Socialist Reich Party

The Socialist Reich Party (German: Sozialistische Reichspartei Deutschlands) was a West German Strasserist political party founded in the aftermath of World War II in 1949 as an openly neo-Nazi oriented split-off from the national conservative German Right Party (DKP-DRP). The SRP was the first party to be banned by the Federal Constitutional Court in 1952.

Socialist Reich Party

Sozialistische Reichspartei Deutschlands
LeaderOtto Ernst Remer
Fritz Dorls
Founded2 October 1949
Banned23 October 1952
Split fromDeutsche Rechtspartei
Merged intoDeutsche Reichspartei[1]
Youth wingReichsjugend
Paramilitary WingReichsfront
Membershipc. 10,000
IdeologyStrasserism
Neo-Nazism
Political positionFar-right
International affiliationN/A
ColorsRed, black, and yellow
Party flag
Socialist Reich Party flag

Origins

It was established on 2 October 1949 in Hameln by Otto Ernst Remer, a former Wehrmacht major general who had played a vital role in defeating the 20 July plot, Fritz Dorls, a former editor of the CDU newsletter in Lower Saxony, and Gerhard Krüger, leader of the German Student Union under the Third Reich, after they had been excluded from the DKP-DRP. The SRP saw itself as a legitimate heir of the Nazi Party; most party adherents were former NSDAP members. Its foundation was backed by former Luftwaffe Oberst Hans-Ulrich Rudel.

Bundesarchiv Bild 183-15845-0010, Sozialistische Reichspartei, Dorls, Remer, Westarp
SRP leaders Dorls (l.), Remer, Wolf von Westarp in August 1952

Party platform

The party claimed Chancellor Konrad Adenauer was a United States puppet and that Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz was the last legitimate President of the German Reich appointed by Adolf Hitler.[2] It denied the existence of the Holocaust, claimed that the United States built the gas ovens of the Dachau concentration camp after the War and that films of concentration camps were faked.[3] The SRP also advocated Europe, led by a reunited German Reich, as a "third force" against both capitalism and communism.[3] It demanded the re-annexation of the former eastern territories of Germany and a "solution of the Jewish question". According to Karl Dietrich Bracher, "SRP propaganda concentrated on a vague 'popular socialism' in which the old National Socialists rediscovered well-worn slogans, and also on a nationalism whose championship of Reich and war was but a thinly disguised continuation of the Lebensraum ideology".[4]

According to Martin A. Lee, the SRP never openly criticised the Soviet Union[5] because the Soviet Union funded the SRP as it held anti-American and pro-Soviet views. The Communist Party of Germany, on the other hand, did not receive Soviet funds because it was viewed as "ineffectual".[6][7] Remer said that if the USSR ever did invade Germany, he would "show the Russians the way to the Rhine" and that SRP members would "post themselves as traffic policemen, spreading their arms so that the Russians can find their way through Germany as quickly as possible".[8][9]

Election results

Dorls had been elected as a DKP-DRP deputy to the Bundestag parliament in the 1949 election. The SRP gained a second seat in parliament, when MP Fritz Rössler (alias Dr. Franz Richter) joined the party in 1950. In May 1951 it won 16 seats in the Lower Saxony state assembly (Landtag) election, receiving 11.0% of the votes with strongholds in the Stade region (21.5%; Verden district: 27.7%). In October 1951 it gained 7.7% of the votes in Bremen and won 8 seats in the city's Bürgerschaft parliament.

Membership

The SRP had about ten thousand members. Affiliated associations were the Reichsfront paramilitary organisation and the Reichsjugend youth wing, which were banned by decision of the Federal Minister of the Interior on 4 May 1951. On the same day, the West German cabinet decided to file an application to the Federal Constitutional Court to find the SRP anti-constitutional and to impose a ban. On 23 October 1952 the court according to Article 21 Paragraph 2 of the Basic Law adjudicated the party unconstitutional and dissolved, prohibited the founding of any successor organisations, withdraw all Bundestag and Landtag mandates and seized the party's assets (BVerfGE 2, 1). In view of the verdict, the SRP leaders had already declared the Party dissolved on 12 September.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Siehe Bericht des bayrischen Verfassungsschutzes, Rechtsextremismus: "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-05-16. Retrieved 2009-09-16.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ Martin A. Lee, The Beast Reawakens (Warner Books, 1998), p. 50.
  3. ^ a b Lee, p. 50.
  4. ^ Karl Dietrich Bracher, The German Dictatorship. The Origins, Structure, and Consequences of National Socialism (Penguin, 1991), p. 581.
  5. ^ Lee, p. 58.
  6. ^ Lee, pp. 74-75.
  7. ^ "Encyclopedia of modern worldwide extremists and extremist groups", Stephen E. Atkins. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004. ISBN 0-313-32485-9, ISBN 978-0-313-32485-7. pp. 273-274
  8. ^ Lee, p. 65.
  9. ^ T. H. Tetens, The New Germany and the Old Nazis (London: Secker & Warburg, 1962), p. 78.

External links

Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890

The Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890 is a reference book by Philip Rees, on leading people in the various far right movements since 1890.

It contains entries for what the author regards as "the 500 major figures on the radical right, extreme right, and revolutionary right from 1890 to the present" (publisher's blurb).

It was published, as a 418-page hardcover, in New York by Simon & Schuster in 1990 (ISBN 0-13-089301-3).

In the introduction Rees discusses his criterion for inclusion in the book. He describes the extreme right as "opposed to parliamentary forms of democratic representation and hostile to pluralism."(xvii)

Among those it covers are Argentinian nationalists, Mexican sinarquistas, American nativist demagogues, Brazilian Integralists, German National Socialists, Portuguese National Syndicalists, Spanish Falangists, and Belgian Rexists.

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z

Deutsche Rechtspartei

The German Right Party (German: Deutsche Rechtspartei, DRP) was a far-right political party that emerged in the British zone of Allied-occupied Germany after the Second World War.

Also known as the Deutsche Konservative Partei - Deutsche Rechtspartei (the party used both names, varying the name used between different Länder, but had no direct links to the pre-World War I German Conservative Party), the initially national conservative party was formed in June 1946 by a merger of three smaller groups - the Deutsche Konservative Partei, the Deutsche Aufbaupartei of the Völkisch politician Reinhold Wulle and the Deutsche Bauern- und Landvolk Partei. Its manifesto was in large parts authored by Hans Zehrer.

Originally intended as a continuation of the German National People's Party, it soon attracted a number of former Nazis and its programme changed towards a more neo-Nazi stance, while many centrist members left to join the German Party (DP). In the 1949 federal elections to the first Bundestag, the party won five seats, among the deputies was Fritz Rössler (alias Dr. Franz Richter), who soon became notorious for his radical positions.

Despite this success, the DRP was weakened that same year when the Socialist Reich Party (Sozialistische Reichspartei, SRP) was formed and a number of members who supported Otto Ernst Remer and Gerhard Krüger left to join the more openly neo-Nazi party. Indeed, the group lost two of its deputies - Rössler and Fritz Dorls - to this more extreme party upon its foundation. They did however gain one deputy when the Wirtschaftliche Aufbau-Vereinigung, a group of disparate figures who supported the demagogic Munich lawyer Alfred Loritz, disintegrated in the early 1950s. Within the Bundestag, the DRP began to work closely with a number of minor groups on the far-right, such as the National Democrats (a minor group that should not be confused with the later National Democratic Party of Germany). Between 1950 and 1951, the remaining DRP MPs who supported Fritz Rössler sought to merge with these groups in order to form a larger grouping, which resulted in the creation of the Deutsche Reichspartei. Rössler had to vacate his party offices for his contacts with SRP chairmen, he joined the Socialist Reich Party in September 1950.

Although effectively defunct, a report on the party was produced by the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany in the context of the SRP ban in 1952. The report claimed that the party had actively tried to organize members of earlier right wing groups, although no action was taken as the party had ceased to exist. A few members who had not joined the Deutsche Reichspartei continued as "National Rightists" (Nationale Rechte) and finally aligned themselves with the Free Democratic Party in 1954.

Deutsche Reichspartei

The Deutsche Reichspartei (DRP, German Reich Party, German Imperial Party or German Empire Party) was a nationalist political party in West Germany. It was founded in 1950 from the German Right Party (German: Deutsche Rechtspartei), which had been set up in Lower Saxony in 1946 and had five members in the first Bundestag.

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Liberal democratic basic order

The liberal democratic basic order (German: freiheitliche demokratische Grundordnung (FDGO)) is a fundamental term in German constitutional law. It determines the unalienable, invariable core structure of the German commonwealth. As such, it is the core substance of the German constitution.

The FDGO touches on the political order and the societal and political values on which German democracy rests. According to the German constitutional court, the free democratic order is defined thus:

The free democratic basic order can be defined as an order which excludes any form of tyranny or arbitrariness and represents a governmental system under a rule of law, based upon self-determination of the people as expressed by the will of the existing majority and upon freedom and equality. The fundamental principles of this order include at least: respect for the human rights given concrete form in the Basic Law, in particular for the right of a person to life and free development; popular sovereignty; separation of powers; responsibility of government; lawfulness of administration; independence of the judiciary; the multi-party principle; and equality of opportunities for all political parties.The concept of the liberal democratic basic order has been and is being rejected by parts of the left spectrum, the Antifa as well as people on the extreme right.

Parties as well as groups can be banned if they strive to abolish the FDGO, which has been done so successfully in regard to the Communist Party (1956) and the Socialist Reich Party (1952). In 2003 as well as in 2017, attempts to ban the National Democratic Party (NPD) failed. The willingness of a democracy to ban parties that endanger democracy itself has been termed "militant democracy", or "wehrhafte Demokratie" in German.

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