A sock is an item of clothing worn on the feet and often covering the ankle or some part of the calf. Some type of shoe or boot is typically worn over socks. In ancient times, socks were made from leather or matted animal hair. In the late 16th century, machine-knit socks were first produced. Until 1800 both hand knitting and machine knitting were used to produce socks, but after 1800, machine knitting became the predominant method.
One of the roles of socks is absorbing perspiration. The foot is among the heaviest producers of sweat in the body, as it can produce over 0.25 US pints (0.12 l) of perspiration per day; socks help to absorb this sweat and draw it to areas where air can evaporate the perspiration. In cold environments, socks made from wool insulate the foot and decrease the risk of frostbite. Socks are worn with sport shoes (typically white-coloured socks) and dress shoes (typically dark-coloured socks). In addition to the numerous practical roles played by socks, they are also a fashion item, and they are available in myriad colours and patterns.
The modern English word sock is derived from the Old English word socc, meaning "light slipper". This comes from the Latin soccus, a term to describe a "light, low-heeled shoe" worn by Roman comic actors, and deriving from the Ancient Greek word sykchos.
Socks have evolved over the centuries from the earliest models, which were made from animal skins gathered up and tied around the ankles. According to the Greek poet Hesiod, in the 8th century BC, the Ancient Greeks wore socks called "piloi", which were made from matted animal hair. The Romans also wrapped their feet with leather or woven fabrics. Around the 2nd century AD, the Romans started sewing the fabrics together making fitted socks called "udones". By the 5th century AD, socks called "puttees" were worn by holy people in Europe to symbolize purity.
During the Middle Ages, the length of trousers was extended and the sock became a tight, brightly colored cloth covering the lower part of the leg. Since socks didn’t have an elastic band, garters were placed over the top of the stockings to prevent them from falling down. When breeches became shorter, socks began to get longer (and more expensive). By 1000 AD, socks became a symbol of wealth among the nobility. From the 16th century onwards, an ornamental design on the ankle or side of a sock has been called a clock.
The invention of a knitting machine in 1589 meant that socks could be knitted six times faster than by hand. Nonetheless, knitting machines and hand knitters worked side by side until 1800.
The next revolution in sock production was the introduction of nylon in 1938. Until then socks were commonly made from silk, cotton and wool. Nylon was the start of blending two or more yarns in the production of socks, a process that still continues today.
Socks can be created from a wide variety of materials, such as cotton, wool, nylon, acrylic, polyester, olefins, (such as polypropylene), or spandex. To get an increased level of softness other materials that might be used during the process can be silk, bamboo, linen, cashmere, or mohair. The color variety of sock choices can be any color that the designers intend to make the sock upon its creation. Sock 'coloring' can come in a wide range of colors. Sometimes art is also put onto socks to increase their appearance. Colored socks may be a key part of the uniforms for sports, allowing players teams to be distinguished when only their legs are clearly visible.
The township-level district of Datang in the city of Zhuji in Zhejiang Province, People's Republic of China, has become known as Sock City. The town currently produce 8 billion pairs of socks each year, a third of the world's sock production, effectively creating two pairs of socks for every person on the planet in 2011.
Socks are manufactured in a variety of lengths. Bare or ankle socks extend to the ankle or lower and are often worn casually or for athletic use. Bare socks are designed to create the look of "bare feet" when worn with shoes. Knee-high socks are sometimes associated with formal dress or as being part of a uniform, such as in sports (like football and baseball) or as part of a school's dress code or youth group's uniform. Over-the-knee socks or socks that extend higher (thigh-high socks) are today considered female garments. They were widely worn by children, both boys and girls, during the late 19th and early 20th centuries., although the popularity varied widely from country to country. When worn by adult females, knee-high or thigh-high socks can become the object of sexual attraction and fetishism by some men.
A toe sock encases each toe individually the same way a finger is encased in a glove, while other socks have one compartment for the big toe and one for the rest, like a mitten; most notably Japanese tabi. Both of these allow one to wear flip-flops with the socks. Leg warmers, which are not typically socks, may be replaced with socks in cold climates.
A business sock is a term for a colored sock for conservative appearance and casual footwear. The term is often used loosely to indicate a term for a conservative office setting. For instance, business socks, business shirts and business shoes are used for office and job. These socks usually have patterns and are known to be a cause for bleach stains in laundry machines due to their colored manufacturing process and dyed attributes.
Crew socks are short, thick everyday socks usually ribbed at the top of the ankles.  They can be used in a way to warm legs. The first familiar practice of crew sock was in 1948. Crew socks are usually unisex.
Low cut sock is a kind of sock that describe in a way to be cut below ankle. Low cut socks are formed to cover the contours of feet. Low cut socks are unisex wearing but women and girls commonly use them. Low cut socks are normally worn with shoes such as boat shoes, Oxfords, moccasins and loafers.
The Ancient Egyptian style of sock is a blend between modern Western socks and Japanese tabi, both of which it predates. Like tabi, Egyptian socks have one compartment for the big toe and another for the rest, permitting their use with sandals; like Western socks, they fit snugly to the foot and do not use fasteners like tabi.
Although generally holding to a pattern of being divided into sizes of small-medium-large, etc., what range of shoe sizes those sock sizes correspond to carries in different markets. Some size standards are coordinated by standard-setting bodies but others have arisen from custom. Sock lengths vary, from ankle-high to thigh level.
Most sports will require some sort of sock, usually a tube sock to protect one's legs from being scraped while participating in sport activities. In basketball, tube socks are worn, and in lacrosse, mid-calf socks are required. In football, knee socks are used. They are mostly to stop grass burns.
The layer of leather or other material covering the insole of a shoe is also referred to as a sock. When only part of the insole is covered, leaving the forepart visible, this is known as a half-sock.
Footwraps, pieces of cloth that are worn wrapped around the feet, were worn with boots before socks became widely available. They remained in use by armies in Eastern Europe up until the beginning of the 21st century.
For use in cold environments, thermal socks are thicker. They are commonly worn for skiing, skating, and other winter sports. They not only provide insulation, but greater padding due to their thickness.
Diabetic socks are kind of thermal sock made from a acrylic, cotton, nylon, and elastic. These are made to improve comfort while at the same time keeping feet cool and dry. There is no solid evidence that they are helpful.
A sock is also used as a holiday item during Christmas. Children hang a large ceremonial sock called a Christmas stocking by a nail or hook on Christmas Eve, and then their parents fill it with small presents while the recipients are asleep. According to tradition, Santa Claus brings these presents.
Among Muslims, socks have initiated a discussion about the intricacies of wudhu, the formal washing carried out before prayer. Some Muslim clerics, mindful of possible hardship among Muslims in inhospitable circumstances, have issued Muslim edicts permitting practicing Muslims to wipe water over their sock or sprinkle their sock. This would allow prayer where there are no seating facilities, or if there is a queue. This is the stated opinion especially of Maliki Sunnis.
Łukasz Kubot and Marcelo Melo were the defending champions, but they were defeated in the second round by Jonathan Erlich and Marcin Matkowski.
Mike Bryan and Jack Sock won the title, defeating Raven Klaasen and Michael Venus in the final, 6–3, 6–7(7–9), 6–3, 5–7, 7–5. It was Bryan's 17th Grand Slam men's doubles title (a new Open Era record), and his first with a partner other than his brother Bob.
Bryan regained the ATP No. 1 doubles ranking at the end of the tournament, becoming the oldest no. 1 player in the history of the ATP rankings. Mate Pavić, John Peers and Nicolas Mahut were also in contention for the top ranking at the start of the tournament.Anklet (sock)
Anklets (pronounced ) are a type of sock. They are not long, typically reaching just below or above the ankle. Anklets are sometimes folded or cuffed over.Argyle (pattern)
An argyle (occasionally argyll) pattern is made of diamonds or lozenges. The word is sometimes used to refer to an individual diamond in the design, but more commonly refers to the overall pattern. Most argyle contains layers of overlapping motifs, adding a sense of three-dimensionality, movement, and texture. Typically, there is an overlay of intercrossing diagonal lines on solid diamonds.
The argyle pattern derives from the tartan of Clan Campbell of Argyll in western Scotland, used for kilts and plaids, and from the patterned socks worn by Scottish Highlanders since at least the 17th century (see illustrations in History of the kilt). These were generally known as "tartan hose".Argyle knitwear became fashionable in Great Britain and then in the United States after the First World War of 1914–1918. Pringle of Scotland popularised the design, helped by its identification with the Duke of Windsor. Pringle's website says that "the iconic Pringle argyle design was developed" in the 1920s. The Duke, like others, used this pattern for golf clothing: both for jerseys and for the long socks needed for the plus-fours trouser fashion of the day.
Payne Stewart (1957–1999), who won the U.S. Open in 1991 and 1999 and the PGA championship in 1989, was known for his flashy tams, knickerbockers, and argyle socks.As a knitting pattern, argyle is generally accomplished using the intarsia technique. Argyle patterns are occasionally woven.
Some sports teams use bright, contemporary interpretations of the argyle pattern: for example, the Garmin-Slipstream professional cycling team, nicknamed the "Argyle Armada", and the Norwegian men's curling team at the 2010 Winter Olympics. On April 27, 2013 the professional soccer team Sporting Kansas City of Major League Soccer (MLS) in the United States announced their third kit of the 2013 season, featuring an argyle pattern. The University of North Carolina has used the argyle pattern for its basketball uniforms since 1991, and introduced it as alternate for all sports uniforms in 2015. The Belgian football team used such design in 1984, and had an updated version of it in 2018.Black fly
A black fly (sometimes called a buffalo gnat, turkey gnat, or white socks) is any member of the family Simuliidae of the Culicomorpha infraorder. They are related to the Ceratopogonidae, Chironomidae, and Thaumaleidae. Over 2,200 species of black flies have been formally named, of which 15 are extinct. They are divided into two subfamilies: Parasimuliinae contains only one genus and four species; Simuliinae contains all the rest. Over 1,800 of the species belong to the genus Simulium.Most black flies gain nourishment by feeding on the blood of mammals, including humans, although the males feed mainly on nectar. They are usually small, black or gray, with short legs, and antennae. They are a common nuisance for humans, and many U.S. states have programs to suppress the black fly population. They spread several diseases, including river blindness in Africa (Simulium damnosum and S. neavei) and the Americas (S. callidum and S. metallicum in Central America, S. ochraceum in Central and South America).Bobby sock
Bobby socks are a style of women's sock, white, ankle length or collected at the ankle, instead of at full extension up the leg.
The term bobby soxer derives from this type of sock.They were initially popular in the United States in the 1940s through the 1950s, later making a comeback in the 1980s.Garter
A garter is an article of clothing comprising a narrow band of fabric fastened about the leg to keep up stockings. In the eighteenth to twentieth centuries, they were tied just below the knee, where the leg is most slender, to keep the stocking from slipping. The advent of elastic has made them less necessary from this functional standpoint, although they are still often worn for fashion. Garters have been widely worn by men and women, depending on fashion trends.Hi-hat
A hi-hat (hihat, high-hat, etc.) is a combination of two cymbals and a foot pedal, all mounted on a metal stand. It is a part of the standard drum kit used by drummers in many styles of music including rock, pop, and blues. Hi-hats consist of a matching pair of small to medium-sized cymbals mounted on a stand, with the two cymbals facing each other. The bottom cymbal is fixed and the top is mounted on a rod which moves the top cymbal towards the bottom one when the pedal is depressed (a hi-hat that is in this position is said to be "closed" or "closed hi-hats").
The hi-hat evolved from a "sock cymbal", a pair of similar cymbals mounted at ground level on a hinged, spring-loaded foot apparatus. Drummers invented the first sock cymbals to enable one drummer to play multiple percussion instruments at the same time. Over time these became mounted on short stands - also known as "low-boys" - and activated by foot pedals similar to those used in the 2010s. When extended upwards roughly 3' (76 cm) they were originally known as "high sock" cymbals, which evolved over time to the familiar "high-hat" term.The cymbals may be played by closing them together with the foot pedal, which creates a "chck" sound or striking them with a stick, which may be done with them open, closed, open and then closed after striking to dampen the ring, or closed and then opened to create a shimmering effect at the end of the note. Depending on how hard a hi-hat is struck and whether it is "open" (i.e., pedal not pressed, so the two cymbals are not closed together), a hi-hat can produce a range of dynamics, from very quiet "chck" (or "chick") sounds, done with merely gently pressing the pedal; this is suitable for soft accompaniment during a ballad or the start of a guitar solo, to very loud (e.g. striking fully open hats hard with sticks, a technique used in loud heavy metal music songs).
While the term hi-hat normally refers to the entire setup (two cymbals, stand, foot pedal, rod mechanism), in some cases, drummers use it to refer exclusively to the two cymbals themselves.Horse markings
Markings on horses are usually distinctive white areas on an otherwise dark base coat color. Most horses have some markings, and they help to identify the horse as a unique individual. Markings are present at birth and do not change over the course of the horse's life. Most markings have pink skin underneath most of the white hairs, though a few faint markings may occasionally have white hair with no underlying pink skin. Markings may appear to change slightly when a horse grows or sheds its winter coat, however this difference is simply a factor of hair coat length; the underlying pattern does not change.
On a gray horse, markings visible at birth may become hidden as the horse turns white with age, but markings can still be determined by trimming the horse's hair closely, then wetting down the coat to see where there is pink skin and black skin under the hair.
Recent studies have examined the genetics behind white markings and have located certain genetic loci that influence their expression.In addition to white markings on a base coat, there are other markings or patterns that are used to identify horses as with Appaloosa, Pinto or Brindle, as well as artificial markings such as branding.Ilchester
Ilchester is a village and civil parish, situated on the River Yeo or Ivel, five miles north of Yeovil, in the English county of Somerset. Originally a Roman town, and later a market town, Ilchester has a rich medieval history and was a notable settlement in the county; around the 12th and 13th centuries it was effectively the county town. It had, however, declined in size and importance by the beginning of the 18th century, and the last markets were held in 1833. In 1889 the historic corporation that had governed the town (the Bailiff and Burgesses) was dissolved.Ilchester is alternatively called Ivelchester (after the River Ivel) and the electoral ward of South Somerset District Council is named Ivelchester.Jack Sock
Jack Sock (born September 24, 1992) is an American professional tennis player. Together with Vasek Pospisil they won the 2014 Wimbledon championship, a victory that helped vault them into the Top 10 of the ATP doubles rankings. Additionally, he won the 2011 US Open mixed doubles title with fellow U.S. player Melanie Oudin as well as the 2018 Wimbledon and 2018 US Open men's doubles titles with Mike Bryan. Following his US Open win, Sock reached a career-high doubles ranking of No. 2 in the world, behind Mike Bryan. He has won four career ATP singles titles and fourteen doubles titles.
Sock is currently ranked world No. 167 in men's singles as of May 20, 2019, and reached his career-high singles ranking of world No. 8 on November 20, 2017. He is the twelfth-ranked American in singles and one of the top-ranked Americans in doubles on the ATP Tour. A former junior US Open champion, Sock's singles success is highlighted by his title at the 2017 Paris Masters tournament and an appearance in the semifinals at the 2017 ATP Finals.
At the 2016 Olympics, he won the gold medal in the mixed doubles with Bethanie Mattek-Sands and captured a bronze medal in the men's doubles with Steve Johnson.Puppet
A puppet is an object, often resembling a human, animal or mythical figure, that is animated or manipulated by a person called a puppeteer. The puppeteer uses movements of their hands, arms, or control devices such as rods or strings to move the body, head, limbs, and in some cases the mouth and eyes of the puppet. The puppeteer often speaks in the voice of the character of the puppet, and then synchronizes the movements of the puppet's mouth with this spoken part. The actions, gestures and spoken parts acted out by the puppeteer with the puppet are typically used in storytelling. Puppetry is a very ancient form of theatre which dates back to the 5th century BC in Ancient Greece. There are many different varieties of puppets, and they are made from a wide range of materials, depending on their form and intended use. They range from very simple in construction and operation to very complex.
Two simple types of puppets are the finger puppet, which is a tiny puppet that fits onto a single finger, and the sock puppet, which is formed and operated by inserting one's hand inside a sock, with the opening and closing of the hand simulating the movement of the puppet's "mouth." The sock puppet is a type of hand puppet, which is controlled using one hand that occupies the interior of the puppet and moves the puppet around. A "live-hand puppet" is similar to a hand puppet but is larger and requires two puppeteers for each puppet. A Marionette is a much more complicated type of puppet that is suspended and controlled by a number of strings connected to the head, back and limbs, plus sometimes a central rod attached to a control bar held from above by the puppeteer.
A rod puppet is constructed around a central rod secured to the head. A shadow puppet is a cut-out figure held between a source of light and a translucent screen. Bunraku puppets are a type of Japanese wood-carved puppet. A ventriloquist's dummy is a human-shaped puppet operated by a ventriloquist performer's hand; the performer produces the puppets voice with little or no movement of her mouth, which creates the illusion that the puppet is alive. Carnival puppets are large puppets, typically bigger than a human, designed to be part of a large spectacle or parade.Rock 'Em Sock 'Em Robots
Rock 'Em Sock 'Em Robots is a two-player action toy and game designed by Marvin Glass and Associates and was first manufactured by the Marx toy company in 1964. It features two dueling robot boxers, the Red Rocker and the Blue Bomber, mechanically manipulated by the players, and the game is won when one player knocks the head off of the opponent. The 2000s version of the game by Mattel features physically smaller robots.Sea sock
A sea sock is a piece of safety equipment used in sea kayaking. It is a large waterproof bag, fitting the lower body of a kayaker, that is placed inside the kayak and attached tightly all around the rim of the cockpit. The paddler sits inside the sea sock and fits the sprayskirt over the sea sock and cockpit coaming as usual.
A sea sock is used to keep a kayak from filling up with water in case of implosion of the sprayskirt or emergency exit of the paddler from the kayak. When correctly installed only the seasock will be filled reducing the quantity of water to be bailed out after the paddler re-entry while maintaining flotation and stability of the hull. In some situations it is possible to empty the water in the seasock by turning it inside out.
Though it is used in kayaks of various shapes and sizes, it is almost a compulsory accessory for paddlers with high volume kayaks that have no bulkheads, where the quantity of water filling the kayak could be unmanageable and in "skin-on-frame" kayaks where the construction method makes the adoption of bulkheads impractical. It should be used in conjunction with flotation bags adding an extra level of security.Sock puppet
A sock puppet is a puppet made from a sock or similar garment. The puppeteer wears the sock on a hand and lower arm as if it were a glove, with the puppet's mouth being formed by the region between the sock's heel and toe, and the puppeteer's thumb acting as the jaw. The arrangement of the fingers forms the shape of a mouth, which is sometimes padded with a hard piece of felt, often with a tongue glued inside.
The sock is stretched out fully so that it is long enough to cover the puppeteer's wrist and part of the arm. Often, the puppeteer hides behind a stand and raise the hand above it so that only the puppet is visible. Sock puppeteers may also stand in full view along with their puppets and hold conversations with them using ventriloquism.Sockpuppet (Internet)
A sockpuppet is an online identity used for purposes of deception. The term, a reference to the manipulation of a simple hand puppet made from a sock, originally referred to a false identity assumed by a member of an Internet community who spoke to, or about, themselves while pretending to be another person.The term now includes other misleading uses of online identities, such as those created to praise, defend or support a person or organization, to manipulate public opinion, or to circumvent a suspension or ban from a website. A significant difference between the use of a pseudonym and the creation of a sockpuppet is that the sockpuppet poses as an independent third-party unaffiliated with the main account operator. Sockpuppets are unwelcome in many online communities and forums.The Rock 'n' Sock Connection
The Rock 'n' Sock Connection was a professional wrestling tag team of The Rock and Mankind/Mick Foley that wrestled in the World Wrestling Federation (WWF) between 1999 and 2000 and briefly in 2004. As a team, they held the WWF Tag Team Championship three times.Toe socks
Toe socks (also known as fingersocks, glove socks, 5-toe socks or digital socks) are socks that have been knitted so that each toe is individually encased the same way as fingers within a glove.
All sock lengths are available as toe socks, from no-show style to anklet and ankle socks through to knee-high and over-knee socks. They are also available with rubberised undersides, as an alternative to bare feet for yoga. Toe socks are designed and available for both men and women, although traditionally targeted toward women.Underwear fetishism
Underwear fetishism is a sexual fetishism relating to undergarments, and refers to preoccupation with the sexual excitement of certain types of underwear, including panties, stockings, pantyhose, bras, or other items. Some people can experience sexual excitement from wearing, while others get their excitement when observing, handling, or smelling the underwear worn by another, or watching somebody putting underwear on or taking it off. Some may steal used underwear to get satisfaction. Not only does this include physical contact with the garment(s), or their wearers, but also includes arousal by printed or electronic image with depictions of underwear.
Underwear fetishism is not considered as paraphilia unless it causes distress or serious problems for the person or those associated with them.Windsock
A windsock is a conical textile tube that resembles a giant sock. Windsocks can be used as a basic guide to wind direction and speed, or as decoration.