Social Science Research Network

The SSRN, formerly known as Social Science Research Network, is a repository and international journal devoted to the rapid dissemination of scholarly research in the social sciences and humanities and more. In May 2016, SSRN was bought from Social Science Electronic Publishing Inc. by Elsevier.[1]

SSRN (formerly Social Science Research Network)
History1994 to present
Costfee-free (monetarily gratis)
DisciplinesSocial sciences, Engineering sciences, humanities, life sciences, applied sciences, health and physical sciences.
Record depthIndex, abstract & full-text
Format coveragePapers
Print edition


SSRN was founded in 1994 by Michael Jensen and Wayne Marr, both financial economists.

In January 2013, SSRN was ranked the biggest open-access repository in the world by Ranking Web of Repositories (an initiative of the Cybermetrics Lab, a research group belonging to the Spanish National Research Council),[2] measured by number of PDF files, backlinks and Google Scholar results.[3]

In May 2016, SSRN was bought from Social Science Electronic Publishing Inc. by Elsevier.[1]

In July 2016 there were reports of papers being removed from SSRN without notice; revision comments from SSRN indicated this was due to copyright concerns.[4] SSRN CEO Gregg Gordon characterized the issue as a mistake affecting about 20 papers.[5]

Starting in 2017, SSRN has been adding new disciplines in areas such as biology, chemistry, engineering, medicine, computer science and more.


Academic papers in PDF format can be uploaded directly to the SSRN site by authors and are then available around the world via download. Users can also subscribe to abstracting emails covering a broad range of research areas and topic specialties. These distributing emails contain abstracts (with links to the full text where applicable) of papers recently submitted to SSRN in the respective field.

SSRN, like other preprint services, circulates publications throughout the scholarly community at an early stage, permitting the author to incorporate comments into the final version of the paper before its publication in a journal. Moreover, even if access to the published paper is restricted, access to the original working paper remains open through SSRN, so long as the author decides to keep the paper up. Often authors take papers down at the request of publishers, particularly if they are published by commercial or university presses that depend on payment for paper copies or online access.

Academic papers in PDF format can be uploaded directly to the SSRN site by authors and are then available for worldwide free downloading. Publishers and institutions can upload papers and charge a fee for readers to download them.[6] Users can also subscribe to abstracting email journals covering a broad range of subject matters. These e-journals then periodically distribute emails containing abstracts (with links to the full text where applicable) of papers recently submitted to SSRN in the respective field.

On SSRN, authors and papers are ranked by their number of downloads, which has become an informal indicator of popularity on prepress and open access sites.[7]

See also


  1. ^ a b "SSRN — a leading social science and humanities repository and online community — joins Elsevier". Retrieved 17 May 2016.
  2. ^ "World". Ranking Web of Repositories. Cybermetrics Lab. January 2013. Archived from the original on 2013-06-29. Retrieved 11 June 2013.
  3. ^ "Methodology". Archived from the original on 2013-07-01.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  4. ^ Masnick, Mike. "Just As Open Competitor To Elsevier's SSRN Launches, SSRN Accused Of Copyright Crackdown". Techdirt. Retrieved 6 August 2016.
  5. ^ Straumsheim, Carl. "'There Isn't Some Big Conspiracy Happening'". Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved 6 August 2016.
  6. ^ Jensen, Michael C. (2 February 2012). "About SSRN". Social Science Research Network. Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
  7. ^ Bernard S. Black; Paul Caron (2006). "Ranking Law Schools: Using SSRN to Measure Scholarly Performance". Indiana Law Journal. 81 (Symposium on The Next Generation of Law School Rankings). SSRN 784764. U of Texas law, Law and Econ Research Paper No. 52; U of Cincinnati Public Law Research Paper No. 05-14.

External links

Applied Econometrics and International Development

Applied Econometrics and International Development (AEID) is an international journal of economics published by the Euro-American Association of Economic Development Studies. The journal debuted in 2001 and by 2006 was amongst the Top 50 most downloaded journals from Research Papers in Economics (RePEc). Nobel Prize winner Lawrence R. Klein is Honorary member of its Advisory Board and has contributed as an author.

A sampling of the types of articles found in the journal include:

Economic growth and cycles: Cross-country models of education, industry and fertility and international comparisons

by Guisan, M.C. & Aguayo, E. & Exposito, P. (Vol.1-1, 2001)AEID articles

The Impact of Foreign Banks on Market Concentration: The Case of India

by Sathye, M (Vol.2-2,2002)

Trade Openness And Economic Growth Can We Estimate The Precise Effect?

by Georgios Karras (Vol.3-1, 2003)

China and India: Two Asian Economic Giants, Two Different Systems

by Klein, L. R. (Vol.4-1, 2004)

Macroeconomic Modelling: Approaches and Experiences in Development Countries

by Valadkhani, A. (Vol.5-1, 2005)

Direct and Indirect Effects of Human Capital on World Development, 1960-2004

by Guisan,M.C. & Neira, I. (Vol.6-1, 2006)

AEID is a refereed journal indexed in Econ-Lit (USA), SCOPUS of Elsevier, Sosig, Intute (UK), WebEc (Finland), Econometriclinks (Rotterdam, Ne) DEST (Australia), ISOC-CINDOC (Spain), Latindex Selected Catalogue (UNAM, Mexico), Ideas-Repec, Social Science Research Network (SSRN) and other selected indexes of Economics research. It has reached high positions at Ideas.Repec on number of downloads and downloads per item.

CESifo Economic Studies

CESifo Economic Studies is a journal on economics published by the CESifo Group. It was established as ifo Studien in 1955 and obtained its current title in 2002.The journal is abstracted and indexed by the Social Sciences Citation Index, Current Contents/Social and Behavioral Sciences, EconLit, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences, Journal Citation Reports/Social Sciences Edition, ProQuest, RePEc, Scopus, Social Science Research Network, and Social SciSearch.

Christopher M. Fairman

Christopher M. Fairman (July 26, 1960 – July 22, 2015) was a professor of law at the Ohio State University Moritz College of Law and Associate Dean for Faculty. He was also the C. William O'Neill Professor in Law and Judicial Administration.

Fairman was born in Kansas. He was awarded the "Outstanding Professor Award 2003" by the Graduating Class of 2003.Fairman's article "Fuck", published in 2007 by Cardozo Law Review, examines the legal implications of the use of the word fuck. Fairman's article quickly became one of the most downloaded scholarly legal articles on the Internet, leading to some controversy in Brian Leiter's list of "Most Downloaded Law Faculties, 2006" because Brian Leiter chose to omit Ohio State and Emory University School of Law (where Fairman was a visiting professor) from the list. Leiter argued that without Fairman's article, neither school would be close to the top 15.In 2009 Fairman followed up this article with the book Fuck: Word Taboo and Protecting Our First Amendment Liberties, published by Sphinx.

Fairman's primary areas of focus were civil procedure and heightened pleading.He died of cardiac arrest at the age of 54 on July 22, 2015. At the time of his death, Fairman's 2007 Cardozo Law Review article, "Fuck" was still classed with the 20 top downloaded works on the Social Science Research Network.

Cryptocurrency tumbler

Cryptocurrency tumbler or cryptocurrency mixing service is a service offered to mix potentially identifiable or 'tainted' cryptocurrency funds with others, so as to obscure the trail back to the fund's original source. Tumblers have arisen to improve the anonymity of cryptocurrencies, usually bitcoin (hence Bitcoin mixer), since the currencies provide a public ledger of all transactions.

Division of property

Division of property, also known as equitable distribution, is a judicial division of property rights and obligations between spouses during divorce. It may be done by agreement, through a property settlement, or by judicial decree.

Distribution of property is the division, due to a death or the dissolution of a marriage, of property which was owned by the deceased, or acquired during the course of the marriage.

Horst Steinmann

Horst Steinmann (born 17 July 1934 in Bad Salzuflen, Lippe, Germany) is a German economist and professor emeritus of management economics and business administration at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg.

His scholarly papers have been featured in the Social Science Research Network, and he has contributed to many books and journals, such as Working Across Cultures, the theme of the Ninth Annual Conference of the European Business Ethics Network, and Corporate Governance and Directors' Liabilities with his essay "The Enterprise as a Political System".

I. Glenn Cohen

I. Glenn Cohen (born 1978 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada) is a Professor of Law at Harvard Law School. He is also the director of Harvard Law School's Petrie-Flom Center for Health Law Policy, Biotechnology, and Bioethics.Cohen has written a number of articles, appearing in journals such as the New England Journal of Medicine; JAMA; Cell; Nature; the Harvard, Stanford, Southern California, Minnesota, Iowa, and Hastings Law Reviews; the Harvard Journal of Law and Negotiation; the Harvard Journal of Law and Technology; the Food and Drug Law Journal; the Journal of Law, Medicine, and Ethics; and the Hastings Center Reports. He has given interviews and been cited by the New York Times, Politico, CNN, ABC News, MSNBC, The Boston Globe, Mother Jones, NPR, PBS, and AOL News.


Integrity is the quality of being honest and having strong moral principles, or moral uprightness. It is a personal choice to hold one's self to consistent standards.

In ethics, integrity is regarded as the honesty and truthfulness or accuracy of one's actions. Integrity can stand in opposition to hypocrisy, in that judging with the standards of integrity involves regarding internal consistency as a virtue, and suggests that parties holding within themselves apparently conflicting values should account for the discrepancy or alter their beliefs. The word integrity evolved from the Latin adjective integer, meaning whole or complete. In this context, integrity is the inner sense of "wholeness" deriving from qualities such as honesty and consistency of character. As such, one may judge that others "have integrity" to the extent that they act according to the values, beliefs and principles they claim to hold.

Law school rankings in the United States

Law school rankings are a specific subset of college and university rankings dealing specifically with law schools. Like college and university rankings, law school rankings can be based on empirical data, subjectively-perceived qualitative data (often survey research of educators, law professors, lawyers, students, or others), or some combination of these. Such rankings are often consulted by prospective students as they choose which schools they will apply to or which school they will attend.

There are several different law school rankings, each with a different emphasis and different methodology. Most either emphasize inputs or readily measurable outcomes (i.e., outcomes shortly after graduation); none measure value-added or long-term outcomes. In general, these rankings are controversial, not universally accepted as authoritative.

List of open-access projects

Some of the most important open-access publishing projects or lists of such projects are listed below.

Market sentiment

Market sentiment (also investor attention) is the general prevailing attitude of investors as to anticipated price development in a market. This attitude is the accumulation of a variety of fundamental and technical factors, including price history, economic reports, seasonal factors, and national and world events.

If investors expect upward price movement in the stock market, the sentiment is said to be bullish. On the contrary, if the market sentiment is bearish, most investors expect downward price movement. Market participants who maintain a static sentiment, regardless of market conditions, are described as permabulls and permabears respectively. Market sentiment is usually considered as a contrarian indicator: what most people expect is a good thing to bet against. Market sentiment is believed to be a good predictor of market moves and a good indicator to hedge risk, especially when it is more extreme. Very bearish sentiment is usually followed by the market going up more than normal, and vice versa.Market sentiment is monitored with a variety of technical and statistical methods such as the number of advancing versus declining stocks and new highs versus new lows comparisons. A large share of the overall movement of an individual stock has been attributed to market sentiment. The stock market's demonstration of the situation is often described as all boats float or sink with the tide, in the popular Wall Street phrase "the trend is your friend". In the last decade, investors are also known to measure market sentiment through the use of news analytics, which include sentiment analysis on textual stories about companies and sectors.

Michael C. Jensen

Michael Cole "Mike" Jensen (born November 30, 1939), an American economist, works in the area of financial economics. Between 2000 and 2009 he worked for the Monitor Company Group,

a strategy-consulting firm which became "Monitor Deloitte" in 2013.

He holds the position of Jesse Isidor Straus Professor of Business Administration, Emeritus, at Harvard University.

Nicholas Economides

Nicholas Economides is an internationally recognized academic authority on network economics, electronic commerce and public policy. His fields of specialization and research include the economics of networks, especially of telecommunications, computers, and information, the economics of technical compatibility and standardization, industrial organization, the structure and organization of financial markets and payment systems, antitrust, application of public policy to network industries, strategic analysis of markets and law and economics.

Professor Economides is a Professor of Economics at the NYU Stern School of Business.

Professor Economides has published more than 100 articles in top academic journals in the areas of networks, telecommunications, oligopoly, antitrust, product positioning and on the liquidity and the organization of financial markets and exchanges. He holds a PhD and MA in Economics from the University of California at Berkeley, as well as a BSc (First Class Honors) in Mathematical Economics from the London School of Economics. Previously, he taught at Columbia University (1981-1988) and at Stanford University (1988-1990). He is editor of the Information Economics and Policy, Netnomics, Quarterly Journal of Electronic Commerce, the Journal of Financial Transformation, Journal of Network Industries, on the Advisory Board of the Social Science Research Network, editor of Economics of Networks Abstracts by SSRN and former editor of the International Journal of Industrial Organization. His website on the Economics of Networks has been ranked as one of the top four economics sites worldwide by The Economist magazine.

Professor Economides is Executive Director of the NET Institute,, a worldwide focal point for research on the economics of network and high technology industries. He is advisor to the US Federal Trade Commission, the governments of Greece, Ireland, New Zealand and Portugal, the Attorney General of New York State, major telecommunications corporations, a number of the Federal Reserve Banks, the Bank of Greece and major Financial Exchanges. He serves on the Advisory Board of the Economist Intelligence Unit. He has commented extensively in broadcast and in print on high technology, antitrust and public policy issues. He is a founding member of Greek Economists for, a blog about economic policy and reforms in Greece.

Open data

Open data is the idea that some data should be freely available to everyone to use and republish as they wish, without restrictions from copyright, patents or other mechanisms of control. The goals of the open-source data movement are similar to those of other "open(-source)" movements such as open-source software, hardware, open content, open education, open educational resources, open government, open knowledge, open access, open science, and the open web. Paradoxically, the growth of the open data movement is paralleled by a rise in intellectual property rights. The philosophy behind open data has been long established (for example in the Mertonian tradition of science), but the term "open data" itself is recent, gaining popularity with the rise of the Internet and World Wide Web and, especially, with the launch of open-data government initiatives such as, and

Open data, can also be linked data; when it is, it is linked open data. One of the most important forms of open data is open government data (OGD), which is a form of open data created by ruling government institutions. Open government data's importance is borne from it being a part of citizens' everyday lives, down to the most routine/mundane tasks that are seemingly far removed from government.

Research Papers in Economics

Research Papers in Economics (RePEc) is a collaborative effort of hundreds of volunteers in many countries to enhance the dissemination of research in economics. The heart of the project is a decentralized database of working papers, preprints, journal articles, and software components. The project started in 1997. Its precursor NetEc dates back to 1993.

Seth Harris

Seth D. Harris (born October 12, 1962) was the 11th United States Deputy Secretary of Labor, and served for six months as the Acting U.S. Secretary of Labor and a member of President Barack Obama's Cabinet. Nominated by President Obama in February 2009, Harris was unanimously confirmed by the U.S. Senate in May 2009, and became acting Secretary of Labor following the resignation of Hilda Solis in January 2013. Harris was also a member of the Overseas Private Investment Corporation's Board of Directors. Harris stepped down from his post on January 16, 2014. Since leaving the Obama Administration, Harris has been a Visiting Professor at the Cornell Institute for Public Affairs and a Distinguished Scholar at Cornell University's School of Industrial & Labor Relations, and a lawyer in Washington, D.C. Harris also serves on boards of directors and advises early stage companies.

Swiss Finance Institute

Swiss Finance Institute (SFI) is the national center for fundamental research, doctoral training, knowledge exchange, and continuing education in the fields of banking and finance. SFI's mission is to grow knowledge capital for the Swiss financial marketplace. Created in 2006 as a public–private partnership, SFI is a common initiative of the Swiss finance industry, six leading Swiss universities, and the Swiss Confederation.

Sydney Law School

Sydney Law School (informally Sydney Law or SLS) is the law school at the University of Sydney, Australia's oldest university. Sydney Law School began a full program of legal instruction in 1890 following the appointment of its first dean, having offered legal examinations since 1855.Sydney Law School is widely regarded as being one of Australia's top law schools. In 2017, QS World University Rankings ranked the law school 13th in the world for law (2nd nationally, 2nd in Asia-Pacific). The Social Science Research Network ranks the law school as first in Australia and fifth in the world in the number of downloads of academic papers which have been uploaded to its website. Sydney Law School has won the Philip C. Jessup International Law Moot Court Competition on a record five occasions: in 1996, 2007, 2011, 2015, and 2017.The law school has produced many leaders in law and politics, including former Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull and five other Prime Ministers, four Federal Opposition Leaders, two Governors-General, nine Federal Attorneys-General, and 18 out of 52 Justices of the High Court (plus 5 from the broader University)—more than any other law school in Australia. The school has also produced 24 Rhodes Scholars and several Gates Scholars.

Sydney Law School has approximately 1,700 LLB and JD students; 1,500 postgraduate coursework students; and 100 postgraduate research students. There are now 24 chairs, including the Challis Professors of Law, Jurisprudence and International Law. In 2010, the School replaced its graduate-entry Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.) degree with the Juris Doctor (J.D.) degree. The LL.B. degree remains as part of an undergraduate double degree program.

Vikramaditya Khanna

Vikramaditya Khanna is a professor of law at the University of Michigan Law School, and the founding and current editor of the India Law Abstracts and the White Collar Crime Abstracts on the Social Science Research Network.He earned his S.J.D. at Harvard Law School and has been visiting faculty at Harvard Law School, a senior research fellow at Columbia Law School and Yale Law School, and a visiting scholar at Stanford Law School. He was a recipient of the John M. Olin Faculty Fellowship for 2002–2003, and his areas of research and teaching interest include corporate and securities laws, law in India, corporate governance in emerging markets, corporate crime, corporate and managerial liability, and law and economics. He is a faculty member of the International Policy Center at the University of Michigan.Khanna testified before of the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee on matters related to white-collar crime. He was appointed special master in a dispute between an Indian company and an American company. Khanna discussed his research on India at the Securities and Exchange Board of India. Khanna's papers have been published in a number of academic journals including the Harvard Law Review, Michigan Law Review, Journal of Empirical Legal Studies, Boston University Law Review, and the Georgetown Law Journal. He has given talks at Harvard, Columbia, Berkeley, Wharton, Stanford, Yale, European Financial Management Association Annual Meeting, American Law & Economics Association Annual Meeting, Conference on Empirical Legal Studies, NBER, and a number of venues in the US, India, China, Turkey, Canada, Greece and Singapore.Khanna has taught the following courses; Enterprise Organization, Corporate Lawyer: Law & Ethics, Securities Regulation, Corporate Governance and Stock Market Development: India, China and Other Large Emerging Markets, Law & Economic Development: India; Corporate & White Collar Crime; Impact of Sarbanes-Oxley on Doing Business.

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