The Socialist Reich Party (German: Sozialistische Reichspartei Deutschlands) was a West German Strasserist political party founded in the aftermath of World War II in 1949 as an openly neo-Nazi oriented split-off from the national conservative German Right Party (DKP-DRP). The SRP was the first party to be banned by the Federal Constitutional Court in 1952.
Socialist Reich Party
Sozialistische Reichspartei Deutschlands
|Leader||Otto Ernst Remer|
|Founded||2 October 1949|
|Banned||23 October 1952|
|Split from||Deutsche Rechtspartei|
|Merged into||Deutsche Reichspartei|
|Colors||Red, black, and yellow|
It was established on 2 October 1949 in Hameln by Otto Ernst Remer, a former Wehrmacht major general who had played a vital role in defeating the 20 July plot, Fritz Dorls, a former editor of the CDU newsletter in Lower Saxony, and Gerhard Krüger, leader of the German Student Union under the Third Reich, after they had been excluded from the DKP-DRP. The SRP saw itself as a legitimate heir of the Nazi Party; most party adherents were former NSDAP members. Its foundation was backed by former Luftwaffe Oberst Hans-Ulrich Rudel.
The party claimed Chancellor Konrad Adenauer was a United States puppet and that Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz was the last legitimate President of the German Reich appointed by Adolf Hitler. It denied the existence of the Holocaust, claimed that the United States built the gas ovens of the Dachau concentration camp after the War and that films of concentration camps were faked. The SRP also advocated Europe, led by a reunited German Reich, as a "third force" against both capitalism and communism. It demanded the re-annexation of the former eastern territories of Germany and a "solution of the Jewish question". According to Karl Dietrich Bracher, "SRP propaganda concentrated on a vague 'popular socialism' in which the old National Socialists rediscovered well-worn slogans, and also on a nationalism whose championship of Reich and war was but a thinly disguised continuation of the Lebensraum ideology".
According to Martin A. Lee, the SRP never openly criticised the Soviet Union because the Soviet Union funded the SRP as it held anti-American and pro-Soviet views. The Communist Party of Germany, on the other hand, did not receive Soviet funds because it was viewed as "ineffectual". Remer said that if the USSR ever did invade Germany, he would "show the Russians the way to the Rhine" and that SRP members would "post themselves as traffic policemen, spreading their arms so that the Russians can find their way through Germany as quickly as possible".
Dorls had been elected as a DKP-DRP deputy to the Bundestag parliament in the 1949 election. The SRP gained a second seat in parliament, when MP Fritz Rössler (alias Dr. Franz Richter) joined the party in 1950. In May 1951 it won 16 seats in the Lower Saxony state assembly (Landtag) election, receiving 11.0% of the votes with strongholds in the Stade region (21.5%; Verden district: 27.7%). In October 1951 it gained 7.7% of the votes in Bremen and won 8 seats in the city's Bürgerschaft parliament.
The SRP had about ten thousand members. Affiliated associations were the Reichsfront paramilitary organisation and the Reichsjugend youth wing, which were banned by decision of the Federal Minister of the Interior on 4 May 1951. On the same day, the West German cabinet decided to file an application to the Federal Constitutional Court to find the SRP anti-constitutional and to impose a ban. On 23 October 1952 the court according to Article 21 Paragraph 2 of the Basic Law adjudicated the party unconstitutional and dissolved, prohibited the founding of any successor organisations, withdraw all Bundestag and Landtag mandates and seized the party's assets (BVerfGE 2, 1). In view of the verdict, the SRP leaders had already declared the Party dissolved on 12 September.
The Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890 is a reference book by Philip Rees, on leading people in the various far right movements since 1890.
It contains entries for what the author regards as "the 500 major figures on the radical right, extreme right, and revolutionary right from 1890 to the present" (publisher's blurb).
It was published, as a 418-page hardcover, in New York by Simon & Schuster in 1990 (ISBN 0-13-089301-3).
In the introduction Rees discusses his criterion for inclusion in the book. He describes the extreme right as "opposed to parliamentary forms of democratic representation and hostile to pluralism."(xvii)
Among those it covers are Argentinian nationalists, Mexican sinarquistas, American nativist demagogues, Brazilian Integralists, German National Socialists, Portuguese National Syndicalists, Spanish Falangists, and Belgian Rexists.
A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - ZDeutsche Rechtspartei
The German Right Party (German: Deutsche Rechtspartei, DRP) was a far-right political party that emerged in the British zone of Allied-occupied Germany after the Second World War.
Also known as the Deutsche Konservative Partei - Deutsche Rechtspartei (the party used both names, varying the name used between different Länder, but had no direct links to the pre-World War I German Conservative Party), the initially national conservative party was formed in June 1946 by a merger of three smaller groups - the Deutsche Konservative Partei, the Deutsche Aufbaupartei of the Völkisch politician Reinhold Wulle and the Deutsche Bauern- und Landvolk Partei. Its manifesto was in large parts authored by Hans Zehrer.
Originally intended as a continuation of the German National People's Party, it soon attracted a number of former Nazis and its programme changed towards a more neo-Nazi stance, while many centrist members left to join the German Party (DP). In the 1949 federal elections to the first Bundestag, the party won five seats, among the deputies was Fritz Rössler (alias Dr. Franz Richter), who soon became notorious for his radical positions.
Despite this success, the DRP was weakened that same year when the Socialist Reich Party (Sozialistische Reichspartei, SRP) was formed and a number of members who supported Otto Ernst Remer and Gerhard Krüger left to join the more openly neo-Nazi party. Indeed, the group lost two of its deputies - Rössler and Fritz Dorls - to this more extreme party upon its foundation. They did however gain one deputy when the Wirtschaftliche Aufbau-Vereinigung, a group of disparate figures who supported the demagogic Munich lawyer Alfred Loritz, disintegrated in the early 1950s. Within the Bundestag, the DRP began to work closely with a number of minor groups on the far-right, such as the National Democrats (a minor group that should not be confused with the later National Democratic Party of Germany). Between 1950 and 1951, the remaining DRP MPs who supported Fritz Rössler sought to merge with these groups in order to form a larger grouping, which resulted in the creation of the Deutsche Reichspartei. Rössler had to vacate his party offices for his contacts with SRP chairmen, he joined the Socialist Reich Party in September 1950.
Although effectively defunct, a report on the party was produced by the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany in the context of the SRP ban in 1952. The report claimed that the party had actively tried to organize members of earlier right wing groups, although no action was taken as the party had ceased to exist. A few members who had not joined the Deutsche Reichspartei continued as "National Rightists" (Nationale Rechte) and finally aligned themselves with the Free Democratic Party in 1954.Deutsche Reichspartei
The Deutsche Reichspartei (DRP, German Reich Party, German Imperial Party or German Empire Party) was a nationalist political party in West Germany. It was founded in 1950 from the German Right Party (German: Deutsche Rechtspartei), which had been set up in Lower Saxony in 1946 and had five members in the first Bundestag.Erich Kern
Erich Kern, (born Erich Knud Kernmayr on 27 February 1906 in Graz – died 13 September 1991 in Kammer am Attersee) was an Austrian journalist. He became a writer of revisionist books that sought to glorify the activities of the German soldiers during the Second World War.Fourth Reich
The Fourth Reich (German: Viertes Reich) is a hypothetical future German Reich that is the successor to the Third Reich (1933–1945).Friedhelm Busse
Friedhelm Busse (4 February 1929 – 23 July 2008) was a German neo-Nazi politician and activist. In a career taking in some six decades Busse established himself as a leading voice of German neo-Nazism.Fritz Rössler
Fritz Rössler (January 17, 1912 – October 11, 1987) was a low-level official in the Nazi Party who went on to become a leading figure in German neo-Nazi politics. In his later life he was more commonly known as Dr. Franz Richter.Gerhard Krüger (politician)
Gerhard Krüger (born 6 December 1908 in Mottlau, Danzig – died 22 May 1994 in Hesslingen, Hessisch Oldendorf) was a Nazi Party student leader and later a leading figure within the neo-Nazi movement.German Social Union (West Germany)
For the East German opposition group see German Social Union (East Germany)German Social Union (German: Deutsch-Soziale Union) was a Neo-Nazi political party founded in Germany in 1956 by Otto Strasser. It was dissolved in 1962.H. Keith Thompson
Harold Keith Thompson (September 17, 1922 – March 3, 2002) was a New York City-based corporate executive and a figure within American far right and fascist circles. Thompson was a graduate of Yale University.Heinz Knoke
Heinz Knoke (24 March 1921 – 18 May 1993) was a World War II Luftwaffe flying ace. He is credited with 33 confirmed aerial victories, all claimed over the Western theatre of operations, and claimed a further 19 unconfirmed kills in over 2,000 flights. His total included 19 heavy bombers of the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF).Helmut Beck-Broichsitter
Helmut Beck-Broichsitter (30 August 1914 – 25 September 2000) was a German military police officer during World War II. Following the war, Beck-Broichsitter was involved in several neo-Nazi movements.Liberal democratic basic order
The liberal democratic basic order (German: freiheitliche demokratische Grundordnung (FDGO)) is a fundamental term in German constitutional law. It determines the unalienable, invariable core structure of the German commonwealth. As such, it is the core substance of the German constitution.
The FDGO touches on the political order and the societal and political values on which German democracy rests. According to the German constitutional court, the free democratic order is defined thus:
The free democratic basic order can be defined as an order which excludes any form of tyranny or arbitrariness and represents a governmental system under a rule of law, based upon self-determination of the people as expressed by the will of the existing majority and upon freedom and equality. The fundamental principles of this order include at least: respect for the human rights given concrete form in the Basic Law, in particular for the right of a person to life and free development; popular sovereignty; separation of powers; responsibility of government; lawfulness of administration; independence of the judiciary; the multi-party principle; and equality of opportunities for all political parties.The concept of the liberal democratic basic order has been and is being rejected by parts of the left spectrum, the Antifa as well as people on the extreme right.
Parties as well as groups can be banned if they strive to abolish the FDGO, which has been done so successfully in regard to the Communist Party (1956) and the Socialist Reich Party (1952). In 2003 as well as in 2017, attempts to ban the National Democratic Party (NPD) failed. The willingness of a democracy to ban parties that endanger democracy itself has been termed "militant democracy", or "wehrhafte Demokratie" in German.Matthias Koehl
Matthias Koehl Jr. (January 22, 1935 – October 9/10, 2014) was an American Marine, a neo-Nazi politician and writer. He succeeded George Lincoln Rockwell as the longest serving leader of the American Nazi Party from 1967 to 2014.
Like the Chilean diplomat Miguel Serrano, Koehl was influenced by the occultism of the Greek-French writer Savitri Devi. He was also a close friend of the Dutch World War II Nazi collaborator Florentine Rost van Tonningen.New European Order
The New European Order (NEO) was a neo-fascist, Europe-wide alliance set up in 1951 to promote Pan-European nationalism. It was a more radical splinter group of the European Social Movement.
The NEO had its origins in the 1951 Malmö conference when a group of rebels led by René Binet refused to join the European Social Movement as they felt that it did not go far enough in terms of racialism and anti-communism. As a result Binet joined with Gaston-Armand Amaudruz in a second meeting that same year in Zurich to set up a second group pledged to wage war on communists and non-white people.Once established, the NEO worked to set in place more permanent institutions, setting up a European Liaison Centre of the National Forces (Europäische Verbindungsstelle or EVS) in 1953, along with a permanent secretariat in Lausanne led by Amaudruz and his assistant Michael Schenk-Dengg, head of the Deutscher Blok. The EVS became very active in the following years, organising meetings for international representatives, attended by members of the Falange, Italian Social Movement (MSI), Socialist Reich Party and others.The NEO endured difficulties in 1955 over the issue of South Tyrol, with German speaking delegates attacking the MSI over their support for Italian control of the region. As a result, during the course of the year the Deutscher Block, the Volkspartei der Schweiz, Wiking-Jugend and representatives from Austria all left the NEO. By 1957, the movement had largely become moribund in Europe.During a 1997 hearing before the Commission on terrorism headed by senator Giovanni Pellegrino, Stefano Delle Chiaie went on speaking about a "black fascist International" and his hopes of creating the conditions of an "international revolution." In this context he talked about the World Anti-Communist League and admitted having taken part in the New European Order.The NEO would continue, coming to life from time to time, with Amaudruz continuing as a figurehead of the movement, publishing a monthly magazine Courrier du Continent. Whilst its European dimension became less important it remained as a network for international contacts, becoming influential for a time in the far right of South Africa. However, outside of Amaudruz, the NEO is effectively defunct today.Otto Ernst Remer
Otto-Ernst Remer (18 August 1912 – 4 October 1997) was a German Wehrmacht officer in World War II who played a major role in stopping the 20 July plot in 1944 against Adolf Hitler. In his later years he became a politician and far right activist. He co-founded the Socialist Reich Party in West Germany in the 1950s, and is considered an influential figure in post-war neo-Fascist politics in Germany.Thies Christophersen
Thies Christophersen (27 January 1918 in Kiel – 13 February 1997 in Molfsee), a farmer by upbringing, was a prominent German Holocaust denier.Wilhelm Stuckart
Wilhelm Stuckart (16 November 1902 – 15 November 1953) was a Nazi Party lawyer, official and a state secretary in the German Interior Ministry during the Nazi era. Stuckart was convicted as a war criminal at the Ministries Trial in 1949.