Soil resilience should first be looked at in terms of soil formation and development (pedogenesis), a continuous process taking thousands of years – this puts into context the short time that humans have so extensively utilised, changed and depended directly on soil. Pedogenesis is the result of five factors: the first two are parent material and topography, which are passive and contribute to soil mass and position; the next two are climate and the biosphere, which are active and supply the energy in soil formation. Finally, there is time.
It is the active factors in soil formation that vary so as to constitute an environmental change or shock. Over time, variations have been significant:
If soil were not resilient, then in the face of past influences it would not be in any condition to support the natural and commercial services that we expect of it currently. So what do we expect of soil resilience?
In Australia, the above questions are relevant given the strong dependence on the soil, yet the significant degradation of soils over little more than 200 years due to adoption of European styled agriculture. This is in the context of the real prospect of climate change, cyclical drought and other degrading affects.
It is in the interest of humans to sustain soils as this is the essence of our existence: the maintenance of fertile soil is “one of the most vital ecological services the living world performs”; the “mineral and organic contents of soil must be replenished constantly as plants consume soil elements and pass them up the food chain”.
It is claimed by Watson (1992) that the ecosystems of Australia, which have evolved over millennia, have been decimated over the last 200 years. Our expectation has been one of ongoing environmental and commercial service, yet the practices applied have been unsustainable and have led to such soil related problems as salinity, acidity, nutrient decline, erosion and structure decline.
Barrow (1991) claims that despite decades of humans talking of an impending environmental crisis, including the breaking point of our soils’ fertility, threats to the environment have continued to grow faster than the willingness to control them. Even with good intentions and best farming practices, still we are caught out by drought and wet periods, which cause unsustainable degradation.
The pressure that we impose on the soil in terms of biosphere (direct human impacts included) and climate constitute environmental change – the rate of this change compared to other changes over pedological time constitutes a shock. The resilience of the soil is limited by the rate and extent of change we impose compared with the time that soil requires to recover.
Soils are resilient to environmental changes and shocks – that is, they will recover from or adjust to change if sufficient ‘pedological’ time is allowed. The soil management practices that have been applied by humans in a short time frame are unsustainable - a declining soil health threatens human livelihood. The resilience of the soil in terms of human expectations and time frames will depend on its ability to recover to an equilibrium state once improved practices have been extensively applied.
An andén (plural andenes), Spanish for "platform", is a stair-step like terrace dug into the slope of a hillside for agricultural purposes. The term is most often used to refer to the terraces built by pre-Columbian cultures in the Andes mountains of South America. Andenes had several functions, the most important of which was to increase the amount of cultivatable land available to farmers by leveling a planting area for crops. The best known examples of andenes are in Peru, especially in the Sacred Valley near the Inca capital of Cuzco and in the Colca Canyon. Many andenes have survived for more than 500 years and are still in use by farmers throughout the region.
The benefits of andenes include utilizing steep slopes for agriculture, minimizing the threat of freezes, increasing exposure to sunlight, controlling erosion, improving absorption of water, and better aeration of the soil. The construction and use of andenes for crops enabled agriculture in the Andes to expand into climatically marginal areas of low or seasonal rainfall, low temperatures, and thin soils.Ecological resilience
In ecology, resilience is the capacity of an ecosystem to respond to a perturbation or disturbance by resisting damage and recovering quickly. Such perturbations and disturbances can include stochastic events such as fires, flooding, windstorms, insect population explosions, and human activities such as deforestation, fracking of the ground for oil extraction, pesticide sprayed in soil, and the introduction of exotic plant or animal species. Disturbances of sufficient magnitude or duration can profoundly affect an ecosystem and may force an ecosystem to reach a threshold beyond which a different regime of processes and structures predominates. Human activities that adversely affect ecosystem resilience such as reduction of biodiversity, exploitation of natural resources, pollution, land use, and anthropogenic climate change are increasingly causing regime shifts in ecosystems, often to less desirable and degraded conditions. Interdisciplinary discourse on resilience now includes consideration of the interactions of humans and ecosystems via socio-ecological systems, and the need for shift from the maximum sustainable yield paradigm to environmental resource management which aims to build ecological resilience through "resilience analysis, adaptive resource management, and adaptive governance".Index of soil-related articles
This is an index of articles relating to soil.Soil health
Soil health is a state of a soil meeting its range of ecosystem functions as appropriate to its environment. Soil health testing is an assessment of this status. Soil health depends on soil biodiversity (with a robust soil biota), and it can be improved via soil conditioning (soil amendment).Soil structure
Soil structure describes the arrangement of the solid parts of the soil and of the pore space located between them. It is determined by how individual soil granules clump, bind together, and aggregate, resulting in the arrangement of soil pores between them. Soil structure has a major influence on water and air movement, biological activity, root growth and seedling emergence.
Topics in soil science