The company was founded in Tokyo, Japan, and established on November 16, 1993, as Sony Computer Entertainment (SCE), to handle Sony's venture into video game development through its PlayStation brand. Since the successful launch of the original PlayStation console in 1994, the company has been developing the PlayStation lineup of home video game consoles and accessories. Expanding into North America and other countries, the company quickly became Sony's main resource for research and development in video games and interactive entertainment. In April 2016, SCE and Sony Network Entertainment International was restructured and reorganized into Sony Interactive Entertainment, carrying over the operations and primary objectives from both companies. The same year, SIE moved its headquarters from Tokyo to San Mateo, California.
Sony Interactive Entertainment handles the research and development, production, and sales of both hardware and software for the PlayStation video game systems. SIE is also a developer and publisher of video game titles, and operates several subsidiaries in Sony's largest markets: North America, Europe and Asia. By August 2018, the company had sold more than 525 million PlayStation consoles worldwide.
|Sony Interactive Entertainment LLC|
SIE's headquarters in San Mateo, California
|Sony Computer Entertainment (1993–2016)|
|Founded||November 16, 1993 (as Sony Computer Entertainment Inc.)|
Minato, Tokyo, Japan
(President and CEO)
|Products||Video games consoles and handhelds Audiokinetic Wwise|
Number of employees
|Divisions||SIE Worldwide Studios|
Sony Computer Entertainment, Inc. (SCEI) was jointly established by Sony and its subsidiary Sony Music Entertainment Japan in 1993 to handle the company's ventures into the video game industry. The original PlayStation console was released on December 3, 1994, in Japan. The company's North American operations, Sony Computer Entertainment of America (SCEA), were originally established in May 1995 as a division of Sony Electronic Publishing. Located in Foster City, California, the North American office was originally headed by Steve Race.
In the months prior to the release of the PlayStation in Western markets, the operations were restructured: All video game marketing from Sony Imagesoft was folded into SCEA in July 1995, with most affected employees transferred from Santa Monica to Foster City. On August 7, 1995, Race unexpectedly resigned and was named CEO of Spectrum HoloByte three days later. He was replaced by Sony Electronics veteran Martin Homlish. This proved to be the beginning of a run of exceptional managerial turnover, with SCEA going through four presidents in a single year. The PS console was released in the United States on September 9, 1995. As part of a worldwide restructuring at the beginning of 1997, SCEA and Sony Computer Entertainment Europe (SCEE) were both re-established as wholly owned subsidiaries of SCEI.
The launch of the second PS console, the PlayStation 2 was released in Japan on March 4, 2000, and the U.S. on October 26, 2000. On July 1, 2002, chairman of SCEI, Shigeo Maruyama, was replaced by Tamotsu Iba as chairman. Jack Tretton and Phil Harrison were also promoted to senior vice presidents of SCE. The PlayStation Portable (PSP) was SCEI's first foray into the small handheld console market. Its development was first announced during SCE's E3 conference in 2003, and it was officially unveiled during their E3 conference on May 11, 2004. The system was released in Japan on December 12, 2004, in North America on March 24, 2005, and in Europe and Australia on September 1, 2005.
On September 14, 2005, SCEI formed Sony Computer Entertainment Worldwide Studios (SCE WWS), a single internal entity to oversee all wholly owned development studios within SCEI. It became responsible for the creative and strategic direction of development and production of all computer entertainment software by all SCEI-owned studios—all software is produced exclusively for the PS family of consoles. Shuhei Yoshida was named as President of SCE WWS on May 16, 2008, replacing Kazuo Hirai, who was serving interim after Harrison left the company in early 2008.
On December 8, 2005, video game developer Guerrilla Games, developers of the Killzone series, was acquired by Sony Computer Entertainment as part of its SCE WWS. On January 24, 2006, video game developer Zipper Interactive, developers of the Socom series, was acquired by Sony Computer Entertainment as part of its SCE WWS.
In March 2006, Sony announced the online network for its forthcoming PlayStation 3 (PS3) system at the 2006 PlayStation Business Briefing meeting in Tokyo, Japan, tentatively named "PlayStation Network Platform" and eventually called just PlayStation Network (PSN). Sony also stated that the service would always be connected, free, and include multiplayer support.
The launch date for the PS3 was announced by Hirai at the pre-Electronic Entertainment Expo conference held at the Sony Pictures Studios in Los Angeles, California, on May 8, 2006. The PS3 was released in Japan on November 11, 2006, and the U.S. date was November 17, 2006. The PSN was also launched in November 2006.
On November 30, 2006, president of SCEI, Ken Kutaragi, was appointed as chairman of SCEI, while Hirai, then president of SCEA, was promoted to president of SCEI. On April 26, 2007, Ken Kutaragi resigned from his position as chairman of SCEI and group CEO, passing on his duties to the recently appointed president of SCE, Hirai.
On April 15, 2009, David Reeves, president and CEO of SCE Europe, announced his forthcoming resignation from his post. He had joined the company in 1995 and was appointed as chairman of SCEE in 2003, and then president in 2005. His role of president and CEO of SCEE would be taken over by Andrew House, who joined Sony Corporation in 1990. The PSP Go was released on October 1, 2009, for North America and Europe, and on November 1, 2009, for Japan.
On April 1, 2010, SCEI was restructured to bring together Sony's mobile electronics and personal computers divisions. The main Japanese division of SCEI was temporarily renamed "SNE Platform Inc." (SNEP) on April 1, 2010, and was split into two divisions that focused on different aspects: "Sony Computer Entertainment, Inc.", consisting of 1,300 employees who focused on the console business, and the network service business consisting of 60 to 70 employees. The network service business of SCEI was absorbed into Sony Corp's Network Products & Service Group (NPSG), which had already been headed by Hirai since April 2009. The original SCEI was then dissolved after the restructuring.
The North American and European branches of SCEI were affected by the restructuring, and remained as SCEA and SCEE. Hirai, by that time SCEI CEO and Sony Corporation EVP, led both departments.
On March 2, 2010, video game developer Media Molecule, developers of the PlayStation 3 (PS3) game LittleBigPlanet, was acquired by SCEI as part of its SCE WWS. On August 23, 2010, the headquarters of the company moved from Minami-Aoyama to the Sony City (Sony Corporation's headquarters) in Kōnan, Minato, Tokyo. On April 20, 2011, SCEI was the victim of an attack on its PlayStation Network system, which also affected its online division, Sony Online Entertainment. On August 1, 2011, video game developer Sucker Punch Productions, developers of the Sly Cooper and Infamous series, was also acquired.
On January 2012, BigBig Studios was closed and Cambridge Studio—renamed Guerrilla Cambridge—becoming a sister studio of Guerrilla Games. On March 2012, Zipper Interactive, developers of the SOCOM series, MAG and Unit 13, was closed. On June 25, 2012, Hirai retired as chairman of Sony Computer Entertainment; however, he remains on the board of directors.
A press release was published on August 20, 2013, announcing the release date of the PlayStation 4 (PS4) console. On that date, SCEI introduced the CUH-1000A series system, and announced the launch date as November 15, 2013, for North American markets and November 29, 2013, for European, Australasian and Central and South American markets.
Following a January 2014 announcement by the Chinese government that the country's 14-year game console ban would be lifted, the PS4 was scheduled to be the first Sony video game console to be officially and legally released in China since the PlayStation 2—the ban was enacted in 2000 to protect the mental health of young people.
On March 6, 2014, Sony Computer Entertainment of America President and CEO, Tretton, announced he was resigning from his position at the end of the month, citing a mutual agreement between himself and SCEA for the cessation of his contract. Tretton had worked at SCEA since 1995 and was a founding member of the company's executive team. He was involved in the launch of all PlayStation platforms in North America, including the original PlayStation, PS2, PSP, PS3, PSN, PS Vita, and PS4. Tretton was replaced by Shawn Layden, who was the vice-president and chief operating officer (COO) of Sony Network Entertainment International, effective April 1, 2014. On April 2, 2015, it was announced that Sony Computer Entertainment had acquired the intellectual property of the cloud gaming service OnLive, and that its services would cease by the end of the month.
The beta version of Sony's first-ever cloud-based television service, PlayStation Vue (PSVue), was launched in the U.S. in November 2014. It was only offered on an invite-only basis for PS3 and PS4 users, prior to its official launch in early 2015. Sony signed deals with major networks, including CBS, Discovery, Fox, and Viacom, so that users can view live streaming video, as well as catch up and on-demand content, from more than 75 channels, such as Comedy Central and Nickelodeon. Although pricing and release dates for other regions was not publicized, Sony confirmed that PSVue will eventually be available on iPad, followed by other Sony and non-Sony devices.
On January 26, 2016, Sony announced that effective April 1, 2016, Sony Computer Entertainment and Sony Network Entertainment International would be re-organized and combined into a new company, Sony Interactive Entertainment (SIE). Unlike the former SCE, SIE is based in San Mateo, California, and represents the entire PlayStation brand, regional subsidiaries, and its content operations. On March 24, 2016, Sony announced the establishment of ForwardWorks, a new studio dedicated to producing "full-fledged" games based on Sony intellectual properties for mobile platforms such as smartphones.
It was reported in December of 2016 by multiple news outlets that Sony was considering restructuring its U.S. operations by merging its TV and film business with SIE. According to the reports, such a restructuring would have placed Sony Pictures under Sony Interactive's CEO, Andrew House, though House wouldn't have taken over day-to-day operations of the film studio. According to one report, Sony was set to make a final decision on the possibility of the merger of the TV, film, and gaming businesses by the end of its fiscal year in March of the following year (2017). However, judging by Sony's activity in 2017, the rumored merger never materialized.
The president, and CEO of SIE is John (Tsuyoshi) Kodera, replacing Andrew House, who stepped down in October 2017. House served as chairman until the end of 2017. House replaced Kaz Hirai as president and CEO in 2011, who himself had replaced longtime CEO Ken Kutaragi, also known as the "Father of the PlayStation". Kutaragi retired from his executive position at SIE on June 19, 2007, and holds the title of honorary chairman at the company. Shawn Layden and Jim Ryan currently serve as chairman of SIE Worldwide Studios and head of global sales and marketing, respectively. Shuhei Yoshida is the current president of SIE Worldwide Studios.
SIE currently has three main headquarters around the world: the global and Americas region headquarters in San Mateo, California, United States (Sony Interactive Entertainment LLC); Kōnan, Minato, Tokyo, Japan (Sony Interactive Entertainment Inc. and Sony Interactive Entertainment Japan Asia) which control operations in Asia and was also formerly the headquarters for Sony Computer Entertainment; and London, United Kingdom (Sony Interactive Entertainment Europe) which controls operations in Europe and Oceania. SIE also has smaller offices and distribution centers in Hollywood, Los Angeles, California, San Diego, California U.S.; Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Melbourne, Australia; and Seocho-gu, Seoul, South Korea and Liverpool, England, UK.
SIE evaluates and approves games for its consoles. The process is more strict than for the Nintendo Seal of Quality, and developers submit game concepts to Sony early in the design process. Each SIE unit has its own evaluation process; SIEE, for example, approved Billy the Wizard for its consumers but SIEA did not. The company sometimes imposes additional restrictions, such as when it prohibited PS and PS2 games from being ported to the PSP without 30% of content being new to the Sony console.
SCEI produces the PlayStation line of video game hardware that consists of consoles and handhelds. Sony's first wide home console release, the PlayStation (codenamed "PSX" during development,), was initially designed to be a CD-ROM drive add-on for Nintendo's Super NES (a.k.a. "Super Famicom" in Japan) video game console, in response to add-ons for competing platforms such as the TurboGrafx-CD and the Sega CD (sold as the PC Engine CD-ROM² System and Mega CD in Japan respectively). When the prospect of releasing the system as an add-on dissolved, Sony redesigned the machine into a standalone unit.
The PlayStation was released in Japan on December 3, 1994, and later in North America on September 9, 1995. By the end of the console 12-year production cycle, the PlayStation had sold 102 million units.
SCEI's second home console, the PlayStation 2 (PS2) was released in Japan on March 4, 2000, and later in North America and Europe in October and November 2000, respectively. The PS2 is powered by a proprietary central processing unit, the Emotion Engine, and was the first video game console to have DVD playback functionality included out of the box.
The PS2 consisted of a DVD drive and retailed in the U.S. for US$299. SCEI received heavy criticism after the launch of the PS2 due to the games released as part of the launch, difficulties that it presented for video game designers, and users who struggled to port Sega Dreamcast games to the system. However, despite these complaints, the PlayStation 2 received widespread support from third party developers throughout its lifespan on the market.
On December 28, 2012, Sony confirmed that it would cease production of the PS2 through a gradual process that started in Japan—the continuing popularity of the console in markets like Brazil and India meant that PS2 products would still be shipped, while games for the console were released in March 2013. The PS2 stands as the best-selling home video game console in history, with a total of 155 million consoles sold.
Writing for the ExtremeTech website at the end of 2012, James Plafke described the PS2 as revolutionary and proclaimed that the console "turn[ed] the gaming industry on its head":
Aside from being the “first” next-gen console, as well as providing many, many people with their first DVD player, the PlayStation 2 launched in something of a Golden Age of the non-PC gaming industry. Gaming tech was becoming extremely sophisticated ... Sony seemingly knew the exact route toward popularity, turning the console with the least powerful hardware of that generation into a juggernaut of success.
The PlayStation Portable (PSP) was SCEI's first foray into the small handheld console market. Its development was first announced during SCE's E3 conference in 2003, and it was officially unveiled during their E3 conference on May 11, 2004. The system was released in Japan on December 12, 2004, in North America on March 24, 2005, and in Europe and Australia on September 1, 2005. The console has since seen two major redesigns, with new features including a smaller size, more internal memory, a better quality LCD screen and a lighter weight.
The launch date for the PS3 was announced by Hirai at the pre-Electronic Entertainment Expo conference held at Sony Pictures Studios in Los Angeles, California, on May 8, 2006. The PS3 was released in Japan on November 11, 2006, and the U.S. date was November 17, 2006. Technology journalists observed that Sony had followed what Microsoft did with the Xbox 360, and produced the PS3 in two versions: one with a 20GB hard drive and the other with a 60GB hard drive.
The PS3 utilizes a unique processing architecture, the Cell microprocessor, a proprietary technology developed by Sony in conjunction with Toshiba and IBM. The graphics processing unit, the RSX 'Reality Synthesizer', was co-developed by Nvidia and Sony. Several variations of the PS3 have been released, each with slight hardware and software differences, and each denoted by the varying size of the included hard disk drive.
The PS Vita is the successor to the PlayStation Portable. It was released in Japan and other parts of Asia on December 17, 2011, and then in Europe, Australia and North America on February 22, 2012.
Internally, the Vita features a 4-core ARM Cortex-A9 MPCore processor and a 4-core SGX543MP4+ graphics processing unit, as well as LiveArea software as its main user interface, which succeeds the XrossMediaBar.
Described by Sony as a "next generation" console, the PS4 included features such as enhanced social capabilities, second-screen options involving devices like the handheld PlayStation Vita, a membership service and compatibility with the Twitch live streaming platform.
Following a January 2014 announcement by the Chinese government that the country's 14-year game console ban would be lifted, the PS4 was scheduled to be the first Sony video game console to be officially and legally released in China since the PlayStation 2—the ban was enacted in 2000 to protect the mental health of young people. Around 70 game developers, including Ubisoft and Koei, will service Chinese PlayStation users.
The Chinese release dates and price details were announced in early December, with January 11, 2015, confirmed by SCEI. The makers announced that both the PS4 and Vita consoles will be released in China, and the former's package will also consist of a 500GB and 1TB hard drive and controller.
The 20th anniversary of the original PS console was celebrated on December 6, 2014, with the release of a limited-edition, anniversary-edition PlayStation 4 with an aesthetic design that recalled the original 1994 PlayStation.
|First party (SIE WWS)|
We can confirm: RESOGUN is coming to PSVita thanks to the guys at @climaxstudios! More details on the port will soon be released by Sony.
Andrew House (born 23 January 1965) is a Welsh businessman and the former Chairman of Sony Interactive Entertainment (SIE). He previously served as President and Global CEO of SIE. House started working for Sony Computer Corporation in 1990, working in the Tokyo-based corporate communications department. Five years later in 1995, he transferred to SCEI's marketing and communications to contribute to the launch of the PlayStation gaming system. March 1996, he was promoted to Vice President of Marketing at Sony Computer Entertainment America (SCEA), then promoted again in 2002 to Executive Vice President of SCEA. From 2005 to 2009, House was the Chief Marketing Officer of the Sony Corporation. From 2009 until 2011, House was co-CEO and then CEO of Sony Computer Entertainment Europe (SCEE), then became President and Group CEO of SCEI, replacing Kaz Hirai. In 2013, House led the conference which revealed the PlayStation 4. In 2017 House announced he would step down as head of Sony Interactive Entertainment at year end.Boku no Natsuyasumi
Boku no Natsuyasumi (ぼくのなつやすみ, lit. "My Summer Vacation") is a video game developed by Millennium Kitchen and published by Sony Computer Entertainment for the PlayStation. It is part of the popular Boku no Natsuyasumi series and was released in Japan on June 22, 2000. A PlayStation Portable port was released on June 27, 2006 under the title Boku no Natsuyasumi Portable: Mushimushi Hakase to Teppen-yama no Himitsu!! (ぼくのなつやすみポータブル ムシムシ博士とてっぺん山の秘密!!, lit. "My Summer Vacation Portable: The Secret of Dr. Steamy and the Summit Mountain!!"). The port features updated graphics and several new characters.Central Station (online gaming service)
Central Station was the main portal by Sony Computer Entertainment Europe for PAL regions in the PlayStation 2 era.
The service allowed users to view new game releases, change account details, read the latest PlayStation-related news and enter online events for the PlayStation 2 and PlayStation Portable consoles.
Central Station was superseded by the worldwide PlayStation Network upon release of the PlayStation 3 but it was discontinued.Guerrilla Games
Guerrilla B.V., doing business as Guerrilla Games, is a Dutch first-party video game developer founded in 2000 as Lost Boys Games. Based in Amsterdam, Netherlands, it is a wholly owned subsidiary of Sony Interactive Entertainment. The company employs approximately 270 individuals, and is headed by managing director Hermen Hulst. The developer is known for its Killzone series, which is exclusive to the PlayStation.List of PS one Classics (North America)
As of April 5, 2016, there are 265 games available, while 4 games have been delisted from the service.List of PS one Classics (PAL region)
There are 147 games available (excluding 17 games that have been removed from the PSN).List of PlayStation 2 games for PlayStation 4
This is a list of PlayStation 2 games for PlayStation 4 available from the PlayStation Store. These are the original games, emulated at high-definition with the addition of PlayStation 4 features such as Trophies, Remote Play and Share Play.There are currently 54 games on this list.Motor Toon Grand Prix
Motor Toon Grand Prix (モータートゥーン・グランプリ) is a racing video game developed by Poly's and published by Sony Computer Entertainment of Japan (SCEJ). It was released for the PlayStation in Japan on December 16, 1994. The game and its sequel were directed by Kazunori Yamauchi, and are notable as precursors to his subsequent racing series Gran Turismo.PixelOpus
PixelOpus is an in-house Sony Interactive Entertainment developer located in San Mateo, California. Established in 2014, they worked on games including Entwined. On 30 October 2017 their second game Concrete Genie was announced, with the game to be released in 2019.Polyphony Digital
Polyphony Digital is an internal Japanese first-party video game development studio of Sony Interactive Entertainment, part of Sony Interactive Entertainment Worldwide Studios, which in turn is owned by multinational conglomerate Sony. Originally a development group within Sony Computer Entertainment known as Polys Entertainment, after the success of Gran Turismo in Japan, they were granted greater autonomy and their name changed to Polyphony Digital. Polyphony currently has 5 studios in Japan, the Netherlands, and the United States.Rally Cross
Rally Cross is a racing video game developed by Sony Interactive Studios America and published by Sony Computer Entertainment exclusively for the PlayStation. A sequel was released in 1998 titled Rally Cross 2.
The game supports up to four players via a split screen.SIE Japan Studio
Sony Interactive Entertainment Japan Studio is a Japanese first-party video game production and development arm of the parent company Sony Interactive Entertainment (SIE), most well known for the Ape Escape, LocoRoco, Patapon, Gravity Rush, and Knack series, among other titles.SIE London Studio
SIE London Studio is an in-house Sony Interactive Entertainment developer located in London. Established in 1993, London Studio is Sony Interactive Entertainment Europe's largest internal development studio, with staff working in a purpose designed 7-story building located in London's Soho district.
The development group includes the R&D group responsible for EyeToy, and various other research and development groups dedicated to the production of PlayStation games and development tools across all of SIE's gaming platforms. SIE London Studio operates as part of Sony Interactive Entertainment Worldwide Studios. The studio was formed in 2002 by the merger of Studio Camden and Team Soho.
The original development staff had little to no experience in the video game industry, with most of them being recent college graduates.SIE San Mateo Studio
SIE San Mateo Studio (formerly SIE Foster City Studio) is a video game developer part of SIE Worldwide Studios which is owned by Sony Interactive Entertainment and established in 1998. As implied by its name, it is now based in San Mateo, California but it was relocated from Foster City, California. It is mostly responsible for overseeing the development of first party games by external developers. It co-developed the SOCOM US Navy SEALS series with Zipper Interactive, and the Sly Cooper series with Sucker Punch Productions.SIE Worldwide Studios
Sony Interactive Entertainment Worldwide Studios, abbreviated SIE Worldwide Studios, is a group of video game developers owned by Sony Interactive Entertainment, which was established in 2005. It is a single internal entity overseeing all wholly owned development studios within SIE. It is responsible for the creative and strategic direction of development and production of all computer entertainment software by all SIE-owned studios, all of which is produced exclusively for the PlayStation family of consoles.Shawn Layden
Shawn Layden (born June 1961) is Chairman of SIE Worldwide Studios. Previously, he served as the president and CEO of Sony Interactive Entertainment America (SIEA), executive vice president and COO of Sony Network Entertainment International (SNEI).Sucker Punch Productions
Sucker Punch Productions is an American first-party video game developer founded in 1997 and based in Bellevue, Washington. It was an independent company until August 2011, and has worked solely with Sony Interactive Entertainment since 2000. Sony acquired Sucker Punch on August 2, 2011.Warhawk (1995 video game)
Warhawk, released as AirAssault in Japan, is a futuristic arcade-style flight-combat game for the Sony PlayStation console, developed by SingleTrac and published by Sony Computer Entertainment. It was originally released on November 10, 1995 in North America and a month later in Europe. It was later re-released as part of Sony's Greatest Hits line-up.
A Windows version slated for release in 1996 was canceled.A multiplayer-only remake of the same name has been developed by Incognito Entertainment; it was released on Blu-ray Disc and as a digital download for the PlayStation 3 on August 28, 2007.