Small Indian civet

The small Indian civet (Viverricula indica) is a civet native to South and Southeast Asia. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List because of its widespread distribution, widespread habitat use and healthy populations living in agricultural and secondary landscapes of many range states.[1]

The small Indian civet is a monotypic genus.[3]

Small Indian civet
Small Indian Civet, Silchar, Assam, India
In Silchar, Assam, India
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Phylum:
Class:
Order:
Family:
Subfamily:
Genus:
Viverricula

Hodgson, 1838
Species:
V. indica
Binomial name
Viverricula indica[2]
Subspecies
Small Indian Civet area
Small Indian civet range
(green - extant,
pink - probably extant)

Characteristics

The small Indian civet has a rather coarse fur that is brownish grey to pale yellowish brown, with usually several longitudinal black or brown bands on the back and longitudinal rows of spots on the sides. Usually there are five or six distinct bands on the back and four or five rows of spots on each side. Some have indistinct lines and spots, with the dorsal bands wanting. Generally there are two dark stripes from behind the ear to the shoulders, and often a third in front, crossing the throat. Its underfur is brown or grey, often grey on the upper parts of the body and brown on the lower. The grey hairs on the upper parts are often tipped with black. The head is grey or brownish grey, the chin often brown. The ears are short and rounded with a dusky mark behind each ear, and one in front of each eye. The feet are brown or black. Its tail has alternating black and whitish rings, seven to nine of each colour. It is 21–23 in (53–58 cm) from head to body with a 15–17 in (38–43 cm) long tapering tail.[3]

Distribution and habitat

The Small Indian civet occurs in most of India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia, Viet Nam, south and central China, and Taiwan. Recent records are not known in Bhutan, Bangladesh, Peninsular Malaysia, Java and Bali, where it was historically recorded. Its current status in Singapore is unclear.[1]

In Nepal’s Chitwan National Park, it is widely distributed in both grasslands and Sal (Shorea robusta) forest.[4]

In 2008, a small Indian civet was recorded for the first time in Jammu and Kashmir’s Dachigam National Park. This site was located at an altitude of 1,770 m (5,810 ft) in a riverine forest.[5] In northeast India, it was recorded up to an altitude of 2,500 m (8,200 ft).[6] In Tamil Nadu’s Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve, it was recorded foremost in grassland, riverine areas and sighted near a tea plantation during surveys in 2002.[7] In India's Western Ghats, small Indian civets were observed in Tamil Nadu’s Anamalai and Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserves, and in Kerala’s Parambikulam and Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuaries during surveys in 2008.[8] In Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, it was recorded in deciduous, semi-evergreen and thorn forests, and in the dry season also at a water hole near a village.[9]

In Myanmar, it was recorded in mixed deciduous and bamboo forests in Hlawga National Park.[10][11] In Hukawng Valley, it was recorded in grasslands and edges of forests at 240–580 m (790–1,900 ft) altitude during surveys between 2001 and 2003. In Alaungdaw Kathapa National Park, it was also recorded in a close tall forest in 1999.[12]

In Thailand, small Indian civets were recorded in Kaeng Krachan and Khao Yai National Parks, in evergreen gallery forest of Thung Yai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary, in secondary and dipterocarp forest of Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary, and in Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary at 700–900 m (2,300–3,000 ft) altitude in deciduous forest.[13]

In Laos, small Indian civets were recorded in a variety of habitats including semi-evergreen and deciduous forest, mixed deciduous forest, bamboo forest, scrubby areas, grasslands and riverine habitat.[14] In Cambodia’s Cardamom Mountains, small Indian civets were recorded in deciduous dipterocarp forests, often close to water bodies and in marshes during surveys conducted between 2000 and 2009.[15] Records in eastern Cambodia were obtained mostly in semi-evergreen forest in Phnom Prich Wildlife Sanctuary and Mondulkiri Protected Forest, but also in deciduous diptertocarp forests in Siem Pang Protected Forest, Snoul Wildlife Sanctuary, Virachey National Park and Chhep Wildlife Sanctuary.[16][17]

In China’s Guangxi, Guangdong and Hainan provinces, it was recorded in subtropical forest patches during interview and camera-trapping surveys carried out between 1997 and 2005.[18]

Occurrence in East Africa

The Small Indian civet was introduced to Madagascar. Feral small Indian civets were recorded in Ranomafana National Park in southeastern Madagascar, in an unprotected dry deciduous forest near Mariarano in northwestern Madagascar, and in MasoalaMakira protected areas in the island's northeast.[19][20][21] It was also introduced to Pemba Island and Mafia Island in the Zanzibar Archipelago, where it used to be kept for its musk, which is added to traditional African medicine and as a scent to perfume.[22][23]

Ecology and behavior

Small Indian Civet
The small Indian civet is a nocturnal hunter.

Small Indian civets are nocturnal, mostly terrestrial and insectivorous.[7] They inhabit holes in the ground, under rocks or in thick bush.[3]

Diet

The small Indian civets feed on rats, mice, birds, snakes, fruit, roots and carrion.[24] Some individuals were observed while carrying off poultry.[3][10]

Reproduction

The female has usually four or five young at a birth.[3] The life span is eight to nine years.[24]

Threats

People of Traspur village in Assam hunt it for meat and purify its skin into medicine.

Conservation

Viverricula indica is listed on CITES Appendix III.[1] In Myanmar, it is totally protected under the Wildlife Act of 1994.[10]

Taxonomy and evolution

Civetta indica was the scientific name given to the species by Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire in 1803 when he described a small Indian civet skin from India in the collection of the French Museum d'Histoire Naturelle.[25] Viverricula was the generic name introduced by Brian Houghton Hodgson in 1838 when he described new mammal genera and species collected in Nepal.[26] In the 19th and 20th centuries, the following scientific names were proposed:

Pocock subordinated them all as subspecies to Viverricula indica when he reviewed civet skins and skulls in the collection of the Natural History Museum, London.[36]

The following subspecies were considered valid taxa as of 2005:[2]

Phylogeny

A phylogenetic study showed that the small Indian civet is closely related to the genera Civettictis and Viverra. It was estimated that the Civettictis-Viverra clade diverged from Viverricula around 16.2 million years ago. The authors suggested that the subfamily Viverrinae should be bifurcated into Genettinae including Poiana and Genetta, and Viverrinae including Civettictis, Viverra and Viverricula. The following cladogram is based on this study.[39]

Viverrinae

Small Indian civet (Viverricula indica)

African civet (Civettictis civetta)

Viverra

Large Indian civet (Viverra zibetha)

Large-spotted civet (V. megaspila)

Malayan civet (V. tangalunga)

sensu stricto
Genettinae

Genetta

Poiana

References

  1. ^ a b c d Choudhury, A.; Duckworth, J.W.; Timmins, R.; Chutipong, W.; Willcox, D.H.A.; Rahman, H.; Ghimirey, Y. & Mudappa, D. (2015). "Viverricula indica". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2015: e.T41710A45220632. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T41710A45220632.en. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
  2. ^ a b Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Viverricula indica". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 559. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  3. ^ a b c d e Blanford, W. T. (1888–91). "Genus Viverricula Hodgson". The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Mammalia. London: Taylor and Francis. pp. 100–101.
  4. ^ Lamichhane, B. R.; Pokheral, C. P.; Khatiwada, A. P.; Mishra, R.; Subedi, N. (2014). "A Yellow-throated Marten Martes flavigula carrying a Small Indian Civet Viverricula indica" (PDF). Small Carnivore Conservation (51): 46–50.
  5. ^ Charoo, S. A.; Sharma, L. K.; Sathyakumar, S.; Naqash, R. Y. (2010). "First record of Small Indian Civet Viverricula indica in the Kashmir Himalaya, India". Small Carnivore Conservation (43): 42–43.
  6. ^ Choudhury, A. (2013). The Mammals of North East India. Guwahati: Gibbon Books and the Rhino Foundation for Nature in NE India. ISBN 9789380652023.
  7. ^ a b Mudappa, D. (2002). "Observations of small carnivores in the Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve, Western Ghats, India" (PDF). Small Carnivore Conservation (27): 4–5. Archived 2011-07-28 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ Pillay, R. (2009). "Observation of small carnivores in the southern Western Ghats, India". Small Carnivore Conservation (40): 36–40.
  9. ^ Kalle, R.; Ramesh, T.; Sankar, K.; Qureshi, Q. (2013). "Observations of sympatric small carnivores in Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, Western Ghats, India". Small Carnivore Conservation (49): 53–59.
  10. ^ a b c Su Su (2005). "Small carnivores and their threats in Hlawga Wildlife Park, Myanmar" (PDF). Small Carnivore Conservation (33): 6–13. Archived 2015-01-29 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ Su Su; Sale, J. B. (2007). "Niche differentiation between Common Palm Civet Paradoxurus hermaphroditus and Small Indian Civet Viverricula indica in regenerating degraded forest, Myanmar". Small Carnivore Conservation (36): 30–34.
  12. ^ Than Zaw; Saw Htun; Saw Htoo Tha Po; Myint Maung; Lynam, A. J.; Kyaw Thinn Latt; Duckworth, J. W. (2008). "Status and distribution of small carnivores in Myanmar". Small Carnivore Conservation (38): 2–28.
  13. ^ Chutipong, W.; Tantipisanuh, N.; Ngoprasert, D.; Lynam, A. J.; Steinmetz, R.; Jenks, K. E.; Grassman, Jr. L. I.; Tewes, M.; Kitamura, S.; Baker, M. C.; McShea, W.; Bhumpakphan, N.; Sukmasuang, R.; Gale, G. A.; Harich, F. K.; Treydte, A. C.; Cutter, P.; Cutter, P. B.; Suwanrat, S.; Siripattaranukul, K.; Hala-Bala Wildlife Research Station, Wildlife Research Division; Duckworth, J. W. (2014). "Current distribution and conservation status of small carnivores in Thailand: a baseline review" (PDF). Small Carnivore Conservation (51): 96–136.
  14. ^ Duckworth, J. W. (1997). "Small carnivores in Laos: a status review with notes on ecology, behaviour and conservation" (PDF). Small Carnivore Conservation (16): 1–21.
  15. ^ Holden, J.; Neang, T. (2009). "Small carnivore records from the Cardamom Mountains, southwestern Cambodia". Small Carnivore Conservation (40): 16–21.
  16. ^ Gray, T. N. E.; Pin C.; Phan C.; Crouthers, R.; Kamler, J. F.; Prum, S. (2014). "Camera-trap records of small carnivores from eastern Cambodia, 1999–2013". Small Carnivore Conservation (50): 20–24.
  17. ^ Suzuki, A.; Thong, S.; Tan, S.; Iwata, A. (2017). "Camera trapping of large mammals in Chhep Wildlife Sanctuary, northern Cambodia" (PDF). Cambodian Journal of Natural History. 2017 (1): 63–75.
  18. ^ Lau, M. W. N.; Fellowes, J. R.; Chan, B. P. L. (2010). "Carnivores (Mammalia: Carnivora) in South China: a status review with notes on the commercial trade". Mammal Review. 40 (42): 247–292. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2907.2010.00163.x.
  19. ^ Gerber, B.; Karpanty, S. M.; Crawford, C.; Kotschwar, M. (2010). "An assessment of carnivore relative abundance and density in the eastern rainforests of Madagascar using remotely-triggered camera traps". Oryx. 44 (2): 219–222. doi:10.1017/S0030605309991037.
  20. ^ Evans, B.; Rakotondraparany, F.; Cole, L.; Graham, S.; Long, P.; Gandola, R. (2013). "The carnivores of Mariarano forest, Madagascar: first insights". Small Carnivore Conservation (49): 15−19.
  21. ^ Farris, Z. J.; Gerber, B. D.; Karpanty, S.; Murphy, A.; Andrianjakarivelo, V.; Ratelolahy, F.; Kelly, M. J. (2015). "When carnivores roam: temporal patterns and overlap among Madagascar's native and exotic carnivores" (PDF). Journal of Zoology. 296 (1): 45–57. doi:10.1111/jzo.12216.
  22. ^ Walsh, M. T. (2007). "Island subsistence: hunting, trapping and the translocation of wildlife in the Western Indian Ocean" (PDF). Azania: Journal of the British Institute in Eastern Africa. 42 (1): 83−113. doi:10.1080/00672700709480452.
  23. ^ Kock, D.; Stanley, W. T. (2009). "Mammals of Mafia Island, Tanzania". Mammalia. 73 (4): 339–352. doi:10.1515/MAMM.2009.046.
  24. ^ a b Lekalul, B. and McNeely, J. A. (1977). Mammals of Thailand. Association for the Conservation of Wildlife, Bangkok.
  25. ^ Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, E. (1803). "La Civette de l'Inde". Catalogue des Mammifères du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Paris: Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle. p. 113.
  26. ^ Hodgson, B. H. (1838). "Classified Catalogue of Nepalese Mammalia". Annals of Natural History. 1 (2): 152−154.
  27. ^ Horsfield, T. (1824). "Viverra Rasse". Zoological Researches in Java, and the neighbouring Islands. London: Printed for Kingsbury, Parbury, & Allen. pp. 160–166.
  28. ^ Horsfield, T. (1851). "Viverricula Rasse". A catalogue of the Mammalia in the Museum of the Hon. East-India Company. London: J. & H. Cox. p. 59−60.
  29. ^ Gray, J. E. (1831). "Description of two new Species of Mammalia, one forming a genus intermediate between Viverra and Ictides". The Zoological Miscellany. London: Treuttel, Wurtz and Co. p. 17.
  30. ^ Gray, J. E. (1832). "Bengal Civet Viverra bengalensis". Illustrations of Indian zoology; chiefly selected from the collection of Major-General Hardwicke. London: Treuttel, Wurtz, Treuttel, Jun. and Richter. pp. Plate 4.
  31. ^ Pollen, F. (1866). "Communications from Dr. H. Schlegel, on Mammals and Birds collected in Madagascar". Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological Society of London: 419.
  32. ^ a b Pollen, F. P. L. (1868). "Chapitre IV". Recherches sur la Faune de Madagascar et de ses dépendances [Research on the Fauna of Madagascar and its dependencies]. Leyde: J. K. Steenhoff. pp. 85−125.
  33. ^ Bonhote, J. L. (1898). "On the species of the Genus Viverricula". The Annals and Magazine of Natural History; Zoology, Botany, and Geology. Series 7 Volume 1 (2): 119−122. doi:10.1080/00222939808677937.
  34. ^ Kloss, C. B. (1919). "On Mammals collected in Siam". The Journal of the Natural History Society of Siam. 3 (4): 333−407.
  35. ^ a b c d e f Sody, H. J. V. (1931). "Six new mammals from Sumatra, Java, Bali and Borneo". Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch-Indië. 91: 349–360.
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Pocock, R. I. (1933). "The Civet Cats of Asia". The Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 36 (3): 632−656.
  37. ^ a b c d Pocock, R. I. (1939). "Genus Viverricula Hodgson". The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Mammalia. – Volume 1. London: Taylor and Francis. pp. 362–376.
  38. ^ a b c d e f g Ellerman, J. R.; Morrison-Scott, T. C. S. (1966). "Genus Viverricula Hodgson". Checklist of Palaearctic and Indian mammals 1758 to 1946 (Second ed.). London: British Museum of Natural History. pp. 282–283.
  39. ^ Gaubert, P.; Cordeiro-Estrela, P. (2006). "Phylogenetic systematics and tempo of evolution of the Viverrinae (Mammalia, Carnivora, Viverridae) within feliformians: implications for faunal exchanges between Asia and Africa" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 41 (2): 266–278. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.05.034. PMID 16837215. open access

External links

Bhitarkanika Mangroves

Bhitarkanika Mangroves is a mangrove wetland in Odisha, covering an area of 650 km (400 mi) in the Brahmani and Baitarani river deltas.

Civet

A civet is a small, lithe-bodied, mostly nocturnal mammal native to tropical Asia and Africa, especially the tropical forests. The term civet applies to over a dozen different mammal species. Most of the species diversity is found in southeast Asia. The best-known civet species is the African civet, Civettictis civetta, which historically has been the main species from which was obtained a musky scent used in perfumery. The word civet may also refer to the distinctive musky scent produced by the animals.

A minority of writers use "civet" to refer only to Civettictis, Viverra and Viverricula civets. But in more common usage in English, the name also covers Chrotogale, Cynogale, Diplogale, Hemigalus, Arctogalidia, Macrogalidia, Paguma, and Paradoxurus civets.

Civet (perfumery)

Civet (Zibeth; Zibet; Zibetum), also known as civet musk, is the glandular secretion produced by both sexes of Viverridae species.

East Karbi-Anglong Wildlife Sanctuary

The East Karbi Anglong Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the Assam state of India. It is situated 35 km from the city of Diphu, Karbi Anglong district. It covers an area of 221.81 km², and its elevation varies between 80 to 500 meter above sea level.

The forest area was declared a wildlife sanctuary on 27 July 2000 by the Assam State Government.

Eastern falanouc

The eastern falanouc (Eupleres goudotii) is a rare mongoose-like mammal in the carnivoran family Eupleridae endemic to Madagascar .It is classified alongside the western falanouc, Eupleres major, recognized only in 2010, in the genus Eupleres. Falanoucs have several peculiarities. They have no anal or perineal glands (unlike their closest relative, the fanaloka), nonretractile claws, and a unique dentition: the canines and premolars are backwards-curving and flat. This is thought to be related to their prey, mostly invertebrates, such as worms, slugs, snails, and larvae.

It lives primarily in the lowland rainforests of eastern Madagascar, while E. major is found in northwest Madagascar. It is solitary and territorial, but whether nocturnal or diurnal is unknown. It is small (about 50 centimetres long with a 24-centimetre-long tail) and shy (clawing, not biting, in self-defence). It most closely resembles the mongooses with its long snout and low body, though its colouration is plain and brown (most mongooses have colouring schemes such as striping, banding, or other variations on the hands and feet).

Its life cycle displays periods of fat buildup during April and May, before the dry months of June and July. It has a brief courting period and weaning period, the young being weaned before the next mating season. Its reproductive cycle is fast. The offspring (one per litter) are born in burrows with opened eyes and can move with the mother through dense foliage at only two days old. In nine weeks, the already well-developed young are on solid food and shortly thereafter they leave their mothers. Though it is fast in gaining mobility (so as to follow its mother on forages), it grows at a slower rate than comparatively-sized carnivorans.

"Falanoucs are threatened by habitat loss, humans, dogs and an introduced competitor, the small Indian civet (Viverricula indica)."

List of mammals of Kaziranga National Park

Kaziranga National Park is a national park and an UNESCO World Heritage Site in India. The park contains significant breeding populations of more than 35 mammalian species, out of which 15 are threatened mammals according to the IUCN Red List.The park has the world's single largest breeding population of Indian rhinoceros, with the 2006 census estimating the present population to be around 1,855, around 70% of the world's total wild population of 2,700.The park contains significant stock of three other large herbivores — the Asian elephant, the wild Asian water buffalo and the subspecies eastern swamp deer (Cervus duvauceli ranjitsinghi). A census on wild Asiatic buffaloes in March 2001 revealed the presence of 1,666 buffaloes — the largest single population of the species reported in this millennium, up from 677 in the 1984 census. Assam is India's most populous state with respect to Asiatic elephants (an estimated 5,500 out of a total of 10,000 wild Asiatic elephants in India live in Assam), and Kaziranga contains as many as 1,206 elephants (from the 2005 census), up from 1048 individuals (in the 2002 census). The combined Kaziranga - Karbi Anglong Elephant Reserve has as many as 1940 elephants according to the 2005 survey.The eastern race of the swamp deer also had 468 individuals existing as noted in the 2002 census, down from 756 individuals noted in the 1984 census. Other stable populations of large herbivores include the gaur (30 individuals in 1984) and the sambar (58 in 1999). Smaller herbivores include the Indian muntjac (100 in the 1972 census), wild boar (431 in 1999), barking deer and hog deer (5045 in 1999).The park has a large variety of primates including all free roaming primates in India with the exception of the endemic Western Ghats primates and the newly discovered Arunachal macaque. This includes the vulnerable and rare species of Bengal slow loris, Assamese macaque, capped langur, golden langur and the only ape found in India — the hoolock gibbon.Kaziranga also has the rare distinction of being one of the very few places in the world which contains breeding population of three big cats outside Africa — the royal Bengal tiger, the Indian leopard and the clouded leopard. Kaziranga had a population of around 30 Bengal tigers during the 1972 census, which grew to 86 in the 2000 census. This made Kaziranga the protected area with the highest tiger density in the world (0.2 tigers /km2), and Kaziranga formally became a tiger reserve in 2006.The park is also home to sloth bears and to lesser felids like the jungle cat, fishing cat and the leopard cat. Other small mammals include the rare hispid hare and several common species of mongoose (Indian gray mongoose, small Indian mongoose), civets (large Indian civet, small Indian civet), small canids (Bengal fox, golden jackal) pangolins (Chinese pangolin, Indian pangolin), weasels (hog badger, Chinese ferret badger), the particolored flying squirrel and bats.Kaziranga's rivers (especially the adjoining stretch of the Brahmaputra) are home to the blind, highly endangered Ganges dolphin.Even though the ubiquitous wild boar is present in Kaziranga, and Assam was part of the historical range of the critically endangered pygmy hog, the pygmy hog is no longer found in Kaziranga. The Indian Javan rhinoceros was probably also an inhabitant of Kaziranga before becoming extinct.

List of species native to Thailand

The wildlife of Thailand includes its flora and fauna and their natural habitats.

Lutrogale

Lutrogale is a genus of otters, with only one extant species—the smooth-coated otter.

Malagasy civet

The Malagasy or striped civet (Fossa fossana), also known as the fanaloka (Malagasy, [fə̥ˈnaluk]) or jabady, is an euplerid endemic to Madagascar.The Malagasy civet is a small mammal, about 47 centimetres (19 in) long excluding the tail (which is only about 20 centimetres (7.9 in)). It can weigh 1.5 to 2.0 kilograms (3.3 to 4.4 lb). It is endemic to the tropical forests of Madagascar. Malagasy civets are nocturnal. It eats small vertebrates, insects, aquatic animals, and eggs stolen from birds' nests. The mating season of the Malagasy civet is August to September and the gestation period is three months, ending with the birth of one young. The Malagasy Civet is listed as Vulnerable by International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).

Masked palm civet

The masked palm civet or gem-faced civet (Paguma larvata) is a civet species native to the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia. It is classified by IUCN in 2008 as Least Concern as it occurs in many protected areas, is tolerant to some degree of habitat modification, and widely distributed with presumed large populations that are unlikely to be declining.The genus Paguma was first named and described by John Edward Gray in 1831. All described forms are regarded as a single species.In recent times, masked palm civets were considered to be a likely vector of SARS.

Rasse

Rasse may refer to:

Small Indian civet

Masaki Okimoto, Japanese professional wrestler, whose stage name is Rasse

Ring-tailed vontsira

The ring-tailed vontsira, locally still known as the ring-tailed mongoose (Galidia elegans) is a euplerid in the subfamily Galidiinae, a carnivoran native to Madagascar.

Salanoia durrelli

Salanoia durrelli, also known as Durrell's vontsira, is a Madagascan mammal in the family Eupleridae of the order Carnivora. It is most closely related to the brown-tailed mongoose (Salanoia concolor), with which it forms the genus Salanoia. The two are genetically similar, but morphologically distinct, leading scientists to recognize them as separate species. After an individual was observed in 2004, the animal became known to science and S. durrelli was described as a new species in 2010. It is found only in the Lac Alaotra area.

A small, reddish-brown carnivore, Salanoia durrelli is characterized by broad feet with prominent pads, reddish-buff underparts, and broad, robust teeth, among other differences from the brown-tailed mongoose. In the only two weighed specimens, body mass was 600 and 675 g (21.2 and 23.8 oz). It is a marsh-dwelling animal that may feed on crustaceans and mollusks. The Lac Alaotra area is a threatened ecosystem, and S. durrelli may also be endangered by competition with introduced species.

Scent gland

Scent glands are exocrine glands found in most mammals. They produce semi-viscous secretions which contain pheromones and other semiochemical compounds. These odor-messengers indicate information such as status, territorial marking, mood, and sexual power. The odor may be subliminal—not consciously detectable. Though it is not their primary function, the salivary glands may also function as scent glands in some animals.

Sri Venkateswara National Park

Sri Venkateshwara National Park is a national park and biosphere reserve in Andhra Pradesh, India. The total area of the park is 353 km2.

The park is known for its many waterfalls including the Talakona, Gundalakona and Gunjana. As the government of India declared the Seshachalam Hills as one of the biosphere reserves of India in 2010, this national park becomes the part of it.

V. indica

V. indica may refer to:

Vanessa indica, the Indian red admiral or in the United States, the Asian admiral, a butterfly species

Vateria indica, a plant species endemic to India

Viverricula indica, the small Indian civet, a mammal species found across south and South-East Asia

Viverridae

Viverridae is a family of small to medium-sized mammals, the viverrids (), comprising 15 genera, which are subdivided into 38 species. This family was named and first described by John Edward Gray in 1821. Members of this family are commonly called civets or genets. Viverrids are found in South and Southeast Asia, across the Wallace Line, all over Africa, and into southern Europe. Their occurrence in Sulawesi and in some of the adjoining islands shows them to be ancient inhabitants of the Old World tropics.

Viverrinae

The Viverrinae represent the largest subfamily within the Viverridae comprising five genera, which are subdivided into 22 species native to Africa and Southeast Asia. This subfamily was denominated and first described by John Edward Gray in 1864.

Wildlife of Tamil Nadu

There are more than 2000 species of fauna that can be found in Tamil Nadu. This rich wildlife is attributed to the diverse relief features as well as favorable climate and vegetation in the Indian state. Recognizing the state's role in preserving the current environment, the government has established several wildlife and bird sanctuaries as well as national parks, which entail stringent protective measures. Tamil Nadu is also included in the International Network of Biosphere Reserves, which facilitates international recognition and additional funding. Currently, there are five national parks and 17 sanctuaries that serve as homes to the wildlife.

Extant Carnivora species

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