Socialism with Chinese characteristics

The theoretical system of socialism with Chinese characteristics (Chinese: 中国特色社会主义; pinyin: Zhōngguó tèsè shèhuìzhǔyì, literally zhōngguó tèsè, meaning "Chinese characteristics"; and shèhuì zhǔyì meaning "socialism")[1] is a broad term for political theories and policies that are seen by their proponents as representing Marxism–Leninism adapted to Chinese circumstances and specific time periods. For instance, in this view Xi Jinping Thought is considered to represent Marxist–Leninist policies suited for China's present condition while Deng Xiaoping Theory was considered relevant for the period when it was formulated.[2]

The term entered common usage during the era of Deng Xiaoping and was largely associated with Deng's overall program of adopting elements of market economics as a means to foster growth using foreign investment and to increase productivity (especially in the countryside where 80% of China's population lived) while the Communist Party of China retained both its formal commitment to achieve communism and its monopoly on political power.[3] In the party's official narrative, socialism with Chinese characteristics is Marxism–Leninism adapted to Chinese conditions and a product of scientific socialism. The theory stipulated that China was in the primary stage of socialism due to its relatively low level of material wealth and needed to engage in economic growth before it pursued a more egalitarian form of socialism, which in turn would lead to a communist society described in Marxist orthodoxy.

Socialism with Chinese characteristics

Primary stage of socialism

During Mao Zedong era

The concept of a primary stage of socialism was conceived before China introduced economic reforms.[4] In the early 1950s, economists Yu Guangyuan, Xue Muqiao and Sun Yefang raised the question of socialist transformation in which China's economy of low productive force was in a transitional period, a position which Mao Zedong endorsed briefly until 1957. When discussing the necessity of commodity relations at the 1st Zhengzhou Conference (2–10 November 1958), for example, Mao—the Chairman of the Communist Party of China's Central Committee—said that China was in the "initial stage of socialism".[4] However, Mao never elaborated on the idea and his successors were left to do this.[4]

After Mao Zedong's death

On 5 May 1978, the article "Putting into Effect the Socialist Principle of Distribution According to Work" (贯彻执行按劳分配的社会主义原则) elaborated on the idea that China was still at the first stage of reaching pure communism[5] and that it had not become a truly socialist society.[5] The article was written by members in the State Council's Political Research Office led by economist Yu Guangyuan on the orders of Deng Xiaoping so as to "criticize and repudiate" the beliefs of the communist left.[6] After reading it, Deng himself authored a brief memo saying that it was "well-written, and shows that the nature of distribution by labor is not capitalist, but socialist [...] [and] to implement this principle, many things are to be done, and many institutions to be revived. In all, this is to give incentives for us to do better".[7] The term reappeared at the 6th plenum of the 11th Central Committee on 27 June 1981 in the document "Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of our Party since the Founding of the PRC".[8] Hu Yaobang, the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, used the term in his report to the 12th National Congress on 1 September 1982.[8] It was not until the "Resolution Concerning the Guiding Principle in Building Socialist Spiritual Civilization" at the 6th plenum of the 12th Central Committee that the term was used in the defense of the economic reforms which were being introduced.[8]

At the 13th National Congress, acting General Secretary Zhao Ziyang on behalf of the 12th Central Committee delivered the report "Advance Along the Road of Socialism with Chinese characteristics".[9] He wrote that China was a socialist society, but that socialism in China was in its primary stage,[9] a Chinese peculiarity which was due to the undeveloped state of the country's productive forces.[9] During this phase of development, Zhao recommended introducing a planned commodity economy on the basis of public ownership.[9] The main failure of the communist right according to Zhao was that they failed to acknowledge that China could reach socialism by bypassing capitalism. The main failure of the communist left was that they held the "utopian position" that China could bypass the primary stage of socialism in which the productive forces are to be modernized.[10]

On 5 October 1987, Yu Guangyuan, a major author of the concept, published an article entitled "Economy in the Initial Stage of Socialism" and speculated that this historical stage will last for two decades and perhaps much longer.[11] This represents, says Ian Wilson, "a severe blight on the expectations raised during the early 70s, when the old eight-grade wage scale was being compressed to only three levels and a more even distributive system was assumed to be an important national goal". On 25 October, Zhao further expounded on the concept of the primary stage of socialism and said that the party line was to follow "One Center, Two Basic Points"—the central focus of the Chinese state was economic development, but that this should occur simultaneously through centralized political control (i.e. the Four Cardinal Principles) and upholding the policy of reform and opening up.[8]

General Secretary Jiang Zemin further elaborated on the concept ten years later, first during a speech to the Central Party School on 29 May 1997 and again in his report to the 15th National Congress on 12 September.[8] According to Jiang, the 3rd plenum of the 11th Central Committee correctly analyzed and formulated a scientifically correct program for the problems facing China and socialism.[8] In Jiang's words, the primary stage of socialism was an "undeveloped stage".[8] The fundamental task of socialism is to develop the productive forces, therefore the main aim during the primary stage should be the further development of the national productive forces.[8] The primary contradiction in Chinese society during the primary stage of socialism is "the growing material and cultural needs of the people and the backwardness of production".[8] This contradiction will remain until China has completed the process of primary stage of socialism—and because of it—economic development should remain the party's main focus during this stage.[8]

Jiang elaborated on three points to develop the primary stage of socialism.[12] The first—to develop a socialist economy with Chinese characteristics—meant developing the economy by emancipating and modernizing the forces of production while developing a market economy.[12] The second—building socialist politics with Chinese characteristics—meant "managing state affairs according to the law", developing socialist democracy under the party and making the "people the masters of the country".[12] The third point—building socialist culture with Chinese characteristics—meant turning Marxism into the guide to train the people so as to give them "high ideals, moral integrity, a good education, and a strong sense of discipline, and developing a national scientific, and popular socialist culture geared to the needs of modernization, of the world, and of the future".[12]

When asked how long the primary stage of socialism would last, Zhao replied "[i]t will be at least 100 years [...] [before] socialist modernization will have been in the main accomplished".[13] The state constitution states that "China will be in the primary stage of socialism for a long time to come".[14] As with Zhao, Jiang believed that it would take at least 100 years to reach a more advanced stage.[8]

Socialist market economy

What is socialism and what is Marxism? We were not quite clear about this in the past. Marxism attaches utmost importance to developing the productive forces. We have said that socialism is the primary stage of communism and that at the advanced stage the principle of from each according to his ability and to each according to his needs will be applied. This calls for highly developed productive forces and an overwhelming abundance of material wealth. Therefore, the fundamental task for the socialist stage is to develop the productive forces. The superiority of the socialist system is demonstrated, in the final analysis, by faster and greater development of those forces than under the capitalist system. As they develop, the people's material and cultural life will constantly improve. One of our shortcomings after the founding of the People's Republic was that we didn't pay enough attention to developing the productive forces. Socialism means eliminating poverty. Pauperism is not socialism, still less communism.
— Deng Xiaoping, speech discussing Marxist theory at a Central Committee plenum, 30 June 1984[15]

Deng Xiaoping, the architect of the Chinese economic reforms, did not believe that the market economy was synonymous with capitalism or that planning was synonymous with socialism.[16] During his southern tour, he said that "planning and market forces are not the essential difference between socialism and capitalism. A planned economy is not the definition of socialism, because there is planning under capitalism; the market economy happens under socialism, too. Planning and market forces are both ways of controlling economic activity".[16]

Ideological justification

In the 1980s, it became evident to Chinese economists that the Marxist theory of the law of value—understood as the expression of the labor theory of value—could not serve as the basis of China's pricing system.[17] They concluded that Marx never intended his theory of law of value to work "as an expression of 'concretized labor time'".[17] Marx's notion of "prices of production" was meaningless to the Soviet-styled planned economies since price formations were according to Marx established by markets.[18] Soviet planners had used the law of value as a basis to rationalize prices in the planned economy.[19] According to Soviet sources, prices were "planned with an eye to the [...] basic requirements of the law of value".[19] However, the primary fault with the Soviet interpretation was that they tried to calibrate prices without a competitive market since according to Marx competitive markets allowed for an equilibrium of profit rates which led to an increase in the prices of production.[20] The rejection of the Soviet interpretation of the law of value led to the acceptance of the idea that China was still in the primary stage of socialism.[19] The basic argument was that conditions envisaged by Marx for reaching the socialist stage of development did not yet exist in China.[19]

Mao said that the imposition of "progressive relations of production" would revolutionize production.[21] His successor's rejection of this view according to A. James Gregor has thwarted the ideological continuity of Maoism—officially Mao Zedong Thought.[21] Classical Marxism had argued that a socialist revolution would only take place in advanced capitalist societies and its success would signal the transition from a capitalist commodity-based economy to a "product economy" in which goods would be distributed for people's need and not for profit.[21] If because of a lack of a coherent explanation in the chance of failure this revolution did not occur, the revolutionaries would be forced to take over the responsibilities of the bourgeoisie.[21] Chinese communists are thus looking for a new Marxist theory of development.[21] Party theorist Luo Rongqu recognized that the founders of Marxism had never "formulated any systematic theory on the development of the non-Western world" and said that the Communist Party of China should "establish their own synthesized theoretical framework to study the problem of modern development".[22] According to A. James Gregor, the implication of this stance is that "Chinese Marxism is currently in a state of profound theoretical discontinuity".[23]

Private ownership

The concept of private ownership is rooted in classical Marxism.[24] Because China adopted socialism when it was a semi-feudal and semi-colonial country, it is in the primary stage of socialism.[24] Because of this, certain policies and system characteristics—such as commodity production for the market, the existence of a private sector and the reliance of the profit motive in enterprise management—were changed.[24] These changes were allowed as long as they improve productivity and modernize the means of production and thus further develop socialism.[24] According to this perspective, Mao's leftist belief that China could advance to full socialism immediately by bypassing capitalism is considered false.[24]

The Communist Party of China still considers private ownership to be non-socialist.[25] However, according to party theorists the existence and growth of private ownership does not necessarily undermine socialism and promote capitalism in China.[25] It is argued that Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels never proposed the immediate abolishment of private ownership.[25] According to Engel's book Principles of Communism, the proletariat can only abolish private ownership when the necessary conditions have been met.[25] In the phase before the abolishment of private ownership, Engels proposed progressive taxation, high inheritance taxes and compulsory bond purchases to restrict private property while using the competitive powers of state-owned enterprises to expand the public sector.[25] Marx and Engels proposed similar measures in The Communist Manifesto in regards to advanced countries, but since China was economically undeveloped party theorists called for flexibility regarding the party's handling of private property.[25] According to party theorist Liu Shuiyuan, the New Economic Policy program initiated by Soviet authorities in the aftermath of the war communism program is a good example of flexibility by socialist authorities.[25]

Party theorist Li Xuai said that private ownership inevitably involves capitalist exploitation.[25] However, Li regards private property and exploitation as necessary in the primary stage of socialism, claiming that capitalism in its primary stage uses remnants of the old society to build itself.[25] Sun Liancheng and Lin Huiyong said that Marx and Engels—in their interpretation of The Communist Manifesto—criticized private ownership when it was owned solely by the bourgeoisie, but not individual ownership in which everyone owns the means of production and hence cannot be exploited by others.[26] Individual ownership is considered consistent with socialism since Marx wrote that post-capitalist society would entail the rebuilding of "associated social individual ownership".[27]

Views

According to writer and researcher Yasheng Huang and many others, the economic theory in China is not socialism with Chinese characteristics, but the opposite—capitalism with Chinese characteristics.[28]

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ "Chinese dictionary". yellowbridge.com. Yellow bridge. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  2. ^ "Ful ltext of the letter by China's Minister of Commerce". Xinhua News Agency. 2 July 2018. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  3. ^ Xiaoping, Deng (1 October 1984). "Building Socialism with a Specifically Chinese Character". People's Daily. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  4. ^ a b c Li 1995, p. 400.
  5. ^ a b He 2001, p. 385.
  6. ^ He 2001, pp. 385–386.
  7. ^ Xiaoping, Deng. "坚持按劳分配原则". cctv.com. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k He 2001, p. 386.
  9. ^ a b c d Li 1995, p. 399.
  10. ^ Schram 1989, p. 204.
  11. ^ Yu, Guangyuan (5 October 1987). "Economy in the Initial Stage of Socialism". Zhongguo Shehui Kexue (3).
  12. ^ a b c d He 2001, p. 387.
  13. ^ Vogel 2011, p. 589.
  14. ^ 2nd session of the 9th National People's Congress (14 March 2004). "Constitution of the People's Republic of China". Government of the People's Republic of China. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 14 January 2013.
  15. ^ Xiaoping, Deng (30 June 1984). "Building a Socialism with a specifically Chinese character". People's Daily. Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. Retrieved 13 January 2013.
  16. ^ a b "Market fundamentalism' is unpractical". People's Daily. Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. 3 February 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2013.
  17. ^ a b Gregor 1999, p. 114.
  18. ^ Gregor 1999, pp. 114–116.
  19. ^ a b c d Gregor 1999, p. 116.
  20. ^ Gregor 1999, pp. 115–116.
  21. ^ a b c d e Gregor 1999, p. 117.
  22. ^ Gregor 1999, pp. 117–118.
  23. ^ Gregor 1999, p. 118.
  24. ^ a b c d e Hsu 1991, p. 11.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i Hsu 1991, p. 65.
  26. ^ Hsu 1991, pp. 65–66.
  27. ^ Hsu 1991, p. 66.
  28. ^ "Capitalism with Chinese Characteristics Entrepreneurship and the State". cambridge.org. Retrieved 1 October 2018.

Sources

Further reading

  • Gregor, A. James (2014). Marxism and the Making of China. A Doctrinal History. Palgrave Macmillan.
14th National Congress of the Communist Party of China

The 14th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (Traditional Chinese: 中國共產黨第十四次全國代表大會) was convened from October 12 - 18, 1992. It was preceded by the 13th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. It set in motion the 14th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. Building Socialism with Chinese Characteristics was advanced. It was succeeded by the 15th National Congress of the Communist Party of China.

19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China

The 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (commonly referred to as Shíjiǔ Dà; Chinese: 十九大) was held at the Great Hall of the People, Beijing, between 18 and 24 October 2017. 2,280 delegates represented the party's estimated 89 million members. Preparations for the 19th National Congress began in 2016 and ended with a plenary session of the Central Committee a few days prior to the Congress. In 2016, local and provincial party organizations began electing delegates to the congress as well as receiving and amending party documents.

During the congress, a new guiding ideology, labelled Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, was written into the party's constitution. It marked the first time since Mao Zedong Thought that a living party leader has enshrined into the party constitution an ideology named after himself. The Congress also emphasized strengthening socialism with Chinese characteristics, party-building, and socialist rule of law, and setting concrete timelines for achieving development goals, such as building a moderately prosperous society and achieving "socialist modernization." It was also noted for rallying China to play a more substantial role internationally. The congress was also notable for the consolidation of power under Xi Jinping, marked by the removal of term limits from the Chinese constitution.

The 19th National Congress endorsed the membership list of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection and elected the Central Committee, which in turn approved the members of the Politburo and its Standing Committee. Five members of the 18th Politburo Standing Committee left the body due to having reached retirement age, and five new members joined the 19th Standing Committee: Li Zhanshu, Wang Yang, Wang Huning, Zhao Leji, and Han Zheng.

Campaign to Maintain the Advanced Nature of Communist Party Members

The Campaign to Maintain the Advanced Nature of Communist Party Members (Chinese: 保持共产党员先进性教育活动; pinyin: baochi dangyuan de xianjinxing) is a political rectification campaign launched under the leadership of Hu Jintao. The campaign aims to educate Chinese Communist Party (CCP) members on Marxist ideological orthodoxy, improve "inner-party democracy," and combat corruption and other "social contradictions" that threaten the viability of continued CCP rule. The official Xinhua News Agency wrote that the campaign is "practice for the Party's efforts to promote the great cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics." The campaign was closely linked to Hu Jintao's 'Scientific development concept'.

In the years following the launch of the campaign, millions of CCP members were made to attend compulsory political education and self-criticism sessions.

China Democratic League

The China Democratic League (Chinese: 中国民主同盟, abbreviated to 民盟 or Minmeng) is one of the eight legally recognised political parties in the People's Republic of China.

The party was established in 1941 and took its present name in 1944. At its formation, it was a coalition of three pro-democracy parties and three pressure groups. Its two main goals were to support China's war effort during the Second Sino-Japanese War and to provide a "Third Way" from the Nationalists and the Communists. Influential members or supporters included Zhang Dongsun, Zhang Junmai (Carson Chang), Luo Longji, Pan Guangdan, Huang Yanpei, Fei Xiaotong, Li Huang of the Young China Party, Wu Han, Chu Anping, and Wen Yiduo.After the war, many Americans in China were sympathetic. Theodore White wrote that if "the men of the middle group were well organized, they could guarantee peace. But they are not. They lack an army, a political machine, roots in any social class. Only the spread of education and industry can create enough men of the modern world to give them a broad social base.” But disillusionment with the Nationalist government, which outlawed the party in 1947, and infiltration by the Communists caused the League to tilt towards the CCP during the Chinese Civil War. Thereafter, two of its constituent parties, the China National Socialist Party and the Chinese Youth Party, left the League to join the Nationalists in Taiwan. The "Third Party" eventually became the Chinese Peasants' and Workers' Democratic Party in 1947. It left the League, but kept its communist ideology.

The three interest groups were the National Salvation Association, the Rural Reconstruction Association, and the Vocational Education Society. The NSA, by far the largest and most popular of the interest groups, was inspired by the National Salvation Armies and existed to encourage resistance against Japan, but became irrelevant after the war's end. The RRA was an agrarianist lobby formed from the Rural Reconstruction Movement, which was originally hostile to communism but their interests in peasant welfare gradually intersected. The third interest group, the Vocational Education Society, wanted to establish vocational schools throughout China and became the core of the China Democratic National Construction Association.

Its chairperson Zhang Lan served as the vice chairman of Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China (1949–54)

In 1997, it adopted a constitution, which stipulated that its program was "to hold high the banner of patriotism and socialism, implement the basic line for the primary stage of socialism, safeguard stability in the society, strengthen services to national unity and strive for the promotion of socialist modernisation, establishment and improvement of a market economy, enhancement of political restructuring and socialist spiritual civilisation, emancipation and development of productive forces, consolidation and expansion of the united patriotic front and realisation of the grand goals of socialism with Chinese characteristics."

The League is mainly made up by middle-level and senior intellectuals in the fields of culture, education, science and technology. As of the end of 2012, the party had a membership of more than 282,000. Of this total, 22.8% were from the field of advanced education, 30.2% were from the field of compulsory education, 17.4% were in science and technology, 5.8% were in art and the press.

Chinese foreign aid

Foreign aid from China is development assistance provided by the Chinese government to other countries in the form of infrastructure projects given as gifts; concessional loans to fund projects; disaster relief; student scholarships; and other forms of assistance.

Communist Party of China

The Communist Party of China (CPC), also referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China. The Communist Party is the sole governing party within mainland China, permitting only eight other, subordinated parties to co-exist, those making up the United Front. It was founded in 1921, chiefly by Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao. The party grew quickly, and by 1949 it had driven the nationalist Kuomintang (KMT) government from mainland China after the Chinese Civil War, leading to the establishment of the People's Republic of China. It also controls the world's largest armed forces, the People's Liberation Army.

The CPC is officially organised on the basis of democratic centralism, a principle conceived by Russian Marxist theoretician Vladimir Lenin which entails democratic and open discussion on policy on the condition of unity in upholding the agreed upon policies. The highest body of the CPC is the National Congress, convened every fifth year. When the National Congress is not in session, the Central Committee is the highest body, but since the body meets normally only once a year most duties and responsibilities are vested in the Politburo and its Standing Committee. The party's leader holds the offices of General Secretary (responsible for civilian party duties), Chairman of the Central Military Commission (CMC) (responsible for military affairs) and State President (a largely ceremonial position). Through these posts, the party leader is the country's paramount leader. The current paramount leader is Xi Jinping, elected at the 18th National Congress held in October 2012.

The CPC is committed to communism and continues to participate in the International Meeting of Communist and Workers' Parties each year. According to the party constitution, the CPC adheres to Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, socialism with Chinese characteristics, Deng Xiaoping Theory, the Three Represents, the Scientific Outlook on Development and Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese characteristics for a New Era. The official explanation for China's economic reforms is that the country is in the primary stage of socialism, a developmental stage similar to the capitalist mode of production. The command economy established under Mao Zedong was replaced by the socialist market economy, the current economic system, on the basis that "Practice is the Sole Criterion for the Truth".

Since the collapse of Eastern European communist governments in 1989–1990 and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the CPC has emphasised its party-to-party relations with the ruling parties of the remaining socialist states. While the CPC still maintains party-to-party relations with non-ruling communist parties around the world, since the 1980s it has established relations with several non-communist parties, most notably with ruling parties of one-party states (whatever their ideology), dominant parties in democracies (whatever their ideology) and social democratic parties.

Crime in China

Crime is present in various forms in China. Common forms of crime include corruption, drug trafficking, money laundering, fraud, human trafficking, and counterfeiting.

Deng Xiaoping Theory

Deng Xiaoping Theory (simplified Chinese: 邓小平理论; traditional Chinese: 鄧小平理論; pinyin: Dèng Xiǎopíng Lǐlùn), also known as Dengism, is the series of political and economic ideologies first developed by Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping. The theory does not claim to reject Marxism–Leninism or Mao Zedong Thought but instead seeks to adapt them to the existing socio-economic conditions of China.Deng also stressed opening China to the outside world, the implementation of one country, two systems, and through the phrase "seek truth from facts", an advocation of political and economic pragmatism.

Ideology of the Communist Party of China

The ideology of the Communist Party of China has undergone dramatic changes throughout the years, especially during Deng Xiaoping's leadership. While foreign commentators have accused the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) of lacking a coherent ideology, the CCP still identify as communists.

One country, two systems

"One country, two systems" is a constitutional principle formulated by Deng Xiaoping, the Paramount Leader of the People's Republic of China (PRC), for the reunification of China during the early 1980s. He suggested that there would be only one China, but distinct Chinese regions such as Hong Kong and Macau could retain their own economic and administrative systems, while the rest of the PRC (or simply "China") uses the socialism with Chinese characteristics system. Under the principle, each of the two regions could continue to have its own governmental system, legal, economic and financial affairs, including trade relations with foreign countries.

Order of July First

Order of July First is an order of honour of the People's Republic of China awarded by the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, party leader and state paramount leader. It is the highest award given to the Chinese Communist Party members, constituted on 22 July 2017. The Order of July First set up by the Communist Party shall be bestowed on party members who have made outstanding contributions to the Socialism with Chinese characteristics.

Peaceful coexistence

Peaceful coexistence (Russian: Мирное сосуществование, romanized: Mirnoye sosushchestvovaniye) was a theory developed and applied by the Soviet Union at various points during the Cold War in the context of primarily Marxist–Leninist foreign policy and was adopted by Soviet-allied socialist states that they could peacefully coexist with the capitalist bloc (i.e., U.S.-allied states). This was in contrast to the antagonistic contradiction principle that socialism and capitalism could never coexist in peace. The Soviet Union applied it to relations between the western world, particularly between the United States and NATO countries and the nations of the Warsaw Pact.

Debates over differing interpretations of peaceful coexistence were one aspect of the Sino-Soviet split in the 1950s and 1960s. During the 1960s and early 1970s, the People's Republic of China under the leadership of its founder, Mao Zedong, argued that a belligerent attitude should be maintained towards capitalist countries, and so initially rejected the peaceful coexistence theory as essentially Marxist revisionism.

However, their decision in 1972 to establish a trade relationship with the United States also saw China cautiously adopting a version of the theory to relations between itself and non-socialist countries. From that point through to the early 1980s and Socialism with Chinese characteristics, China increasingly extended its own peaceful coexistence concept to include all nations. Albanian ruler Enver Hoxha (at one time, China's only true ally) also denounced this and turned against China as a result of China growing closer ties to the West such as 1972 Nixon visit to China and today Hoxhaist parties continue to denounce the concept of peaceful coexistence.

Peaceful coexistence, in extending itself to all countries and social movements tied to the USSR's interpretation of communism, quickly became modus operandi for many individual communist parties as well, encouraging quite a few, especially those in the developed world, to give up their long-term goal of amassing support for an armed, insurrectionist communist revolution and exchange it for more full participation in electoral politics.

People's war

People's war, also called protracted people's war, is a Maoist military strategy. First developed by the Chinese communist revolutionary leader Mao Zedong (1893–1976), the basic concept behind People's War is to maintain the support of the population and draw the enemy deep into the countryside (stretching their supply lines) where the population will bleed them dry through a mix of mobile warfare and guerrilla warfare. It was used by the Chinese communists against the Imperial Japanese Army in World War II, and by the Chinese Soviet Republic in the Chinese Civil War.

The term is used by Maoists for their strategy of long-term armed revolutionary struggle. After the Sino-Vietnamese War in 1979, Deng Xiaoping abandoned People's War for "People's War under Modern Conditions", which moved away from reliance on troops over technology. With the adoption of "socialism with Chinese characteristics", economic reforms fueled military and technological investment. Troop numbers were also reduced and professionalisation encouraged.

The strategy of people's war was used heavily by the Viet Cong in the Vietnam War. However protracted war should not be confused with the "foco" theory employed by Che Guevara and Fidel Castro in the Cuban Revolution of 1959.

Property Law of the People's Republic of China

The Property Law of the People's Republic of China (Chinese: 《中华人民共和国物权法》; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Wùquán Fǎ) is a property law adopted by the National People's Congress in 2007 (on March 16) that went into effect on October 1, 2007. The law covers the creation, transfer, and ownership of property in the mainland of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and is part of an ongoing effort by the PRC to gradually develop a civil code. it contains all aspects of property law in the PRC's legal system.The law was drafted quite differently from the usual legislative process in the PRC where laws are drafted behind closed doors, over 14 000 public submissions were considered for over a decade before the law was adopted and put into effect.In developing civil law in the PRC mainland, the PRC government has used the German Pandectist system of classification under which the property law corresponds to the law on real rights, which is the term used in Chinese for the official name of the law.

Spouse of the President of China

The Spouse of the President of the People's Republic of China, is the spouse of the President of China. To date there have been 7 women who have been married to the Chinese president while in office.

Tsinghua clique

The term Tsinghua clique refers to a group of Socialist Chinese politicians that have graduated or have taught at Tsinghua University (Chinese: 清华大学; pinyin: Qīnghuá Dàxué). They are members of the fourth generation of Chinese leadership, and are purported to hold powerful reformist ideas (a number have studied in the United States following graduation from Tsinghua, and some are said to be influenced by the reform ideals of Hu Yaobang). Just like their predecessors, they attach great importance to socialism with Chinese characteristics. Their ascendance to power is likely to have begun in 2008 at the 17th National Congress of the CPC.

Tsinghua graduates who have political prominence are disproportionately greater in number than graduates of other famous universities. Among the nine standing committees at the Politburo, there are four Tsinghua graduates; among the 24 Politburo committee members, there are five; and of all the "leaders of the party and the country", there are 10.

Key figures are reported to include now:

Xi Jinping:

Hu Jintao:

Zhu Rongji:

Wu Bangguo, although he is generally considered more loyal to Jiang Zemin's Shanghai clique;

Lin Wenyi, chairman of the Taiwan Democratic Self-Government League;

Wang Qishan:

Liu Yandong:

Chen Xi:

Li Xi:

Hu Heping:

Chen Jining:

Zhang Guoqing:Retired or deceased:

Zhang Dongsun:

Zhang Junmai:

Luo Longji:

Pan Guangdan:

Fei Xiaotong:

Qian Weichang:

Peng Peiyun:

Kang Shien:

Wu Guanzheng:

Hu Qili:

Huang Ju:

Yao Yilin:

Song Ping:

Li Ximing:

Wang Hanbin:

Zhou Guangzhao:

Zheng Tianxiang:The Tsinghua clique also referred to a group of Nationalist Chinese politicians who held high power in the Republic of China government and fled to Taiwan with the government during the Chinese Civil War. All of them are deceased:

Yeh Kung-chao:

Yu Guohua:

Yen Zhenxing:

Mei Yiqi:

Luo Jialun:

Hu Shih:

Sun Li-jen.

United Front (China)

The United Front (Chinese: 統一戰線; pinyin: Tǒngyī Zhànxiàn) in China is a popular front of the legally permitted parties in the country, led by the Communist Party of China (CPC). Besides the CPC, it includes eight minor parties and the All-China Federation of Industry and Commerce. It is managed by the CPC Central Committee United Front Work Department (Chinese: 中共中央统一战线工作部). Its current department head is You Quan. The member parties of the Front are completely subservient to the CPC, and must accept the "leading role" of the CPC as a condition of their continued existence.

Xi Jinping Core Administration

The Xi Jinping Core Administration (Chinese: 习近平核心体制) of the People's Republic of China has been said to begin after the progressive accumulation of power by Xi Jinping, who has succeeded Hu Jintao to be the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China since 2012.

Xi Jinping Thought

Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, simply known as Xi Jinping Thought, Xi Thought or Xism is a political theory derived from the Chinese Communist Party General Secretary Xi Jinping.

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Hanyu PinyinZhōngguótèsè Shèhuìzhǔyì
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