result of a group A streptococcus (group A strep) infection. The signs and symptoms include a sore throat, fever, headaches, swollen lymph nodes, and a characteristic rash. The rash is red and feels like sandpaper and the tongue may be red and bumpy. It most commonly affects children between five and 15 years of age.Scarlet fever affects a small number of people who have strep throat or streptococcal skin infections. The bacteria are usually spread by people coughing or sneezing. It can also be spread when a person touches an object that has the bacteria on it and then touches their mouth or nose. The characteristic rash is due to the erythrogenic toxin, a substance produced by some types of the bacterium. The diagnosis is typically confirmed by culturing the throat.There is no vaccine. Prevention is by frequent handwashing, not sharing personal items, and staying away from other people when sick. The disease is treatable with antibiotics, which prevent most complications. Outcomes with scarlet fever are typically good if treated. Long-term complications as a result of scarlet fever include kidney disease, rheumatic heart disease, and arthritis. It was a leading cause of death in children in the early 20th century.

Sore Throat (grindcore band)

Sore Throat were a British crust punk/grindcore band, formed in Yorkshire in 1987. They are known for being one of the earliest exponents of the grindcore subgenre known as "noisecore", as well as for launching the careers of several prominent members of the British heavy metal community.

Sore Throat (punk/new wave band)

Sore Throat were a British new wave/punk band from Highgate in London, England, formed in 1975. They released six singles between 1978 and 1980, and one album in 1980, Sooner Than You Think, on the Dureco label. The band consisted of Justin Ward (vocals), Matthew Flowers (keyboards), Danny Flowers (bass), Reid Savage (guitars), Greg Mason (sax) and Robin Knapp (drums). Soon after, Knapp was replaced by Clive Kirby from the band Landslide.

Sore throat (disambiguation)

Sore throat generally refers to pharyngitis.

Sore Throat may also refer to:

Sore Throat (punk/new wave band), a British band active from 1975–1981

Sore Throat (grindcore band), a British band active from 1987–1990

Streptococcal pharyngitis

Streptococcal pharyngitis, also known as strep throat, is an infection of the back of the throat including the tonsils caused by group A streptococcus (GAS). Common symptoms include fever, sore throat, red tonsils, and enlarged lymph nodes in the neck. A headache, and nausea or vomiting may also occur. Some develop a sandpaper-like rash which is known as scarlet fever. Symptoms typically begin one to three days after exposure and last seven to ten days.Strep throat is spread by respiratory droplets from an infected person. It may be spread directly or by touching something that has droplets on it and then touching the mouth, nose, or eyes. Some people may carry the bacteria without symptoms. It may also be spread by skin infected with group A strep. The diagnosis is made based on the results of a rapid antigen detection test or throat culture in those who have symptoms.Prevention is by washing hands and not sharing eating utensils. There is no vaccine for the disease. Treatment with antibiotics is only recommended in those with a confirmed diagnosis. Those infected should stay away from other people for at least 24 hours after starting treatment. Pain can be treated with paracetamol (acetaminophen) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) such as ibuprofen.Strep throat is a common bacterial infection in children. It is the cause of 15–40% of sore throats among children and 5–15% among adults. Cases are more common in late winter and early spring. Potential complications include rheumatic fever and peritonsillar abscess.

Throat lozenge

A throat lozenge (cough drop, troche, cachou, or cough sweet) is a small, typically medicated tablet intended to be dissolved slowly in the mouth to temporarily stop coughs and lubricate and soothe irritated tissues of the throat (usually due to a sore throat), possibly from the common cold or influenza. Cough tablets have taken the name lozenge, based on their original shape, a diamond.

Tonsillitis

Tonsillitis is inflammation of the tonsils, typically of rapid onset. It is a type of pharyngitis. Symptoms may include sore throat, fever, enlargement of the tonsils, trouble swallowing, and large lymph nodes around the neck. Complications include peritonsillar abscess.Tonsillitis is most commonly caused by a viral infection, with about 5% to 40% of cases caused by a bacterial infection. When caused by the bacterium group A streptococcus, it is referred to as strep throat. Rarely bacteria such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, or Haemophilus influenzae may be the cause. Typically the infection is spread between people through the air. A scoring system, such as the Centor score, may help separate possible causes. Confirmation may be by a throat swab or rapid strep test.Treatment efforts involve improving symptoms and decreasing complications. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) and ibuprofen may be used to help with pain. If strep throat is present the antibiotic penicillin by mouth is generally recommended. In those who are allergic to penicillin, cephalosporins or macrolides may be used. In children with frequent episodes of tonsillitis, tonsillectomy modestly decreases the risk of future episodes.About 7.5% of people have a sore throat in any three-month period and 2% of people visit a doctor for tonsillitis each year. It is most common in school aged children and typically occurs in the fall and winter months. The majority of people recover with or without medication. In 40% of people, symptoms resolve within three days, and in 80% symptoms resolve within one week, regardless of if streptococcus is present. Antibiotics decrease symptom duration by approximately 16 hours.

Upper respiratory tract infection

Upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) are illnesses caused by an acute infection which involves the upper respiratory tract including the nose, sinuses, pharynx or larynx. This commonly includes nasal obstruction, sore throat, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, sinusitis, otitis media, and the common cold. Most infections are viral in nature and in other instances the cause is bacterial. Upper respiratory tract infections can also be fungal or helminth in origin, but these are far less common.In 2015, 17.2 billion cases of upper respiratory infections are estimated to have occurred. As of 2014, upper respiratory infections caused about 3,000 deaths down from 4,000 in 1990.

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