Society for American Baseball Research

The Society for American Baseball Research (SABR) is a membership organization dedicated to fostering the research and dissemination of the history and record of baseball. Established in Cooperstown, New York, in August 1971 by sportswriter Bob Davids,[1] it is based in Phoenix, Arizona.

The Society for American Baseball Research (SABR)
Headquarters555 N Central Ave #416
Phoenix, Arizona, U.S.


While the acronym "SABR" may have lent its root to the word sabermetrics (for the use of sophisticated mathematical tools to analyze baseball), the Society is about much more than statistics. Well known figures in the baseball world such as Bob Costas, Keith Olbermann, Craig R. Wright, and Rollie Hemond are members, along with highly regarded "sabermetricians" such as Bill James and Rob Neyer.

Among Major League players Jeff Bajenaru was believed to have been (until 2006) the only active player with a SABR membership; Elden Auker, Larry Dierker, and Andy Seminick also have been involved.

Some prominent SABR members include:


Only a minority of members pursue "number crunching" research. Rather, the SABR community is organized both by interest and geography:

  • Research Committees study a particular issue
  • Regional Chapters link members by proximity. The latter are frequently named after baseball personalities relevant to their region.
  • SABR also has an active Biography Project,[1] with members authoring well-researched and engaging biographies of a growing list of former big league ballplayers and other notable contributors to the game.

SABR members keep in touch through online directories and electronic mailing lists set up through the SABR headquarters. The headquarters also maintains a number of research tools on its website, including a lending library, home run and triple play logs, and course syllabi related to the game.

SABR holds annual conventions in a different city each year. The conference generally includes panel discussions, research presentations, city-specific tourism, a ballgame, and an awards banquet. The 2007 convention in St. Louis, Missouri set the attendance record with 726 registered attendees out of approximately 7,000 SABR members.[3] The organization also hosts an annual baseball analytics conference in Phoenix and a Negro Leagues conference, which is held in a different location each year.[4][5]


The Baseball Research Journal (BRJ) is SABR's flagship publication since 1972 for members to publish and share their research with like-minded students of baseball. The National Pastime is an annual, published from 1982 to 2008 as The National Pastime: A Review of Baseball History, when it was intended as a more literary outlet than the stats oriented BRJ; since 2009 it is a convention-focused journal, with articles about the geographic region where the convention is taking place that year.[6] Other Society publications are an increasing variety of books (since 1976) and ebooks (since 2011);[7] 8-10 new e-books published annually are all free to members.[8]


SABR annual awards include:

  • Bob Davids[1] Award: for exceptional SABR members who have made contributions to SABR and baseball that reflect ingenuity, integrity, and self-sacrifice. It is SABR's highest honor, and was established in 1985.[9]
  • Henry Chadwick Award: for baseball researchers—historians, statisticians, annalists, and archivists.[10][11][12][13]
  • Seymour[14] Medal: best book of baseball history or biography published during the preceding calendar year.[15][16][17][18][19][20]
  • McFarland-SABR Baseball Research Award: for authors of the best articles on baseball history or biography completed during the preceding calendar year (published or unpublished).[21]
  • Sporting News-SABR Baseball Research Award: for projects which do not fit the criteria for The Seymour Medal or the McFarland-SABR Award.
  • Jerry Malloy Book Prize: best book-length nonfiction manuscript submitted by a member of SABR.[20]
  • Doug Pappas Research Award: best oral research presentation at the Annual Convention.
  • Lee Allen Award: for the best baseball research project at the annual National History Day competition.
  • Jack Kavanagh Memorial Youth Baseball Research Award: research paper by a researcher in grades 6–8 (middle school category), grades 9–12 (high school category), or undergraduates 22 and under (College Category).

In 2013, SABR began collaborating with Rawlings on the Gold Glove Award. Rawlings changed the voting process to incorporate SABR Defensive Index, a sabermetric component provided by SABR, which accounts for approximately 25 percent of the vote for the defensive award.[22]

Research committees

Retrosheet [2] is a research and archives organization independent of SABR which holds its annual meeting in conjunction with the society's annual convention.

Regional chapters

Past convention sites and keynote speakers

Source: SABR Convention History – Society for American Baseball Research.

See also



  1. ^ a b c "Bob Davids". Society for American Baseball Research. Archived from the original on 2012-04-26. Retrieved 2011-12-18.
  2. ^ "Designing People..." Computer Gaming World. August 1992. pp. 48–54. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
  3. ^ "SABR Convention History - Society for American Baseball Research".
  4. ^ "SABR Analytics Conference - Society for American Baseball Research".
  5. ^ "Jerry Malloy Negro League Conference | Society for American Baseball Research". Retrieved 2019-04-17.
  6. ^ "Publications". Society for American Baseball Research. Retrieved June 8, 2016.
  7. ^ "Other Society Publications". Society for American Baseball Research. Retrieved June 8, 2016.
  8. ^ "The SABR Story". Society for American Baseball Research. Retrieved June 8, 2016.
  9. ^ "Bob Davids Award - Society for American Baseball Research".
  10. ^ Established in November 2009, the Henry Chadwick Award was first presented in 2010. "Henry Chadwick Award". Society for American Baseball Research. Retrieved 2011-12-17.
  11. ^ "Henry Chadwick Award". Retrieved 2011-12-17.
  12. ^ "SABR Creates New "Henry Chadwick Award": James, Ritter, Palmer Among Honorees". OriolesHangout. Retrieved 2011-12-19.
  13. ^ Chuck, Bill (February 15, 2011). "SABR Announces 2011 Chadwick Award Recipients". Billy-Ball. Retrieved 2011-12-19.
  14. ^ Harold Seymour and his wife Dorothy Seymour Mills together wrote a three-volume history: Baseball: The Early Years (1960), Baseball: The Golden Age (1971), and Baseball: The People's Game (1991). "Harold Seymour and Dorothy Seymour Mills". Society for American Baseball Research. Archived from the original on 2012-04-26. Retrieved 2011-12-18.
  15. ^ The Seymour Medal was first awarded in 1996, at the SABR national convention. SABR held the first Seymour Medal Conference in 1999, at Cleveland State University, in conjunction with the presentation of the medal. "The Seymour Medal". Society for American Baseball Research. Retrieved 2011-12-19.
  16. ^ "SABR and The Seymour Medal: How Did it Happen?". Dr. Harold Seymour, Baseball Historian. Archived from the original on 2011-12-23. Retrieved 2011-12-19.
  17. ^ "The Seymour Medal: Winners and Finalists". Dr. Harold Seymour, Baseball Historian. Archived from the original on 2012-02-19. Retrieved 2011-12-19.
  18. ^ "Seymour Medal Award". Baseball-Almanac. Retrieved 2011-12-19.
  19. ^ Mondout, Patrick. "Seymour Medal Honorees". Retrieved 2011-12-19.
  20. ^ a b See also: Baseball awards#Baseball book of the year.
  21. ^ The McFarland award was "previously named The Macmillan-SABR Baseball Research Award (1987–1999)", according to "McFarland-SABR Baseball Research Award". Society for American Baseball Research. Retrieved 2012-02-17.
  22. ^ "Rawlings Gold Glove Award Finalists Announced" (Press release). Rawlings. October 25, 2013. Archived from the original on February 8, 2014.


  • Keri, Jonah (ed.) (2006). Baseball Between The Numbers: Why Everything You Know About the Game is Wrong. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-00596-9.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  • Lewis, Michael (2004). Moneyball: The Art of Winning an Unfair Game. Norton. ISBN 0-393-32481-8.
  • Ross, Ken (2004). A Mathematician at the Ballpark: Odds and Probabilities for Baseball Fans. Plume. ISBN 978-0-452-28782-2.

External links

Battery (baseball)

In baseball, the term battery refers collectively to the pitcher and the catcher, who may also be called batterymen or batterymates of one another.

Bob Broeg

Robert William Patrick Broeg (March 18, 1918 – October 28, 2005) was an American sportswriter.

Born and raised in St. Louis, Missouri, he officially covered the St. Louis Cardinals for forty years. He graduated from Cleveland High School (Class of '36) and the University of Missouri before entering the United States Marines. He served in Washington as a result of an eye injury suffered at birth.

After the war, Broeg joined the St. Louis Post-Dispatch. He was privy to many important events in baseball history. Broeg was partially responsible for the famous picture of Eddie Gaedel at the plate in 1951. He told the photographer to stay at the game until Gaedel came to the plate and the picture was taken.

Later, he helped Bob Gibson win the 1967 World Series. Gibson was unable to get breakfast at the Cardinals' hotel in Boston, so Broeg delivered a ham and egg sandwich to the star right-hander. Gibson pitched a complete game and carried his team to victory.

Among other things, Broeg is known for coining the nickname "Stan the Man" for Cardinal baseball player Stan Musial, championing the Hall of Fame causes of Cardinals Red Schoendienst, Enos Slaughter and Chick Hafey and helping to devise, and successfully push for the first pension plan for veteran major-league players.

Broeg was named to the Board of Directors of the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1972, a position he held for 28 years. He was also a longtime member of the Committee on Baseball Veterans. His knowledge was reported to be encyclopedic, even into his 80s. His willingness to share that knowledge with everyone from colleagues and loyal readers to complete strangers at the ballpark or on the street endeared him to fans spanning multiple generations. He penned his last column in 2004.

The St. Louis chapter of the Society for American Baseball Research is named for Bob Broeg. He was awarded the J. G. Taylor Spink Award in 1979. He was elected to the National Sportscasters and Sportswriters Hall of Fame in 1997.

Broeg said he wished his epitaph to read, "Hopefully, he was fair, as in just, not as in mediocre." Appropriately, Bob Broeg died five hours after the final game of the 2005 World Series. He was 87.

Buck Ewing

William "Buck" Ewing (October 17, 1859 – October 20, 1906) was an American Major League Baseball player and manager. He was the first 19th-century catcher elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame and was named one of the top five 19th-century players in a 1999 poll by the Society for American Baseball Research.

Deaths in April 2004

The following is a list of notable deaths in April 2004.

Entries for each day are listed alphabetically by surname. A typical entry lists information in the following sequence:

Name, age, country of citizenship at birth, subsequent country of citizenship (if applicable), reason for notability, cause of death (if known), and reference.

Deaths in December 2002

The following is a list of notable deaths in December 2002.

Entries for each day are listed alphabetically by surname. A typical entry lists information in the following sequence:

Name, age, country of citizenship at birth, subsequent country of citizenship (if applicable), reason for notability, cause of death (if known), and reference.

Deaths in January 2004

The following is a list of notable deaths in January 2004.

Entries for each day are listed alphabetically by surname. A typical entry lists information in the following sequence:

Name, age, country of citizenship at birth, subsequent country of citizenship (if applicable), reason for notability, cause of death (if known), and reference.

Deaths in July 2002

The following is a list of notable deaths in July 2002.

Entries for each day are listed alphabetically by surname. A typical entry lists information in the following sequence:

Name, age, country of citizenship at birth, subsequent country of citizenship (if applicable), reason for notability, cause of death (if known), and reference.

Detroit Tigers

The Detroit Tigers are an American professional baseball team based in Detroit, Michigan. The Tigers compete in Major League Baseball (MLB) as a member of the American League (AL) Central division. One of the AL's eight charter franchises, the club was founded in Detroit as a member of the minor league Western League in 1894 and is the only Western League team still in its original city. They are also the oldest continuous one name, one city franchise in the AL. The Tigers have won four World Series championships (1935, 1945, 1968, and 1984), 11 AL pennants (1907, 1908, 1909, 1934, 1935, 1940, 1945, 1968, 1984, 2006, 2012), and four AL Central division championships (2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014). The Tigers also won division titles in 1972, 1984, and 1987 as a member of the AL East. The team currently plays its home games at Comerica Park in Downtown Detroit.

The Tigers constructed Bennett Park at the corner of Michigan Avenue and Trumbull Avenue in Corktown (just west of Downtown Detroit) and began playing there in 1896. In 1912, the team moved into Navin Field, which was built on the same location. It was expanded in 1938 and renamed Briggs Stadium. It was renamed Tiger Stadium in 1961 and the Tigers played there until moving to Comerica Park in 2000.

From 1901 to 2018, the Tigers' overall win–loss record is 9,299–9,077 (a winning percentage of 0.506).

Dickey Kerr

Richard Henry Kerr, otherwise known as Dickey Kerr, was born in St. Louis, Missouri July 3, 1893 to Richard J., and Anna Kerr. Previously, known as Anna Tieman prior to marrying Dickey's father. Dickey's father made his living as a firefighter before getting a job working on rafts along the Mississippi. His father had a large family to support. Dickey had eight siblings. Baseball was not Dickey's first time in the athletic world. Prior to playing baseball, Dickey Kerr competed in amateur boxing. Kerr started playing baseball at the age of fourteen years old alongside amateur adult baseball players.In the year of 1909, Dickey, and one of his brothers joined the Paragould Scouts a league in N.E. Arkansas. At the age of 16, this is where the left hander's professional baseball career began to take off. Dickey played for a few different lower level baseball teams from the ages of sixteen to twenty-two. A couple of the teams he played for were the Cairo Egyptians, and the Cleburne Railroaders. The first minor league team that Dickey played for was the Milwaukee Brewers. In two seasons with the Milwaukee Brewers he pitched 484 innings. Dickey played in the minor leagues from 1913 to 1918, and won a hundred and seventeen games during this time.Richard Henry Kerr married Cora Downing at the age of twenty-one, on July 7, 1914. Cora also went by her nickname. The same as her famous husband. Cora was also known as "Pep". The couple remained married all the way up until Kerr's death. He died just before their 49th wedding anniversary.It was Buck Weaver, and Clearance "Pants" Rowland that recommended Dickey Kerr for the major leagues and the Chicago White Sox team. This happened during the "work or fight order" of World War I. At the time Dickey was about 5’7 and weighed 155 pounds. Dickey was living in Fairbanks – Morse, Wisconsin, and was working in a factory. Buck Weaver was a mechanic at one of the other plants at the same factory that Dickey Kerr was working.The owner of the Chicago White Sox at the time was Charles Comiskey, and the manager was William J. Gleason, or as he was better known as, "Kid" Gleason. The White Sox played at Comiskey Park in Chicago, Illinois. Kerr played for the Chicago White Sox from 1919 to 1921. Eight of Dickey's teammates took bribes to throw the 1919 World Series. They would forever become known as the Chicago Black Sox. His teammates that were permanently banned from Major League Baseball after throwing the 1919 World Series against the Cincinnati Reds were Chick Gandil, Happy Felsch, Eddie Cicotte, Claude Williams, Buck Weaver, Fred McMullen, and Swede Risberg. They had taken bribes from a gambler named, Joseph "Sport" Sullivan. Mobsters such as Arnold Rothstein may have also been involved. A trial was held, and all men were found not guilty. Dickey on the other hand showed great integrity during the 1919 World Series.

The owner of the White Sox was known for being cheap with his players. Dickey was not involved in the 1919 World Series scandal, but the owner Charles Comiskey refused to give Kerr what he believe to be a fair raise. Dickey held out for more pay, and refuse to play. This resulted in a suspension from the White Sox. Dickey went on to play exhibition games with other teams. The result from this was a suspension from the Major Leagues by Commissioner Kenesaw Landis. Kerr did not play Major League Baseball from 1922 to 1924.Dickey returned to semi professional leagues, for a short period of time In 1925, Kerr made a short come back in to the major leagues, and played for the White Sox. Kerr had a 53–34 career record. From 1927 to 1938, Kerr played for a few minor league teams before eventually retiring from his playing career. In 1927, Dickey Kerr permanently left the major leagues, and never played, for the minors again. However, things did not end there for Mr. Kerr. He went on to coach in the minor leagues, and college baseball.From 1927 to 1940, Kerr coached for a few different teams. The first team he coached for was the Rice University Owls in Texas. At that time, the school was known as Rice Institute. He also coached in Washington, and West Virginia before accepting a position in Florida. Kerr began managing the Daytona Beach Islanders in the year of 1940.It was his coaching that led him to Stan Musial. Dickey was the person that told Stan, then beset by arm problems, to switch from being a pitcher to a batter. It is quite possible that Dickey's mentoring helped Stan, rise to the level of success he gained. Musial eventually went on to gain 3000 hits in his career. In 1958, right before Musial's batting accomplishment, Dickey Kerr was working for an electric company. This is when Stan gave his friend a house, for his birthday. He purchased the home for some where around $10,000–$20,000, and his income at the time was only about $100,000. Kerr lived there all the way up until the time of his passing in 1963.Although Kerr was never introduced into the Baseball Hall of Fame, his accomplishments have received some recognition. He "received the inaugural Tris Speaker Memorial Award from the Houston Chapter of the Baseball Writers Association of America.", an award given to athletes, and baseball officials that have made some sort of exceptional contribution towards the game. He also received a key to the city of Houston during a night honoring him in 1961, at Busch Stadium. People did unsuccessfully try to get Dickey considered for the Baseball Hall of Fame. There was also a statue dedicated to the Astrodome of Dicky Kerr.Kerr lost his fight with cancer, and died May 4, 1963, and his final resting place is in Houston, Texas at the Forest Park Lawndale Cemetery. Dickey had died before the statue's dedication. Although, his good friend Stan Musial was present at the Second Annual Old Timer's Game in honor of Kerr. The Statue since has changed locations a few times. The bronze statue of Richard "Dickey" Kerr started at the Astrodome, and then it spent some time at the Houston Sports Museum until it's closing. In 2013 and 2014, the statue was moved to Constellation Field, for the Sugar Land Skeeters to showcase. That is the last known time of the Dickey Kerr statue being on display, for sports fans. The last known people to possess the piece of art from baseball's history is the Finger Family, and their curator Tom Kennedy.In the 1988 film Eight Men Out, about the Black Sox scandal, Kerr was portrayed by actor Jace Alexander. The film inaccurately portrayed Kerr as a right-handed pitcher when in fact he was a lefty.

Doug Harvey (umpire)

Harold Douglas Harvey (March 13, 1930 – January 13, 2018) was an umpire in Major League Baseball (MLB), who worked in the National League (NL) from 1962 through 1992.

Noted for his authoritative command of baseball rules, he earned the tongue-in-cheek nickname "God" from players, and was among the last major league umpires who never attended an umpiring school. Harvey umpired five World Series and seven All-Star Games. His career total of 4,673 games ranked third in major league history at the time of his retirement. In 2010, he became the ninth umpire to be inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame.In 1999, the Society for American Baseball Research ranked Harvey as the second-greatest umpire in history, behind only Bill Klem. In 2007, Referee magazine selected him as one of the 52 most influential figures in the history of sports officiating. Harvey wore uniform number 8 for most of his career.

Eugene Murdock

Eugene Converse Murdock (April 30, 1921 – July 23, 1992) was an historian and author best known for his research into baseball.

Frank Chapman (baseball)

Frank H. Chapman (November 1861 – December 2, 1937) was a professional baseball player who appeared in one game for the Philadelphia Athletics of the American Association in 1887. He was thought to have been a player named Fred Chapman and the youngest player to ever play in a Major League Baseball game until new findings by the Society for American Baseball Research (SABR) revealed that he was a different player, and much older, than previously believed.

Joe Garagiola Sr.

Joseph Henry Garagiola Sr. (February 12, 1926 – March 23, 2016) was an American professional baseball catcher, later an announcer and television host, popular for his colorful personality.

Garagiola played nine seasons in Major League Baseball (MLB) for the St. Louis Cardinals, Pittsburgh Pirates, Chicago Cubs, and New York Giants. He was later well known outside baseball for having been one of the regular panelists on The Today Show for many years and for his numerous appearances on game shows as a host and panelist.

List of Akron Aeros managers

The Akron Aeros minor league baseball franchise has employed 19 managers since its 1980 inception in Lynn, Massachusetts. Four of the managers have guided the team to win the Eastern League championship.

Jack Lind led the team to win the Eastern League title in the 1984 and 1985 seasons as the Double-A affiliate of the Cincinnati Reds.

Jay Ward managed the team to its third consecutive Eastern League title in the 1986 season as the Double-A affiliate of the Cincinnati Reds.

In 2003, as the Double-A affiliate of the Cleveland Indians, Brad Komminsk, led the team to its fourth Eastern League championship.

In 2005, still the Double-A affiliate of the Cleveland Indians, Torey Lovullo became the fourth manager to lead the team to an Eastern League championship.

Moses Fleetwood Walker

Moses Fleetwood Walker (October 7, 1856 – May 11, 1924) was an American professional baseball catcher who is credited with being one of the first black men to play in Major League Baseball (MLB). A native of Mount Pleasant, Ohio, and a star athlete at Oberlin College as well as the University of Michigan, Walker played for semi-professional and minor league baseball clubs before joining the Toledo Blue Stockings of the American Association (AA) for the 1884 season.

Though research by the Society for American Baseball Research (SABR) indicates William Edward White was the first African-American baseball player in the major leagues, Walker, unlike White (who passed as a white man), was open about his black heritage, and often faced racial bigotry so prevalent in the late 19th century United States. His brother, Weldy, became the second black athlete to do so later in the same year, also for the Toledo ball club. Walker played just one season, 42 games total, for Toledo before injuries entailed his release.

Walker played in the minor leagues until 1889, and was the last African-American to participate on the major league level before Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color line in 1947. After his baseball career, he became a successful businessman and inventor. As an advocate of Black nationalism, Walker also jointly edited a newspaper, The Equator, with his brother. He published a book, Our Home Colony (1908), to explore ideas about emigrating back to Africa. He died in 1924 at the age of 67.

Peter Morris (writer)

Peter Morris (born 1962)

is an American baseball researcher and author. A lifelong love of baseball led him to

membership in the Society for American Baseball Research, where he became an active member of the Biographical Committee, researching the lives of early major league baseball players.

Morris is a highly respected baseball researcher, and is often interviewed or cited by major media outlets such as National Public Radio.

He has written or co-authored nine books (as of 2014), including the major two-volume work A Game of Inches: The Stories Behind the Innovations that Shaped Baseball in 2006, the first book to ever win both the Society for American Baseball Research’s Seymour Medal and the Casey Award. In 2012, he served on the Baseball Hall of Fame’s pre-integration committee.

Run batted in

A run batted in (RBI), plural runs batted in (RBI or RBIs), is a statistic in baseball and softball that credits a batter for making a play that allows a run to be scored (except in certain situations such as when an error is made on the play). For example, if the batter bats a base hit, then another player on a higher base can head home to score a run, and the batter gets credited with batting in that run.

Before the 1920 Major League Baseball season, runs batted in were not an official baseball statistic. Nevertheless, the RBI statistic was tabulated—unofficially—from 1907 through 1919 by baseball writer Ernie Lanigan, according to the Society for American Baseball Research.Common nicknames for an RBI include "ribby" (or "ribbie"), "rib", and "ribeye". The plural of RBI is generally "RBIs", although some commentators use "RBI" as both singular and plural, as it can also stand for "runs batted in".


Sabermetrics is the empirical analysis of baseball, especially baseball statistics that measure in-game activity.

Sabermetricians collect and summarize the relevant data from this in-game activity to answer specific questions. The term is derived from the acronym SABR, which stands for the Society for American Baseball Research, founded in 1971. The term "sabermetrics" was coined by Bill James, who is one of its pioneers and is often considered its most prominent advocate and public face.

William Edward White

William Edward White (October 1860 – March 29, 1937) was a 19th-century American baseball player. He played as a substitute in one professional baseball game for the Providence Grays of the National League, on June 21, 1879.

Work by the Society for American Baseball Research (SABR) suggests that he may have been the first African-American to play major league baseball, predating the longer careers of Moses Fleetwood Walker and his brother Weldy Walker by five years; and Jackie Robinson by 68 years.

Very little is known about White, who replaced the regular first baseman, Joe Start, after the latter was injured. White was a student at Brown University, and played for the college's team. He went 1-for-4 and scored a run as Providence won 5–3. It is unknown why White did not play for the Grays again. He was replaced in the next game by future Hall of Famer "Orator Jim" O'Rourke.SABR's research indicates that the William Edward White who took the field that day was the son of a plantation owner from Milner, Georgia, Andrew Jackson White, and his black slave, Hannah. University records give Milner as the student's birthplace, and the only person of his name listed in the 1870 census was a 9-year-old mulatto boy who was one of three children living with his mother Hannah. All three of these children are named in A.J. White's 1877 will, which described them as the children of his servant Hannah White and stipulated that they be educated in the North. If the research by SABR is correct, then William White was not only the first black player in the major leagues, but may also have been the only former slave. Unlike the Walker brothers, White passed as white and did not face the virulent racism prevalent in the late 19th century.

According to 1900 and 1910 census records, White moved to Chicago and became a bookkeeper. He is listed there as having been born in Rhode Island and being white. The 1920 census, however, indicates that there was then a 60-year-old William E. White living in Chicago, whose parents were born in Georgia, and whose race was listed as "black." It is not certain that this is the same man.


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