Slovak or less frequently Slovakian (/ˈsloʊvæk, -vɑːk/ (listen)) is a West Slavic language (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian). It is called slovenský jazyk (pronounced [ˈslɔʋɛnskiː ˈjazik] (listen)) or slovenčina ([ˈslɔʋɛntʃina]) in the language itself.
Slovak is the official language of Slovakia, where it is spoken by approximately 5.51 million people (2014). Slovak speakers are also found in the United States, the Czech Republic, Argentina, Serbia, Ireland, Romania, Poland, Canada, Hungary, Germany, Croatia, Israel, the United Kingdom, Australia, Austria, Ukraine, Norway and many other countries worldwide.
|slovenčina, slovenský jazyk|
|Native to||Slovakia, Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, bordering regions of western Ukraine (Zakkarpatia)|
|5.2 million (2011–2012)|
|Latin (Slovak alphabet)|
Official language in
|Regulated by||Ministry of Culture of the Slovak Republic|
Slovak uses the Latin script with small modifications that include the four diacritics (ˇ, ´, ¨, ˆ) placed above certain letters (a-á,ä; c-č; d-ď; dz-dž; e-é; i-í; l-ľ,ĺ; n-ň; o-ó,ô; r-ŕ; s-š; t-ť; u-ú; y-ý; z-ž)
The primary principle of Slovak spelling is the phonemic principle. The secondary principle is the morphological principle: forms derived from the same stem are written in the same way even if they are pronounced differently. An example of this principle is the assimilation rule (see below). The tertiary principle is the etymological principle, which can be seen in the use of i after certain consonants and of y after other consonants, although both i and y are pronounced almost, but usually the same way.
Finally, the rarely applied grammatical principle is present when, for example, the basic singular form and plural form of masculine adjectives are written differently with no difference in pronunciation (e.g. pekný = nice – singular versus pekní = nice – plural).
In addition, the following rules are present:
Most foreign words receive Slovak spelling immediately or after some time. For example, "weekend" is spelled víkend, "software" – softvér, "gay" – gej (both not exclusively), and "quality" is spelled kvalita. Personal and geographical names from other languages using Latin alphabets keep their original spelling unless a fully Slovak form of the name exists (e.g. Londýn for "London").
Slovak features some heterophonic homographs (words with identical spelling but different pronunciation and meaning), the most common examples being krásne /ˈkɾaːsnɛ/ (beautiful) versus krásne /ˈkɾaːsɲɛ/ (beautifully).
The main features of Slovak syntax are as follows:
Some examples include the following:
Word order in Slovak is relatively free, since strong inflection enables the identification of grammatical roles (subject, object, predicate, etc.) regardless of word placement. This relatively free word order allows the use of word order to convey topic and emphasis.
Some examples are as follows:
The unmarked order is subject–verb–object. Variation in word order is generally possible, but word order is not completely free. In the above example, the noun phrase ten veľký muž cannot be split up, so that the following combinations are not possible:
And the following is stylistically not correct:
Slovak does not have articles. The demonstrative pronoun ten (fem: tá, neuter: to) may be used in front of the noun in situations where definiteness must be made explicit.
Slovak nouns are inflected for case and number. There are six cases: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, locative, and instrumental. The vocative is no longer morphologically marked. There are two numbers: singular and plural. Nouns have inherent gender. There are three genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter. Adjectives and pronouns must agree with nouns in case, number, and gender.
The numerals 0–10 have unique forms, with numerals 1–4 requiring specific gendered representations. Numerals 11–19 are formed by adding násť to the end of each numeral. The suffix dsať is used to create numerals 20, 30 and 40; for numerals 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90, desiat is used. Compound numerals (21, 1054) are combinations of these words formed in the same order as their mathematical symbol is written (e.g. 21 = dvadsaťjeden, literally "twenty-one").
The numerals are as follows:
|1||jeden (number, masculine), jedno (neuter), jedna (feminine)||11||jedenásť||10||desať|
|2||dva (number, masculine), dve (neuter, feminine), dvaja (special masculine)||12||dvanásť||20||dvadsať|
|3||tri (number, neuter, masculine, feminine), traja (special masculine)||13||trinásť||30||tridsať|
|4||štyri (number, neuter, masculine, feminine), štyria (special masculine)||14||štrnásť||40||štyridsať|
Some higher numbers: (200) dvesto,... (300) tristo,... (900) deväťsto,... (1,000) tisíc,... (1,100) tisícsto,... (2,000) dvetisíc,... (100,000) stotisíc,... (200,000) dvestotisíc,... (1,000,000) milión,... (1,000,000,000) miliarda,...
Counted nouns have two forms. The most common form is the plural genitive (e.g. päť domov = five houses or stodva žien = one hundred two women), while the plural form of the noun when counting the amounts of 2-4, etc., is usually the nominative form without counting (e.g. dva domy = two houses or dve ženy = two women) but gender rules do apply in many cases.
Verbs have three major conjugations. Three persons and two numbers (singular and plural) are distinguished. Several conjugation paradigms exist as follows:
|volať, to call||Singular||Plural||Past participle (masculine – feminine – neuter)|
|1st person||volám||voláme||volal – volala – volalo|
|bývať, to live||Singular||Plural||Past participle|
|1st person||bývam||bývame||býval – bývala – bývalo|
|vracať, to return or (mostly in slang) to vomit||Singular||Plural||Past participle|
|1st person||vraciam||vraciame||vracal – vracala – vracalo|
|robiť, to do, work||Singular||Plural||Past participle|
|1st person||robím||robíme||robil – robila – robilo|
|vrátiť, to return||Singular||Plural||Past participle|
|1st person||vrátim||vrátime||vrátil – vrátila – vrátilo|
|vidieť, to see||Singular||Plural||Past participle|
|1st person||vidím||vidíme||videl – videla – videlo|
|kupovať, to buy||Singular||Plural||Past participle|
|1st person||kupujem||kupujeme||kupoval – kupovala – kupovalo|
|zabudnúť, to forget||Singular||Plural||Past participle|
|1st person||zabudnem||zabudneme||zabudol – zabudla – zabudlo|
|minúť, to spend, miss||Singular||Plural||Past participle|
|1st person||miniem||minieme||minul – minula – minulo|
|niesť, to carry||Singular||Plural||Past participle|
|1st person||nesiem||nesieme||niesol – niesla – nieslo|
|stučnieť, to carry (be fat)||Singular||Plural||Past participle|
|1st person||stučniem||stučnieme||stučnel – stučnela – stučnelo|
|byť, to be||jesť, to eat||vedieť, to know|
|Past participle||bol, bola, bolo||jedol, jedla, jedlo||vedel, vedela, vedelo|
Adverbs are formed by replacing the adjectival ending with the ending -o or -e / -y. Sometimes both -o and -e are possible. Examples include the following:
The comparative/superlative of adverbs is formed by replacing the adjectival ending with a comparative/superlative ending -(ej)ší or -(ej)šie. Examples include the following:
Each preposition is associated with one or more grammatical cases. The noun governed by a preposition must appear in the case required by the preposition in the given context (e.g. from friends = od priateľov). Priateľov is the genitive case of priatelia. It must appear in this case because the preposition od (= from) always calls for its objects to be in the genitive.
Po has a different meaning depending on the case of its governed noun.
The Slovak language is a descendant of Proto-Slavic, itself a descendant of Proto-Indo-European. It is closely related to the other West Slavic languages, primarily to Czech and Polish. Czech also influenced the language in its later development. The highest number of borrowings in the old Slovak vocabulary come from Latin, German, Czech, Hungarian, Polish and Greek (in that order). Recently, it is also influenced by English.
Although most dialects of Czech and Slovak are mutually intelligible (see Comparison of Slovak and Czech), eastern Slovak dialects are less intelligible to speakers of Czech and closer to Polish, Ruthenian and Ukrainian and contact between speakers of Czech and speakers of the eastern dialects is limited.
Since the dissolution of Czechoslovakia it has been permitted to use Czech in TV broadcasting and during court proceedings (Administration Procedure Act 99/1963 Zb.). From 1999 to August 2009, the Minority Language Act 184/1999 Z.z., in its section (§) 6, contained the variously interpreted unclear provision saying that "When applying this act, it holds that the use of the Czech language fulfills the requirement of fundamental intelligibility with the state language"; the state language is Slovak and the Minority Language Act basically refers to municipalities with more than 20% ethnic minority population (no such Czech municipalities are found in Slovakia). Since 1 September 2009 (due to an amendment to the State Language Act 270/1995 Z.z.) a language "fundamentally intelligible with the state language" (i.e. the Czech language) may be used in contact with state offices and bodies by its native speakers, and documents written in it and issued by bodies in the Czech Republic are officially accepted. Regardless of its official status, Czech is used commonly both in Slovak mass media and in daily communication by Czech natives as an equal language.
Czech and Slovak have a long history of interaction and mutual influence well before the creation of Czechoslovakia in 1918, a state which existed until 1993. Literary Slovak shares significant orthographic features with Czech, as well as technical and professional terminology dating from the Czechoslovak period, but phonetic, grammatical, and vocabulary differences do exist.
Slavic language varieties tend to be closely related, and have had a large degree of mutual influence, due to the complicated ethnopolitical history of their historic ranges. This is reflected in the many features Slovak shares with neighboring language varieties. Standard Slovak shares high degrees of mutual intelligibility with many Slavic varieties. Despite this closeness to other Slavic varieties, significant variation exists among Slovak dialects. In particular, eastern varieties differ significantly from the standard language, which is based on central and western varieties.
Eastern Slovak dialects have the greatest degree of mutual intelligibility with Polish of all the Slovak dialects followed by Rusyn, but both lack technical terminology and upper register expressions. Polish and Sorbian also differ quite considerably from Czech and Slovak in upper registers, but non-technical and lower register speech is readily intelligible. Some mutual intelligibility occurs with spoken Rusyn, Ukrainian, and even Russian (in this order), although their orthographies are based on the Cyrillic script.
|to buy||kupovať||kupovat||куповати (kupovaty)||купувати (kupuvaty)||купляць (kupliać)||kupować||kupovati||купува (kupuva)||kupovati|
|Welcome||Vitajte||Vítejte||Вітайте (vitajte)||Вітаю (vitaju)||Вітаю (vitaju)||Witajcie||Dobro došli||добре дошли (dobre došli)||Dobrodošli|
|morning||ráno||ráno/jitro||рано (rano)||рано/ранок (rano/ranok)||рана/ранак (rana/ranak)||rano/ranek||jutro||утро (utro)||jutro|
|Thank you||Ďakujem||Děkuji||Дякую (diakuju)||Дякую (diakuju)||Дзякуй (dziakuj)||Dziękuję||Hvala||благодаря (blagodarja)||Hvala|
|How are you?||Ako sa máš?||Jak se máš?||Як ся маєш/маш?
(jak śa maješ/maš?)
|Як справи? (jak spravy?)||Як справы? (jak spravy?)||Jak się masz? (colloquially "jak leci?")||Kako si?||Как си? (Kak si?)||Kako se imaš?/Kako si?|
|Як ся маєш?
(jak śa maješ?)
Servus is commonly used as a greeting or upon parting in Slovak-speaking regions and some German-speaking regions, particularly Austria. Papa is also commonly used upon parting in these regions. Both servus and papa are used in colloquial, informal conversation.
Hungarians and Slovaks have had a language interaction ever since the settlement of Hungarians in the Carpathian area. Hungarians also adopted many words from various Slavic languages related to agriculture and administration, and a number of Hungarian loanwords are found in Slovak. Some examples are as follows:
There are many Slovak dialects, which are divided into the following four basic groups:
The fourth group of dialects is often not considered a separate group, but a subgroup of Central and Western Slovak dialects (see e.g. Štolc, 1968), but it is currently undergoing changes due to contact with surrounding languages (Serbo-Croatian, Romanian, and Hungarian) and long-time geographical separation from Slovakia (see the studies in Zborník Spolku vojvodinských slovakistov, e.g. Dudok, 1993).
For an external map of the three groups in Slovakia see here.
The dialect groups differ mostly in phonology, vocabulary, and tonal inflection. Syntactic differences are minor. Central Slovak forms the basis of the present-day standard language. Not all dialects are fully mutually intelligible. It may be difficult for an inhabitant of the western Slovakia to understand a dialect from eastern Slovakia and the other way around.
The dialects are fragmented geographically, separated by numerous mountain ranges. The first three groups already existed in the 10th century. All of them are spoken by the Slovaks outside Slovakia (USA, Canada, Croatian Slavonia, and elsewhere), and central and western dialects form the basis of the lowland dialects (see above).
The western dialects contain features common with the Moravian dialects in the Czech Republic, the southern central dialects contain a few features common with South Slavic languages, and the eastern dialects a few features common with Polish and the East Slavonic languages (cf. Štolc, 1994). Lowland dialects share some words and areal features with the languages surrounding them (Serbo-Croatian, Hungarian, and Romanian).
1. FC Tatran Prešov (Slovak pronunciation: [ˈtatɾam ˈpɾɛʃɔʊ̯]) is a Slovak football club based in the city of Prešov. Tatran Prešov is the oldest football team in Slovakia, founded on 25 May 1898. The club currently participates in the 2. liga. The "Green and Whites" played 32 seasons in the Czechoslovak top division. Tatran became the dark horse of Czechoslovak football in the 1960s and 1970s, but never won a title. The greatest league success was the second place in the 1965 and 1973 seasons. The club also came close in the Czechoslovak Cup, losing twice in 1966 and 1992 finals.Comenius University
Comenius University in Bratislava (Slovak: Univerzita Komenského v Bratislave) is the largest university in Slovakia, with most of its faculties located in Bratislava. It was founded in 1919, shortly after the creation of Czechoslovakia. It is named after Jan Amos Comenius, a 17th-century Czech teacher and philosopher.
In 2006, Comenius University had more than 30,000 students and 2,000 faculty members. As are most universities in Slovakia, it is funded mostly by the government. Although there have been plans to establish tuition fees for university students in Slovakia for years, another attempt failed to gain sufficient support in parliament in May 2005.Direction – Social Democracy
Direction – Social Democracy (Slovak: Smer – sociálna demokracia, Smer – SD) is a social-democratic political party in Slovakia. It is led by former Prime Minister of Slovakia Robert Fico. Smer-SD is the largest party in the National Council, with a plurality of 49 seats (out of 150) following the parliamentary Election held on 5 March 2016.Dédestapolcsány
Dédestapolcsány is a village in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county, Hungary.FK Dukla Banská Bystrica
MFK Dukla Banská Bystrica (Slovak pronunciation: [ˈdukla ˈbanskaː ˈbistɾitsa]) is a Slovak football club from the town of Banská Bystrica. The club played at the SNP Stadium. After being relegated from the Slovak 2. liga in 2017, the team ceased operations.Hlinka Guard
The Hlinka Guard (Slovak: Hlinkova garda; German: Hlinka-Garde; abbreviated as HG) was the militia maintained by the Slovak People's Party in the period from 1938 to 1945; it was named after Andrej Hlinka.The Hlinka Guard was preceded by the Rodobrana (Home Defense/Nation's Defense) organization, which existed from 1923 to 1927, when the Czechoslovak authorities ordered its dissolution. During the crisis caused by Hitler's demand for the Sudetenland (in the summer of 1938), the Hlinka Guard emerged spontaneously, and on October 8 of that year, a week after Hitler's demand had been accepted at the Munich conference, the guard was officially set up, with Karol Sidor (1901–1953) as its first commander.
The Hlinka Guard was known for its participation in the Holocaust in Slovakia; its members appropriated Jewish property and rounded up Jews for deportation in 1942. Under one of the Beneš decrees, No. 16/1945 Coll., membership of the Hlinka Guard was punishable by 5 to 20 years' imprisonment.National Council (Slovakia)
The National Council (Slovak: Národná rada), abbreviated to NR SR, is the national parliament of Slovakia. It is unicameral, and consists of 150 members, who are elected by universal suffrage under proportional representation with seats distributed via Hagenbach-Bischoff quota every four years.
Slovakia's parliament has been called the 'National Council' since 1 October 1992. From 1969 to 1992, its predecessor, the parliament of the Slovak part of Czechoslovakia, was called the Slovak National Council (Slovenská národná rada).
The National Council approves domestic legislation, constitutional laws, and the annual budget. Its consent is required to ratify international treaties, and is responsible for approving military operations. It also elects individuals to some positions in the executive and judiciary as specified by law.
The parliament building is situated on the castle hill, next to Bratislava Castle in Alexander Dubček Square.Obec
Obec (plural: obce or obcí) is the Czech and Slovak word for a municipality (in the Czech Republic, in Slovakia and abroad). The literal meaning of the word is "commune" or "community". It is the smallest administrative unit that is governed by elected representatives. Cities are also municipalities. The council is called "obecní zastupitelstvo/obecné zastupiteľstvo" or "zastupitelstvo města/mestské zastupiteľstvo" or "zastupitelstvo městyse", the office is called "obecní úřad/obecný úrad" or "úřad města/mestský úrad" or "úřad městyse". An obec can have its own flag and coat of arms and is composed of one or more cadastral areas ("katastrální území/katastrálne územia"). An obec can have several settlements or parts whether villages or hamlets.Perkupa
Perkupa is a village in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county, Hungary.President of Slovakia
The President of the Slovak Republic (Slovak: Prezident Slovenskej republiky) is the head of state of Slovakia and the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces. The president is directly elected by the people for five years, and can be elected for a maximum of two consecutive terms. The presidency is largely a ceremonial office, but the president does exercise certain limited powers with absolute discretion. The president's official residence is the Grassalkovich Palace in Bratislava.Prešov Region
The Prešov Region (Slovak: Prešovský kraj, pronounced [ˈprɛʃɔʊ̯skiː ˈkraj], Polish: Kraj preszowski, Ukrainian: Пряшівський край) is one of the eight Slovak administrative regions and consists of 13 districts (okresy) and 666 municipalities, from which 23 have a town status. The region was established in 1996 and is the most populous of all the regions in the country. Its administrative center is the city of Prešov.Progressive Slovakia
Progressive Slovakia (Slovak: Progresívne Slovensko) is a social-liberal, progressive and pro-European political party in Slovakia. It was established in 2017.Rakaca
Rakaca is a village in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county, Hungary.Slovak Braille
Slovak Braille is the braille alphabet of the Slovak language. Like braille for other languages using the Latin script, Slovak Braille assigns the 25 basic Latin letters the same as Louis Braille's original assignments for French Braille.Slovaks
The Slovaks (or Slovakians) (Slovak: Slováci, singular Slovák, feminine Slovenka, plural Slovenky) are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Slovakia who share a common ancestry, culture, history and speak the Slovak language.
In Slovakia, c. 4.4 million are ethnic Slovaks of 5.4 million total population. There are Slovak minorities in Czech Republic, Croatia, Poland, Hungary, Serbia and sizeable populations of immigrants and their descendants in the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom, collectively referred to as the Slovak diaspora.The Quietus
The Quietus is a British online music and pop culture magazine, focusing on arts news, reviews, and features. The site is an editorially independent publication led by John Doran and a group of freelance journalists and critics, some of whom have worked for other media outlets.Tisza
The Tisza or Tisa is one of the main rivers of Central and Eastern Europe. Once, it was called "the most Hungarian river" because it flowed entirely within the Kingdom of Hungary. Today, it crosses several national borders.
The Tisza begins near Rakhiv in Ukraine, at the confluence of the White Tisa and Black Tisa (the former springs in the Chornohora mountains; the latter in the Gorgany range). From there, the Tisza flows west, roughly following Ukraine's borders with Romania and Hungary, then into Hungary, and finally into Serbia. It enters Hungary at Tiszabecs. It traverses Hungary from north to south. A few kilometers south of the Hungarian city of Szeged, it enters Serbia. Finally, it joins the Danube near the village of Stari Slankamen in Vojvodina, Serbia.
The Tisza drains an area of about 156,087 km2 (60,266 sq mi) and has a length of 1,419 km (882 mi)— seco Its mean annual discharge is 792 m3/s (28,000 cu ft/s). It contributes about 13% of the Danube's total runoff.Attila the Hun is said to have been buried under a diverted section of the river Tisza.Veszprém
Veszprém (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈvɛspreːm]; German: Weißbrunn, Slovene: Belomost) is one of the oldest urban areas in Hungary, and a city with county rights. It lies approximately 15 km (9 mi) north of the Lake Balaton. It is the administrative center of the county (comitatus or 'megye') of the same name.Zvolen
Zvolen (pronounced [ˈzʋɔlɛn] (listen); Hungarian: Zólyom; German: Altsohl) is a town in central Slovakia, situated on the confluence of Hron and Slatina rivers, close to Banská Bystrica. It is a seat of an okres (Zvolen District).
See also: Minority languages of Czech Republic