Snow rugby refers to forms of rugby union that are especially adapted to be played in winter conditions, particularly deep snow. It is played in Canada, the Kashmir region in India, the Baltic states, Russia, the northern United States, and Finland. Specific locations of play include the Argentinian Ski Resort of Las Leñas and the Boitsfort Rugby Club in Brussels.
Because of the cold, and often subzero, temperatures at which snow rugby is played, players must dress warmly.
Rugby union is predominantly played during the winter months and it has been played in extremely cold conditions. In 1939 a Ranfurly Shield game in New Zealand was played in the snow and in 1978 a game in Russia was played at −23 °C (−9 °F). More recently games have been organised to be played in the snow. In 2009, Gulmarg hosted India's first ever snow rugby tournament in Kashmir and it was included in the 2008 Indian Winter Games as a demonstrative event. During the 2011 Rugby World Cup Mount Dobson is hosting a "20 Below Rugby in the Snow" seven-a-side tournament. Tournaments have also been held in Finland, France, Latvia, and Argentina.
Beach rugby is a sport that is based on rugby union. There is no centralized regulation of the sport as in beach soccer or beach volleyball, but leagues are common across Europe. The sport is particularly popular in Italy, in the Balkan region and in Eastern Europe. Casual games are played across the world using different sets of rules. However, organized leagues use a field that is only a fraction of the size of a standard rugby field, far fewer players on each team, shorter matches, and a simplified scoring system. A popular tournament in the United States, 7s By The Sea, is hosted in Corpus Christi, Texas each summer or Beerfoot 7s in Fort Myer beach Florida on the last weekend of July.
The inaugural European Beach Five Rugby Championships was held in Moscow in 2017 and is being held there since then.Comparison of association football and rugby union
Comparison of association football (football/soccer) and rugby union (rugby/rugger) is possible because of the games' similarities and shared origins.
Rugby union has a number of set pieces, such as line-outs, scrums and rucks that do not have direct equivalents in association football. Association football aims at a more open kind of play, and there is not the same differentiation between forwards and backs. Another major difference is that rugby union, unlike association football, has no goal keeper.Eric Snow (rugby union)
Eric "Fritz" McDonald Snow (19 April 1898 – 24 July 1974) was a New Zealand rugby union player who represented the All Blacks between 1928 and 1929. His position of choice was loose forward.List of sports
The following is a list of sports/games, divided by category.
According to the World Sports Encyclopedia (2003), there are 8,000 indigenous sports and sporting games.Rugby union
Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world simply as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand. In its most common form, a game is between two teams of 15 players using an oval-shaped ball on a rectangular field with H-shaped goalposts at each end.
Rugby union is a popular sport around the world, played by male and female players of all ages. In 2014, there were more than 6 million people playing worldwide, of whom 2.36 million were registered players. World Rugby, previously called the International Rugby Football Board (IRFB) and the International Rugby Board (IRB), has been the governing body for rugby union since 1886, and currently has 101 countries as full members and 18 associate members.
In 1845, the first football laws were written by Rugby School pupils; other significant events in the early development of rugby include the Blackheath Club's decision to leave the Football Association in 1863 and the split between rugby union and rugby league in 1895. Historically an amateur sport, in 1995 restrictions on payments to players were removed, making the game openly professional at the highest level for the first time.Rugby union spread from the Home Nations of Great Britain and Ireland and was absorbed by many of the countries associated with the British Empire. Early exponents of the sport included Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and France. Countries that have adopted rugby union as their de facto national sport include Fiji, Georgia, Madagascar, New Zealand, Samoa and Tonga.
International matches have taken place since 1871 when the first game took place between Scotland and England at Raeburn Place in Edinburgh. The Rugby World Cup, first held in 1987, takes place every four years. The Six Nations Championship in Europe and The Rugby Championship in the Southern Hemisphere are other major international competitions, held annually.
National club or provincial competitions include the Premiership in England, the Top 14 in France, the Mitre 10 Cup in New Zealand, the National Rugby Championship in Australia, and the Currie Cup in South Africa. Other transnational club competitions include the Pro14 in Europe and South Africa, the European Rugby Champions Cup solely in Europe, and Super Rugby, in the Southern Hemisphere and Japan.Rugby union in Afghanistan
Rugby union is a relatively minor sport in Afghanistan, but is increasing in popularity. Rugby was introduced by Mansoor Majid, Asad Ziar and Mohammad Omar Aziz to Afghanistan. Afghanistan's current indigenous rugby sides formed in 2011, and played their first match barefoot against New Zealand Special Air Service troops in Kabul's green zone. The country's first official rugby tournament was sponsored by the British embassy in December 2011. The Afghan team's first overseas match was played as an exhibition rugby sevens match against the United Arab Emirates national team's development side on 27 April 2012, and played the Bournemouth Sevens in Glastonbury in June 2012.Rugby union in Latvia
Rugby union in Latvia is a minor but growing sport. During the pre-independence period, Latvia was not a centre for the game but nonetheless Latvia managed to qualify for the 1993 Rugby World Cup Sevens - which may be seen as the highest point it has yet reached.Rugby union in Lithuania
Rugby union in Lithuania is a minor but growing sport.Rugby union in Russia
Rugby union in Russia is a moderately popular sport. Russia is ranked 18th worldwide by the World Rugby, having over three hundred clubs and close to 22,000 players nationally. Russia has a professional domestic competition.Rugby union in the Soviet Union
Rugby union in the Soviet Union was a moderately popular sport. It was most popular in Georgia; parts of the Russian SFSR such as Moscow and certain regions in Siberia like Krasnoyarsk; and Alma-Ata, the former capital of Kazakhstan. Rugby enjoyed a more limited popularity in the Ukraine, Minsk in the Byelorussia and parts of the RSFSR such as Leningrad and areas in Southern Russia, including Krasnodar. Rugby gained a significant following due to the vast size of the Soviet Union, but was never a major sport; despite many attempts to develop the sport, which Soviet citizens came to nickname the "leather melon" due to the shape of the ball. Still, an early championship in 1960 gives an idea of the sheer scale of Soviet rugby: one hundred teams from over thirty cities took part.Although the name "Russia" or "Soviet Russia" was used as a synonym for the USSR, this was far from true in rugby terms: there were regularly six or seven Georgians in the USSR side. Russians made up only about half of the Soviet population, the other half, nearly a hundred million Soviet citizens, were not Russian.Sports clubs were invariably not autonomous bodies, but were part of Palaces of Culture, or Universities, or Military Bodies, such as air force academies and the Red Army itself. These were the so called Voluntary Sports Societies of the Soviet Union. As David Lane writes in the Politics and Society in the USSR:
"Palaces of Culture" are the equivalent of the English workingmen's club... Sports clubs and stadia... often form part of the Palace of Culture complex... The sports clubs embrace a wide variety of sports; in 1972, there were 25 million participants in union sports societies."These Palaces of Culture were run by trade unions, who both financed them, and also took any revenue raised from them in matches etc. Each sports club had its own rules and membership cards, and was subsidised by trade union dues. To join a club, a person paid the small sum of thirty kopecks a year.Clubs were named for their trade union. For example, RC Lokomotiv Moscow (now a rugby league club) was part of the Lokomotiv Society, which was in turn connected to the All-Union Voluntary Sports Society of rail transport workers' Trade Unions. (The "RC" stands for "Rugby Club") Ironically, this naming system has proven surprisingly resilient and even today is to be found in the names of various Eastern European sports clubs, long after the fall of the Iron Curtain. The main name elements in sports clubs, with their trade union affiliations were as follows (an example of a rugby club with the element is also listed):
Буреве́стник- Burevestnik - Students., e.g. Burevestnik Moscow
Локомотив - Lokomotiv - Railway workers., e.g. Lokomotiv Tbilisi
Спартак - Spartak - "White Collar" workers.
Водник - Vodnik - River transport.
Зенит - Zenit - the arms industry.As well as the trade unions, there were two non-T.U. prefixes:
Динамо - Dinamo/Dynamo - The MVD (Ministry of Internal Affairs - The Soviet Militia & the KGB, along with its predecessor organisations). e.g. Dynamo Penza, Dinamo Tbilisi, RC Dinamo-Center
Трудовые резервы - Trudovye Rezervy/Labour reserves - Students at technical colleges. e.g. Trud KrasnoyarskIn the 1938 Soviet Championship for example, the first, second and third places were all won by Moscow teams - Dynamo, Spartak and Burevestnik respectively.
The well-known expatriate Romanian rugby writer, Chris Thau wrote in the late 1980s about Soviet rugby's failure to break into the international mainstream:
"Opinions on Soviet rugby vary widely. One school of thought maintains that, in spite of the superior athletic potential of the average Soviet player, the mechanistic nature of their tuition system does not allow for the creativity normally associated with the game of rugby."Snow golf
Snow golf is a sport based on golf but played over snow (or ice) instead of grass. The "greens" are called "whites" and have a maintained snow or ice surface.Sport in India
India is home to a diverse population playing many different sports and Cricket is the most popular amongst all. Swimming is the most successful sport for India at Olympics in which India has won eight Olympic gold medals. Kabaddi is the most popular indigenous sport in the country. Other popular sports in India are badminton, football, basketball, chess, shooting, wrestling, boxing, tennis, squash, weightlifting, gymnastics, athletics and table tennis. Some indigenous sports are also popular in India such as Kho-kho, Kabaddi, Leg Cricket, Fighter kite, Polo and Gillidanda among others. There are some popular sports which have originated in India such as Chess, Leg Cricket, Snooker Kabbadi, Khido Khundi which is an ancient version of Field Hockey. India has won Olympic medals in Badminton, Wrestling, Shooting, Weightlifting, Boxing and Tennis. India has also won World Cups in Cricket, Field Hockey and Kabbadi.
India has hosted and co-hosted several international sporting events including the 2010 Commonwealth Games, the 1951 and 1982 Asian Games, the 1987, 1995 and 2016 South Asian Games, the 1987, 1996, 2011 Cricket World Cup and 2016 ICC World Twenty20, the 2003 Afro-Asian Games, the 1989, 2013 and 2017 Asian Athletics Championships, the 1982 and 2010 Men's Field hockey World Cup, 2016–17 Men's FIH Hockey World League, the 1979, 1987, 1991, 2003, 2010, 2013 and 2017 Asian Wrestling Championships, the 2009 BWF World Championships, the 2004, 2007 and 2016 Kabaddi World Cup (Standard style), the 1980,1992 and 2009 Asian Table Tennis Championships, the 1981 ABC Championship,
the 2009 FIBA Asia Championship for Women, the 1989, 2005, 2013 and 2017 Asian Cycling Championships. India has recently hosted the 2017 FIBA Women's Asia Cup, the 2017 FIFA U-17 World Cup, the 2017 ISSF World Cup and will host the 2018 Men's Hockey World Cup.
India has some premier domestic leagues in different sports which are very popular in the country. Indian Premier League (IPL) is a premier Twenty20 & the most popular cricket league in the world held every year since 2008. The I-League and Indian Super League are premier football league tournaments held since 2007 and 2014 respectively, the Pro Kabaddi league is the most popular indigenous league in the country held since 2014, the Hockey India League is the premier hockey league held since 2013, the Premier Badminton League is the badminton premier league held since 2013, the Pro Wrestling League premier Wrestling league held since 2015 and Ultimate Table Tennis league held since 2017.
Major international sporting events annually held in India include the Chennai Open in tennis, the Indian Masters in golf,
the India Open since 2008 and Royal Indian Open since 2001 in badminton. From 2011 to 2013, India hosted the Indian Grand Prix Formula 1 race at the Buddh International Circuit, Greater Noida.
The National Games of India is a national domestic sports event which has been held in the country since 1924 and for developing multi-sports culture in India Khelo India School Games, an event for under-17 school kids, had been started from 2018 as its first edition.Winter sports
Winter sports or winter activities are competitive sports or non-competitive recreational activities which are played on snow or ice. Most are variations of skiing, ice skating and sledding. Traditionally, such games were only played in cold areas during winter, but artificial snow and artificial ice allow more flexibility. Artificial ice can be used to provide ice rinks for ice skating, ice hockey, and bandy in a milder climate.
Common individual sports include cross-country skiing, alpine skiing, snowboarding, ski jumping, speed skating, figure skating, luge, skeleton, bobsleigh, ski orienteering and snowmobiling. Common team sports include ice hockey, curling, and bandy. Based on the number of participants, ice hockey is by far the world's most popular winter sport, followed by bandy. Winter sports have their own multi-sport events, such as the Winter Olympic Games and the Winter Universiade.Winter sports in India
Winter sports are common in India in the Himalayan areas. Ski tournaments take place every winter in Gulmarg, Kashmir and Manali. Winter sports are generally more common in the northern states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand (formerly Uttaranchal), Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh. Skiing, snow rugby, snow cycling and snow football are few of the common sports played in India. Skiing is more popular although India has taken part in Luge in Winter Olympics since 1998. The Bandy Federation of India is headquarters are in Mandi in Himachal Pradesh. Luge is practiced in a big way by the mountain residents in an improvised form called 'Reri'.
Shiva Keshavan is the only Indian to have won medals in international meets in winter sports (Asian Gold 2011, Asian Silver 2009, Asian Bronze 2008, Asian Silver (Doubles) 2005, Asian Bronze (Singles) 2005), and to have participated in four Olympic Games. He is currently the Asian Speed record holder at 134.4 km/h, making him the fastest man in Asia on ice.
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