Soil salinity control

Soil salinity control relates to controlling the problem of soil salinity and reclaiming salinized agricultural land.

The aim of soil salinity control is to prevent soil degradation by salination and reclaim already salty (saline) soils. Soil reclamation is also called soil improvement, rehabilitation, remediation, recuperation, or amelioration.

The primary man-made cause of salinization is irrigation. River water or groundwater used in irrigation contains salts, which remain behind in the soil after the water has evaporated.

The primary method of controlling soil salinity is to permit 10-20% of the irrigation water to leach the soil,that will be drained and discharged through an appropriate drainage system. The salt concentration of the drainage water is normally 5 to 10 times higher than that of the irrigation water, thus salt export matches salt import and it will not accumulate.

Segmented linear regression graph showing yield of mustard plants vs soil salinity in Haryana, India, 1987–1988
SegReg program: yield of mustard (colza) and soil salinity

The soil salinity problem

Salty (saline) soils are soils that have a high salt content. The predominant salt is normally sodium chloride (NaCl, "table salt"). Saline soils are therefore also sodic soils but there may be sodic soils that are not saline, but alkaline.

According to a study by UN University, about 62 million hectares (240 thousand square miles; 150 million acres), representing 20% of the world's irrigated lands are affected, up from 45 million ha (170 thousand sq mi; 110 million acres) in the early 1990s.[1] In the Indo-Gangetic Plain, home to over 10% of the world's population, crop yield losses for wheat, rice, sugarcane and cotton grown on salt-affected lands could be 40%, 45%, 48%, and 63%, respectively.[1]

Salty soils are a common feature and an environmental problem in irrigated lands in arid and semi-arid regions, resulting in poor or little crop production.[2] The problems are often associated with high water tables, caused by a lack of natural subsurface drainage to the underground. Poor subsurface drainage may be caused by insufficient transport capacity of the aquifer or because water cannot exit the aquifer, for instance if the aquifer is situated in a topographical depression.

Worldwide, the major factor in the development of saline soils is a lack of precipitation. Most naturally saline soils are found in (semi)arid regions and climates of the earth.

Primary cause

Soil Salinity2
Irrigated saline land with poor crop stand

The primary cause of man-made salinization is the salt brought in with irrigation water. All irrigation water derived from rivers or groundwater, however 'sweet', contains salts that remain behind in the soil after the water has evaporated.

For example, assuming irrigation water with a low salt concentration of 0.3 g/l (equal to 0.3 kg/m³ corresponding to an electric conductivity of about 0.5 FdS/m) and a modest annual supply of irrigation water of 10,000 m³/ha (almost 3 mm/day) brings 3,000 kg salt/ha each year. In the absence of sufficient natural drainage (as in waterlogged soils) and without a proper leaching and drainage program to remove salts, this would lead to a high soil salinity and reduced crop yields in the long run.

Much of the water used in irrigation has a higher salt content than in this example, which is compounded by the fact that many irrigation projects use a far greater annual supply of water. Sugar cane, for example, needs about 20,000 m3/ha of water per year. As a result, irrigated areas often receive more than 3,000 kg/ha of salt per year and some receive as much as 10,000 kg/ha/year.

Secondary cause

The secondary cause of salinization is waterlogging in irrigated land. Irrigation causes changes to the natural water balance of irrigated lands. Large quantities of water in irrigation projects are not consumed by plants and must go somewhere. In irrigation projects it is impossible to achieve 100% irrigation efficiency where all the irrigation water is consumed by the plants. The maximum attainable irrigation efficiency is about 70% but usually it is less than 60%. This means that minimum 30%, but usually more than 40% of the irrigation water is not evaporated and it must go somewhere.

Most of the water lost this way is stored underground which can change the original hydrology of local aquifers considerably. Many aquifers cannot absorb and transport these quantities of water and so the water table rises leading to water logging.

Waterlogging causes three problems:

  • The shallow water table and lack of oxygenation of the root zone reduces the yield of most crops
  • It leads to an accumulation of salts brought in with the irrigation water as their removal through the aquifer is blocked
  • With the upward seepage of groundwater more salts are brought into the soil and the salination is aggravated

Aquifer conditions in irrigated land and the groundwater flow have an important role in soil salinization,[3] as illustrated here :

Salinization1

Soil salinization in the lower parts of undulating land with a good aquifer

Salinization2

Soil salinization in the unirrigated parts of flat land with a good aquifer

Salinization3

Soil salinization in irrigated flat land without an aquifer

Salinization4

Soil salinization in a coastal delta from irrigation higher up

Salt affected area

Normally, the salinization of agricultural land affects a considerable area of irrigation projects, on the order of 20 to 30%. When the agriculture in such a fraction of the land is abandoned, a new salt and water balance is attained, a new equilibrium is reached, and the situation becomes stable.

In India alone, thousands of square kilometres have been severely salinized. China and Pakistan do not lag much behind (perhaps China has even more salt affected land than India). A regional distribution of the 3,230,000 km² of saline land worldwide is shown in the following table derived from the FAO/UNESCO Soil Map of the World.[4]

Region Area (106ha)
Australia 84.7
Africa 69.5
Latin America 59.4
Near and Middle East 53.1
Europe 20.7
Asia and Far East 19.5
Northern America 16.0
GOHANA2
CumFreq program: spatial variation of soil salinity

Spatial variation

Although the principles of the processes of salinization are fairly easy to understand, it is more difficult to explain why certain parts of the land suffer from the problems and other parts do not, or to predict accurately which part of the land will fall victim. The main reason for this is the variation of natural conditions in time and space, the usually uneven distribution of the irrigation water, and the seasonal or yearly changes of agricultural practices. Only in lands with undulating topography is the prediction simple: the depressional areas will degrade the most.

The preparation of salt and water balances[3] for distinguishable sub-areas in the irrigation project, or the use of agro-hydro-salinity models,[5] can be helpful in explaining or predicting the extent and severity of the problems.

Diagnosis

Maize egypt
The maize crop (corn) in Egypt has a salt tolerance of ECe=5.5 dS/m beyond which the yield declines [6]
Rice egypt
The rice crop in Egypt has a similar salt tolerance as maize. [7]

Measurement

Soil salinity is measured as the salt concentration of the soil solution in tems of g/l or electric conductivity (EC) in dS/m. The relation between these two units is about 5/3 : y g/l => 5y/3 dS/m. Seawater may have a salt concentration of 30 g/l (3%) and an EC of 50 dS/m.

The standard for the determination of soil salinity is from an extract of a saturated paste of the soil, and the EC is then written as ECe. The extract is obtained by centrifugation. The salinity can more easily be measured, without centrifugation, in a 2:1 or 5:1 water:soil mixture (in terms of g water per g dry soil) than from a saturated paste. The relation between ECe and EC2:1 is about 4, hence : ECe = 4 EC1:2.[8]

Classification

Soils are considered saline when the ECe > 4.[9] When 4 < ECe < 8, the soil is called slightly saline, when 8 < ECe < 16 it is called (moderately) saline, and when ECe > 16 severely saline.

Crop tolerance

Sensitive crops lose their vigor already in slightly saline soils, most crops are negatively affected by (moderately) saline soils, and only salinity resistant crops thrive in severely saline soils. The University of Wyoming [10] and the Government of Alberta [11] report data on the salt tolerance of plants.

Principles of salinity control

Drainage is the primary method of controlling soil salinity. The system should permit a small fraction of the irrigation water (about 10 to 20 percent, the drainage or leaching fraction) to be drained and discharged out of the irrigation project. [12]

In irrigated areas where salinity is stable, the salt concentration of the drainage water is normally 5 to 10 times higher than that of the irrigation water. Salt export matches salt import and salt will not accumulate.

When reclaiming already salinized soils, the salt concentration of the drainage water will initially be much higher than that of the irrigation water (for example 50 times higher). Salt export will greatly exceed salt import, so that with the same drainage fraction a rapid desalinization occurs. After one or two years, the soil salinity is decreased so much, that the salinity of the drainage water has come down to a normal value and a new, favorable, equilibrium is reached.

In regions with pronounced dry and wet seasons, the drainage system may be operated in the wet season only, and closed during the dry season. This practice of checked or controlled drainage saves irrigation water.

The discharge of salty drainage water may pose environmental problems to downstream areas. The environmental hazards must be considered very carefully and, if necessary mitigating measures must be taken. If possible, the drainage must be limited to wet seasons only, when the salty effluent inflicts the least harm.

Drainage systems

DrainSection2
Parameters of a horizontal drainage system
WellDrain2
Parameters of a vertical drainage system

Land drainage for soil salinity control is usually by horizontal drainage system (figure left), but vertical systems (figure right) are also employed.

The drainage system designed to evacuate salty water also lowers the water table. To reduce the cost of the system, the lowering must be reduced to a minimum. The highest permissible level of the water table (or the shallowest permissible depth) depends on the irrigation and agricultural practices and kind of crops.

In many cases a seasonal average water table depth of 0.6 to 0.8 m is deep enough. This means that the water table may occasionally be less than 0.6 m (say 0.2 m just after an irrigation or a rain storm). This automatically implies that, in other occasions, the water table will be deeper than 0.8 m (say 1.2 m). The fluctuation of the water table helps in the breathing function of the soil while the expulsion of carbon dioxide (CO2) produced by the plant roots and the inhalation of fresh oxygen (O2) is promoted.

The establishing of a not too deep water table offers the additional advantage that excessive field irrigation is discouraged, as the crop yield would be negatively affected by the resulting elevated water table, and irrigation water may be saved.

The statements made above on the optimum depth of the water table are very general, because in some instances the required water table may be still shallower than indicated (for example in rice paddies), while in other instances it must be considerably deeper (for example in some orchards). The establishment of the optimum depth of the water table is in the realm of agricultural drainage criteria.[13]

Soil leaching

SoilLeaching2
Water balance factors in the soil

The vadose zone of the soil below the soil surface and the watertable is subject to four main hydrological inflow and outflow factors:[3]

  • Infiltration of rain and irrigation water (Irr) into the soil through the soil surface (Inf) :
  • Inf = Rain + Irr
  • Evaporation of soil water through plants and directly into the air through the soil surface (Evap)
  • Percolation of water from the unsaturated zone soil into the groundwater through the watertable (Perc)
  • Capillary rise of groundwater moving by capillary suction forces into the unsaturated zone(Cap)

In steady state (i.e. the amount of water stored in the unsaturated zone does not change in the long run) the water balance of the unsaturated zone reads: Inflow = Outflow, thus:

  • Inf + Cap = Evap + Perc     or :
  • Irr + Rain + Cap = Evap + Perc

and the salt balance is

  • Irr.Ci + Cap.Cc = Evap.Fc.Ce + Perc.Cp + Ss

where Ci is the salt concentration of the irrigation water, Cc is the salt concentration of the capillary rise, equal to the salt concentration of the upper part of the groundwater body, Fc is the fraction of the total evaporation transpired by plants, Ce is the salt concentration of the water taken up by the plant roots, Cp is the salt concentration of the percolation water, and Ss is the increase of salt storage in the unsaturated soil. This assumes that the rainfall contains no salts. Only along the coast this may not be true. Further it is assumed that no runoff or surface drainage occurs.
The amount of removed by plants (Evap.Fc.Ce) is usually negligibly small: Evap.Fc.Ce = 0

SALTMOD4
Leaching curves, calibrating leaching efficiency

The salt concentration Cp can be taken as a part of the salt concentration of the soil in the unsaturated zone (Cu) giving: Cp=Le.Cu, where Le is the leaching efficiency. The leaching efficiency is often in the order of 0.7 to 0.8,[14] but in poorly structured, heavy clay soils it may be less. In the Leziria Grande polder in the delta of the Tagus river in Portugal it was found that the leaching efficiency was only 0.15.[15]
Assuming that one wishes to avoid the soil salinity to increase and maintain the soil salinity Cu at a desired level Cd we have:
Ss = 0, Cu = Cd and Cp = Le.Cd. Hence the salt balance can be simplified to:

  • Perc.Le.Cd = Irr.Ci + Cap.Cc

Setting the amount percolation water required to fulfill this salt balance equal to Lr (the leaching requirement) it is found that:

  • Lr = (Irr.Ci + Cap.Cc) / Le.Cd .

Substituting herein Irr = Evap + Perc − Rain − Cap and re-arranging gives :

  • Lr = [ (Evap−Rain).Ci + Cap(Cc−Ci) ] / (Le.Cd − Ci) [12]

With this the irrigation and drainage requirements for salinity control can be computed too.
In irrigation projects in (semi)arid zones and climates it is important to check the leaching requirement, whereby the field irrigation efficiency (indicating the fraction of irrigation water percolating to the underground) is to be taken into account.
The desired soil salinity level Cd depends on the crop tolerance to salt. The University of Wyoming,[10] USA, and the Government of Alberta,[11] Canada, report crop tolerance data.

Strip cropping: an alternative

StripCropping
Hydrological principles of strip cropping to control the depth of the water table and the soil salinity

In irrigated lands with scarce water resources suffering from drainage (high water table) and soil salinity problems, strip cropping is sometimes practiced with strips of land where every other strip is irrigated while the strips in between are left permanently fallow.[16]

Owing to the water application in the irrigated strips they have a higher watertable which induces flow of groundwater to the unirrigated strips. This flow functions as subsurface drainage for the irrigated strips, whereby the water table is maintained at a not-too-shallow depth, leaching of the soil is possible, and the soil salinity can be controlled at an acceptably low level.

In the unirrigated (sacrificial) strips the soil is dry and the groundwater comes up by capillary rise and evaporates leaving the salts behind, so that here the soil salinizes. Nevertheless, they can have some use for livestock, sowing salinity resistant grasses or weeds. Moreover, useful salt resistant trees can be planted like Casuarina, Eucalyptus or Atriplex, keeping in mind that the trees have deep rooting systems and the salinity of the wet subsoil is less than of the topsoil. In these ways wind erosion can be controlled. The unirrigated strips can also be used for salt harvesting.

Soil salinity models

File-Saltmod8 (2)
SaltMod components

The majority of the computer models available for water and solute transport in the soil (e.g. SWAP,[17] DrainMod-S,[18] UnSatChem,[19] and Hydrus [20] ) are based on Richard's differential equation for the movement of water in unsaturated soil in combination with Fick's differential convection–diffusion equation for advection and dispersion of salts.

The models require input of soil characteristics like the relations between variable unsaturated soil moisture content, water tension, water retention curve, unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, dispersivity and diffusivity. These relations vary to a great extent from place to place and from time to time and are not easy to measure. Further, the models are difficult to calibrate under farmer's field conditions because the soil salinity here is spatially very variable. The models use short time steps and need at least a daily, if not an hourly, data base of hydrological phenomena. Altogether this makes model application to a fairly large project the job of a team of specialists with ample facilities.

Simpler models, like SaltMod,[5] based on monthly or seasonal water and soil balances and an empirical capillary rise function, are also available. They are useful for long-term salinity predictions in relation to irrigation and drainage practices.

LeachMod,[21] using the SaltMod principles, helps in analyzing leaching experiments in which the soil salinity was monitored in various root zone layers while the model will optimize the value of the leaching efficiency of each layer so that a fit is obtained of observed with simulated soil salinity values.

Spatial variations owing to variations in topography can be simulated and predicted using salinity cum groundwater models, like SahysMod.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c http://phys.org/news/2014-10-world-hectares-farm-soil-daily.html
  2. ^ I.P. Abrol, J.S.P Yadav, and F. Massoud 1988. Salt affected soils and their management, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Soils Bulletin 39.
  3. ^ a b c ILRI, 2003. Drainage for Agriculture: Drainage and hydrology/salinity - water and salt balances. Lecture notes International Course on Land Drainage, International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement (ILRI), Wageningen, The Netherlands. Download from page : [1], or directly as PDF : [2]
  4. ^ R.Brinkman, 1980. Saline and sodic soils. In: Land reclamation and water management, p. 62-68. International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement (ILRI), Wageningen, The Netherlands.
  5. ^ a b SaltMod: a tool for interweaving of irrigation and drainage for salinity control. In: W.B.Snellen (ed.), Towards integration of irrigation, and drainage management. ILRI Special report, p. 41-43. International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement (ILRI), Wageningen, The Netherlands.
  6. ^ H.J. Nijland and S. El Guindy, Crop yields, watertable depth and soil salinity in the Nile Delta, Egypt. In: Annual report 1983. International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement (ILRI), Wageningen, The Netherlands.
  7. ^ On line collection of salt tolerance data of agricultural crops from measurements in farmers' fields [3]
  8. ^ ILRI, 2003, This paper discusses soil salinity. Lecture notes, International Course on Land Drainage International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement (ILRI), Wageningen, The Netherlands. On line: [4]
  9. ^ L.A.Richards (Ed.), 1954. Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils. USDA Agricultural Handbook 60. On internet
  10. ^ a b Alan D. Blaylock, 1994, Soil Salinity and Salt tolerance of Horticultural and Landscape Plants. [5]
  11. ^ a b Government of Alberta, Salt tolerance of Plants
  12. ^ a b J.W. van Hoorn and J.G. van Alphen (2006), Salinity control. In: H.P. Ritzema (Ed.), Drainage Principles and Applications, p. 533-600, Publication 16, International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement (ILRI), Wageningen, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-70754-33-9.
  13. ^ Agricultural Drainage Criteria, Chapter 17 in: H.P.Ritzema (2006), Drainage Principles and Applications, Publication 16, International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement (ILRI), Wageningen, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-70754-33-9. On line : [6]
  14. ^ R.J.Oosterbaan and M.A.Senna, 1990. Using SaltMod to predict drainage and salinity control in the Nile delta. In: Annual Report 1989, International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement (ILRI), Wageningen, The Netherlands, p. 63-74. See Case Study Egypt in the SaltMod manual : [7]
  15. ^ E.A. Vanegas Chacon, 1990. Using SaltMod to predict desalinization in the Leziria Grande Polder, Portugal. Thesis. Wageningen Agricultural University, The Netherlands
  16. ^ ILRI, 2000. Irrigation, groundwater, drainage and soil salinity control in the alluvial fan of Garmsar. Consultancy assignment to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement (ILRI), Wageningen, The Netherlands. On line: [8]
  17. ^ SWAP model
  18. ^ DrainMod-S model Archived 2008-10-25 at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ UnSatChem model
  20. ^ Hydrus model
  21. ^ LeachMod

External links

  • Website on soil salinity and waterlogging : [14]
  • Articles on soil salinity and waterlogging : [15]
  • Frequently asked questions on soil salinity and waterlogging : [16]
  • Reports and case studies on soil salinity and waterlogging : [17]
  • Free software on soil salinity and waterlogging : [18]
Drainage

Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of a surface's water and sub-surface water from an area with excess of water. The internal drainage of most agricultural soils is good enough to prevent severe waterlogging (anaerobic conditions that harm root growth), but many soils need artificial drainage to improve production or to manage water supplies.

Drainage model

Drainage model may refer to:

a surface drainage model or rainfall-runoff model; see surface runoff, runoff model (reservoir)

a subsurface (groundwater), drainage model related to:

a spacing equation for subsurface pipe drains and open ditches (horizontal drainage) or wells (vertical drainage); see watertable control

a hydrological subsurface drainage model; see soil salinity control for an example of an agro-hydro-salinity subsurface drainage model (SaltMod)

groundwater flow in the aquifer; see groundwater model or an example of an agro-hydro-salinity groundwater model: SahysMod

Drainage research

Drainage research is the study of agricultural drainage systems and their effects to arrive at optimal system design.

Drip irrigation

Drip irrigation is a type of micro-irrigation system that has the potential to save water and nutrients by allowing water to drip slowly to the roots of plants, either from above the soil surface or buried below the surface. The goal is to place water directly into the root zone and minimize evaporation. Drip irrigation systems distribute water through a network of valves, pipes, tubing, and emitters. Depending on how well designed, installed, maintained, and operated it is, a drip irrigation system can be more efficient than other types of irrigation systems, such as surface irrigation or sprinkler irrigation.

EnDrain

EnDrain is software for the calculation of a subsurface drainage system in agricultural land. The EnDrain program computes the water flow discharged by drains, the hydraulic head losses and the distance between drains, also obtaining the curve described by water-table level. Such calculations are necessary to design a drainage system in the framework of an irrigation system for water table and soil salinity control.

Index of soil-related articles

This is an index of articles relating to soil.

Irrigation

Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals. Irrigation helps to grow agricultural crops, maintain landscapes, and revegetate disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of less than average rainfall. Irrigation also has other uses in crop production, including frost protection, suppressing weed growth in grain fields and preventing soil consolidation. In contrast, agriculture that relies only on direct rainfall is referred to as rain-fed or dry land farming.

Irrigation systems are also used for cooling livestock, dust suppression, disposal of sewage, and in mining. Irrigation is often studied together with drainage, which is the removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area.

Irrigation has been a central feature of agriculture for over 5,000 years and is the product of many cultures. Historically, it was the basis for economies and societies across the globe, from Asia to the Southwestern United States.

Irrigation in Iran

Irrigation in Iran covers 89,930 km2 making it the fifth ranked country in terms of irrigated area.

Land rehabilitation

Land rehabilitation is the process of returning the land in a given area to some degree of its former state, after some process (industry, natural disasters, etc.) has resulted in its damage. Many projects and developments will result in the land becoming degraded, for example mining, farming and forestry.

Land restoration

Land restoration is the process of ecological restoration of a site to a natural landscape and habitat, safe for humans, wildlife, and plant communities. Ecological destruction is usually the consequence of pollution, deforestation, salination or natural disasters. Land restoration is not the same as land reclamation, where existing ecosystems are altered or destroyed to give way for cultivation or construction. Land restoration can enhance the supply of valuable ecosystem services that benefit people.

Leaching (agriculture)

In agriculture, leaching is the loss of water from water-soluble plant nutrients from the soil, due to rain and irrigation. Soil structure, crop planting, type and application rates of fertilizers, and other factors are taken into account to avoid excessive nutrient loss. Leaching may also refer to the practice of applying a small amount of excess irrigation where the water has a high salt content to avoid salts from building up in the soil (salinity control). Where this is practiced, drainage must also usually be employed, to carry away the excess water.

Leaching is a natural environment concern when it contributes to groundwater contamination. As water from rain, flooding, or other sources seeps into the ground, it can dissolve chemicals and carry them into the underground water supply. Of particular concern are hazardous waste dumps and landfills, and, in agriculture, excess fertilizer, improperly stored animal manure, and biocides (e.g. pesticides, fungicides, insecticides and herbicides).

Leaching (pedology)

In pedology, leaching is the removal of soluble materials from one zone in soil to another via water movement in the profile. It is a mechanism of soil formation distinct from the soil forming process of eluviation, which is the loss of mineral and organic colloids. Leached and elluviated materials tend to be lost from topsoil and deposited in subsoil. A soil horizon accumulating leached and eluviated materials is referred to as a zone of illuviation.

Laterite soil, which develops in regions with high temperature and heavy rainfall, is an example of this process in action.

Salinity

Salinity (/səˈlɪnəti/) is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water, called saline water (see also soil salinity). This is usually measured in (note that this is technically dimensionless). Salinity is an important factor in determining many aspects of the chemistry of natural waters and of biological processes within it, and is a thermodynamic state variable that, along with temperature and pressure, governs physical characteristics like the density and heat capacity of the water.

A contour line of constant salinity is called an isohaline, or sometimes isohale.

Salt balance

Salt balance may refer to

Osmoregulation

Soil salinity

Salt balance in the soil

Soil salinity

Soil salinity is the salt content in the soil; the process of increasing the salt content is known as salinization. Salts occur naturally within soils and water. Salination can be caused by natural processes such as mineral weathering or by the gradual withdrawal of an ocean. It can also come about through artificial processes such as irrigation and road salt.

Surface irrigation

Surface irrigation is where water is applied and distributed over the soil surface by gravity. It is by far the most common form of irrigation throughout the world and has been practiced in many areas virtually unchanged for thousands of years.

Surface irrigation is often referred to as flood irrigation, implying that the water distribution is uncontrolled and therefore, inherently inefficient. In reality, some of the irrigation practices grouped under this name involve a significant degree of management (for example surge irrigation). Surface irrigation comes in three major types; level basin, furrow and border strip.

Waterlogging (agriculture)

Waterlogging refers to the saturation of soil with water. Soil may be regarded as waterlogged when it is nearly saturated with water much of the time such that its air phase is restricted and anaerobic conditions prevail. In extreme cases of prolonged waterlogging, anaerobiosis occurs, the roots of mesophytes suffer, and the subsurface reducing atmosphere leads to such processes as denitrification, methanogenesis, and the reduction of iron and manganese oxides.In agriculture, various crops need air (specifically, oxygen) to a greater or lesser depth in the soil. Waterlogging of the soil stops air getting in. How near the water table must be to the surface for the ground to be classed as waterlogged, varies with the purpose in view. A crop's demand for freedom from waterlogging may vary between seasons of the year, as with the growing of rice (Oryza sativa).

In irrigated agricultural land, waterlogging is often accompanied by soil salinity as waterlogged soils prevent leaching of the salts imported by the irrigation water.

From a gardening point of view, waterlogging is the process whereby the soil blocks off all water and is so hard it stops air getting in and it stops oxygen from getting in.

Watertable control

Watertable control is the practice of controlling the height of the water table by drainage. Its main applications are in agricultural land (to improve the crop yield using agricultural drainage systems) and in cities to manage the extensive underground infrastructure that includes the foundations of large buildings, underground transit systems, and extensive utilities (water supply networks, sewerage, storm drains, and underground electrical grids).

Well drainage

Well drainage means drainage of agricultural lands by wells. Agricultural land is drained by pumped wells (vertical drainage) to improve the soils by controlling water table levels and soil salinity.

Agricultural water management
Irrigation
Subsurface drainage
Surface water/runoff
Groundwater
Problem soils
Agro-hydro-salinity group
Related topics

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