Small office/home office

Small office/home office (or single office/home office; SOHO) refers to the category of business or cottage industry that involves from 1 to 10 workers. In New Zealand, the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment (MBIE) defines a small office as 6 to 19 employees and a micro office as 1-5.[1]

Small Office, Home Office Nostalgia
Small office/home office in India in early 2010s
Home office small office
Home office
Small Office with Hewlett-Packard printers


Before the 19th century, and the spread of the industrial revolution around the globe, nearly all offices were small offices and/or home offices, with only a few exceptions. Most businesses were small, and the paperwork that accompanied them was limited. The industrial revolution aggregated workers in factories, to mass-produce goods. In most circumstances, the white collar counterpart—office work—was aggregated as well in large buildings, usually in cities or densely populated suburban areas.

Beginning in the mid-1980s, the advent of the personal computer and fax machine, plus breakthroughs in telecommunications, created opportunities for office workers to decentralize. Decentralization was also perceived as benefiting employers in terms of lower overheads and potentially greater productivity.


Many consultants and the members of such professions like lawyers, real estate agents, and surveyors in small and medium-sized towns operate from home offices.

Several ranges of products, such as the armoire desk and all-in-one printer, are designed specifically for the SOHO market. A number of books and magazines have been published and marketed specifically at this type of office. These range from general advice texts to specific guidebooks on such challenges as setting up a small PBX for the office telephones.

Technology has also created a demand for larger businesses to employ individuals who work from home. Sometimes these people remain as independent businesspersons, and sometimes they become employees of a larger company.

The small office home office has undergone a transformation since its advent as the internet has enabled anyone working from a home office to compete globally. Technology has made this possible through email, the World-Wide Web, e-commerce, videoconferencing, remote desktop software, webinar systems, and telephone connections by VOIP. Due to the increase in small and home offices, web services and standard business software have been created to directly assist smaller businesses in standard business practice [2][3]

In the United States a home office can be claimed as a tax deduction only if office space and supplies are not provided by a corporate office.

See also


  1. ^
  2. ^ DeBaise, Colleen. "Accounting 101: How to Keep Financial Records". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
  3. ^ Doyle, Carmel (12 July 2011). "Billfaster raises €330k to scale up online accounting globally". Ireland's Technology News Service. Retrieved 2 February 2014.

Further reading

  • Basset, Brian (1997). Bless This Home Office ...With tax credits: An Adam Compilation. Kansas City: Andrews McMeel Publishing. [a comical view]
  • Johnson, Karen K. (ed.), ed. (1998). Ortho's All About Home Offices. DesMoines, Iowa: Ortho Publishing Group.CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link) [mostly the home handyman's view]
  • Manroe, Candace Ord (1997). The Home Office: Setting Up, Furnishing and Decorating Your Own Work Space. Michael Friedman Publishing Group Inc. [mostly a decorating view of things]
  • Zimmerman, Neal (2002). Home Workspace Idea Book. Taunton Press. [small office and home office design of all types and sizes]

ATM25 is an ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) version wherein data is transferred at 25.6 Mbit/s over Category 3 cable. ATM25 has no particular distinctions from other ATM versions. However, ATM25 chipsets are inexpensive in comparison to faster ATM chipsets, having the result of making ATM technology available for small office/home office environments. However, these networks no longer have much potential for expansion, as Ethernet has become the first choice in this domain.

The WAN connection side of ATM25 systems often takes place over a fast DSL variant such as RADSL. DSL is often considered in this case, as its technology is based on an ATM core.

In March 2001, Network World article put it this way:

Classified mostly as a solution looking for a problem, 25M bit/sec ATM to the desktop failed before it really got rolling. While many folks thought the idea of providing all that bandwidth to user PCs was worthwhile, the idea of paying twice as much for the luxury compared with switched Ethernet didn't fly.

Analog Display Services Interface

Analog Display Services Interface (ADSI) is a telephony technology that is used in plain old telephone service (POTS) or computer-based private branch exchange (PBX) telephone service. It works in conjunction with a screen-based telephone ("screenphone") or other compatible customer-premises equipment (CPE) to provide the user with softkey access to telephone company or internal PBX custom calling features. It is an analog service because it uses analog frequency-shift keying (FSK) technology to interact with an LCD screen via short, low-baud rate, downloads to refresh and re-program softkeys in real-time.

The technology introduced in the United States and rolled out to Regional Bell Operating Companies (RBOCs) from Bellcore in April 1995, (very soon after the introduction of CLASS-based services through electronic switching system (ESS)), was marketed by the RBOCs who implemented it, as a way to streamline all available custom calling options through the use of a screen-based telephone; giving Residential and Small Business telephone subscribers PBX-like functionality at home or in small office/home office (SOHO) locations at a significantly lower cost. The service debuted before the onslaught of Personal Communications Service (PCS) and Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)-based telephony technologies became available and was originally slated to also work in conjunction with other types of services such as Enhanced Directory Assistance, telephone banking, movie theatre ticket sales, and other services that could interact with an LCD-screen.

Some of those services did become available later, though, not at the dramatic increase the US-based telephone companies had hoped. Canadian telephone companies such as Telus and Bell Canada, however, had much better luck implementing more ADSI-based services with other industries such as banking, and were still marketing the service actively as of 2005.

The service is marketed at telephone customers who subscribe to the majority of Custom Local Area Signaling Services (CLASS)-based services offered by their local telephone company (such as caller ID, Call Return, etc.) by the customization of a telephone capable of providing one-touch access to these features. This greatly increases customer usability by alleviating the need to memorize dialing codes such as *69.

Additionally, a few RBOCs introduced new features such as Call Waiting Deluxe and Message Waiting Indicator to work exclusively with ADSI telephones. The former being perhaps the most involved example of ADSI capabilities and the latter being an example of Visual FSK; another new technology available through CLASS.

The RBOCs who offer this service also restructured their billing of these services into value-based "packages" to stimulate customer interest.

Bay Networks

Bay Networks was a network hardware vendor formed through the merger of Santa Clara, California based SynOptics Communications and Billerica, Massachusetts based Wellfleet Communications on July 6, 1994. SynOptics was an important early innovator of Ethernet products, having developed a pre-standard twisted pair 10Mbit/s Ethernet product and a modular Ethernet hub product that dominated the enterprise networking market. Wellfleet was an important competitor to Cisco Systems in the router market, ultimately commanding up to a 20% market share of the network router business worldwide. The combined company was renamed Bay Networks as a nod to the legacy that SynOptics was based in the San Francisco area and Wellfleet was based in the Boston area, two cities well known for their bays.

Chip PC Technologies

Chip PC Technologies is a developer and manufacturer of thin client solutions and management software for server-based computing; where in a network architecture applications are deployed, managed and can be fully executed on the server.


MontaVista Software is a company that develops embedded Linux system software, development tools, and related software. Its products are made for other corporations developing embedded systems such as automotive electronics, communications equipment, mobile phones, and other electronic devices and infrastructure.

MontaVista is based in Santa Clara, California and was founded in 1999 by James "Jim" Ready (formerly at Mentor Graphics and creator of Versatile Real-Time Executive (VRTX)) and others. On November 10, 2009 Cavium Networks announced that it had signed a definitive agreement to purchase MontaVista for $50 million. After Cavium got acquired by Marvell, Montavista is currently running as independent entity.

Network switch

A network switch (also called switching hub, bridging hub, officially MAC bridge) is a computer networking device that connects devices on a computer network by using packet switching to receive, process, and forward data to the destination device.

A network switch is a multiport network bridge that uses hardware addresses to process and forward data at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model. Some switches can also process data at the network layer (layer 3) by additionally incorporating routing functionality. Such switches are commonly known as layer-3 switches or multilayer switches.Switches for Ethernet are the most common form of network switch. The first Ethernet switch was introduced by Kalpana in 1990. Switches also exist for other types of networks including Fibre Channel, Asynchronous Transfer Mode, and InfiniBand.

Unlike less advanced repeater hubs, which broadcast the same data out of each of its ports and let the devices decide what data they need, a network switch forwards data only to the devices that need to receive it.


Nostalgia is a sentimentality for the past, typically for a period or place with happy personal associations. The word nostalgia is learned formation of a Greek compound, consisting of νόστος (nóstos), meaning "homecoming", a Homeric word, and ἄλγος (álgos), meaning "pain" or "ache", and was coined by a 17th-century medical student to describe the anxieties displayed by Swiss mercenaries fighting away from home. Described as a medical condition—a form of melancholy—in the Early Modern period, it became an important trope in Romanticism.Nostalgia is associated with a yearning for the past, its personalities, and events, especially the "good old days" or a "warm childhood".The scientific literature on nostalgia usually refers to nostalgia regarding the personal life and has mainly studied the effects of nostalgia induced during the studies. Smell and touch are strong evokers of nostalgia due to the processing of these stimuli first passing through the amygdala, the emotional seat of the brain. These recollections of one's past are usually important events, people one cares about, and places where one has spent time. Music and weather can also be strong triggers of nostalgia. Nostalgic preferences, the belief that the past was better than the present, have been linked to biases in memory.


An office is generally a room or other area where an organization's employees perform administrative work in order to support and realize objects and goals of the organization. The word "office" may also denote a position within an organization with specific duties attached to it (see officer, office-holder, official); the latter is in fact an earlier usage, office as place originally referring to the location of one's duty. When used as an adjective, the term "office" may refer to business-related tasks. In law, a company or organization has offices in any place where it has an official presence, even if that presence consists of (for example) a storage silo rather than an establishment with desk-and-chair. An office is also an architectural and design phenomenon: ranging from a small office such as a bench in the corner of a small business of extremely small size (see small office/home office), through entire floors of buildings, up to and including massive buildings dedicated entirely to one company. In modern terms an office is usually the location where white-collar workers carry out their functions. As per James Stephenson, "Office is that part of business enterprise which is devoted to the direction and co-ordination of its various activities."

Offices in classical antiquity were often part of a palace complex or of a large temple. The High Middle Ages (1000–1300) saw the rise of the medieval chancery, which was usually the place where most government letters were written and where laws were copied in the administration of a kingdom. With the growth of large, complex organizations in the 18th century, the first purpose-built office spaces were constructed. As the Industrial Revolution intensified in the 18th and 19th centuries, the industries of banking, rail, insurance, retail, petroleum, and telegraphy grew dramatically, requiring a large number of clerks, and as a result more office space was assigned to house their activities. The time-and-motion study, pioneered in manufacturing by F. W. Taylor (1856-1915) led to the "Modern Efficiency Desk" of 1915 with a flat top and drawers below, designed to allow managers an easy view of the workers.

However, by the middle of the 20th century, it became apparent that an efficient office required discretion in the control of privacy, and gradually the cubicle system evolved.The main purpose of an office environment is to support its occupants in performing their jobs. Work spaces in an office are typically used for conventional office activities such as reading, writing and computer work. There are nine generic types of work space, each supporting different activities. In addition to individual cubicles, one can find meeting rooms, lounges, and spaces for support activities, such as photocopying and filing. Some offices also have a kitchen area where workers can make their lunches. There are many different ways of arranging the space in an office and whilst these vary according to function, managerial fashions and the culture of specific companies can be even more important.

While offices can be built in almost any location and in almost any building, some modern requirements for offices make this more difficult, such as requirements for light, networking, and security. The major purpose of an office building is to provide a workplace and working environment - primarily for administrative and managerial workers. These workers usually occupy set areas within the office building, and usually are provided with desks, PCs and other equipment they may need within these areas.

Planet Soho

Planet Soho is an American online company that addresses the needs of small office / home office businesses (SOHOs). It has over one million members from around the globe. The company was formerly called SohoOS. It officially changed its name and expanded its offerings on December 12, 2012.

Professional organizing

Professional Organizing emerged as an industry in 1984 within Los Angeles. It intends to assist individuals and businesses to improve their organizing systems and process, for the purpose of improving quality of life, increasing personal productivity and achieving greater efficiency.

The National Association of Productivity and Organizing Professionals (NAPO) is recognised as the largest professional association within this industry, with approximately 3,500 members.This industry has been popularised by a number of television programs produced on the subject, beginning with Life Laundry in 2002. This was followed by other programs, such as Clean Sweep, Neat, Mission: Organization, Hoarding: Buried Alive, Hoarders, Clean House, and NeatTV. Professional organizing has also been the basis of magazines like Real Simple.


RomTech was a software company based in Langhorne, PA, in the late 1990s. They released CD-ROM collections of clipart, games,and small office/home office (SOHO) applications sold at retail stores such as Walmart and Target. In December 1996, RomTech's Galaxy of Games bundle was the #1 bestselling software at a number of major retail outlets.

Router (computing)

A router is a networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks. Routers perform the traffic directing functions on the Internet. Data sent through the internet, such as a web page or email, is in the form of data packets. A packet is typically forwarded from one router to another router through the networks that constitute an internetwork (e.g. the Internet) until it reaches its destination node.A router is connected to two or more data lines from different networks. When a data packet comes in on one of the lines, the router reads the network address information in the packet to determine the ultimate destination. Then, using information in its routing table or routing policy, it directs the packet to the next network on its journey.

The most familiar type of routers are home and small office routers that simply forward IP packets between the home computers and the Internet. An example of a router would be the owner's cable or DSL router, which connects to the Internet through an Internet service provider (ISP). More sophisticated routers, such as enterprise routers, connect large business or ISP networks up to the powerful core routers that forward data at high speed along the optical fiber lines of the Internet backbone. Though routers are typically dedicated hardware devices, software-based routers also exist.

Steek (brand)

Steek was a private technology startup based in France. Its services included online file hosting, file sharing, and automated backup services to telecom operators, ISPs, and portals.

Strathfield (retailer)

Strathfield (ASX: SRA) is an Australian retailer that sells car stereos, car alarms, home entertainment, small office/home office items & mobile devices (e.g. mobile phones, MP3 players etc.). It had 87 stores in all mainland states and territories in March 2005.

The company was first established in October 1980 in the Sydney suburb of Strathfield - hence the name. Originally, it was known as Strathfield Car Radio and was known as this for a number of years, until other products overtook car stereos as their main earner. This name is still used by many people.

The company expanded into mobile phones in 1987 and it was the first retailer to connect a customer to the GSM network in Australia in 1993. The mid 1990s saw an expansion into SoHo and home entertainment devices.

Strathfield listed on the ASX in 1998. Mobile phone and other revenues started to decline from around 2000 onwards and the company has expanded to provide phones from a number of carriers, including Virgin Mobile and Optus.

The name Strathfield is used for stores that carry the full range of products. Exteriors of these buildings are painted red. Smaller stores that mainly carry mobile phones and accessories and are often located in major shopping centres are branded Strathfield Connect. Strathfield is well known for its slogan and accompanying jingle Drive In and Jive Away.

On 29 January 2009 the company was placed in receivership Comedian and star of the FX Show Legit (2013 TV series) Jim Jefferies (comedian) previously managed several Strathfield stores, whose stores were some of the most profitable in the chain."The Opie & Anthony Show Podcast".

The UPS Store

The UPS Store network is the world's largest franchisor of retail shipping, postal, printing and business service centers. Today, there are more than 5,000 independently owned The UPS Store locations in the U.S., Puerto Rico, and Canada. The UPS Store, Inc., franchisor of The UPS Store brand, is a wholly owned subsidiary of United Parcel Service (UPS).


VectorLinux, abbreviated VL, is a Linux distribution for the x86 platform based on the Slackware Linux distribution, originally developed by Canadian developers Robert S. Lange and Darell Stavem. Since version 7 the Standard Edition is also available for the x86-64 platform, known as VLocity64 7.

Very small business

A very small business (VSB) is a company that is at the lower end, in terms of size, of companies that are considered small and medium enterprise. The actual definition of what size companies classify as VSBs varies from region to region, but upper limit is usually considered to be 25–50 employees.

Office types
Rooms and spaces of a house
Shared residential rooms
Private rooms
Utility and storage
Great house areas
Architectural elements

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.