Slovak koruna

The Slovak koruna or Slovak crown (Slovak: slovenská koruna, literally meaning Slovak crown) was the currency of Slovakia between 8 February 1993 and 31 December 2008, and could be used for cash payment until 16 January 2009. The ISO 4217 code was SKK and the local abbreviation was Sk. The Slovak crown (koruna) was also the currency of the Nazi-era Slovak Republic between 1939 and 1945. Both korunas were subdivided into 100 haliers (abbreviated as "hal." or simply "h", singular: halier). The abbreviation is placed after the numeric value.

Slovakia switched its currency from the koruna to the euro on 1 January 2009, at a rate of 30.1260 korunas per euro.

In the Slovak language, the nouns "koruna" and "halier" both assume two plural forms. "Koruny"[1] and "haliere" appears after the numbers 2, 3 and 4 and in generic (uncountable) context, with "korún" and "halierov" being used after other numbers. The latter forms also correspond to genitive use in plural.

Slovak koruna
slovenská koruna (Slovak)
Slovakcoinssecondrepublic 500sk hlava
Coins500 Sk
ISO 4217
CodeSKK
Denominations
Subunit
 1/100halier
PluralThe language(s) of this currency belong(s) to the Slavic languages. There is more than one way to construct plural forms.
SymbolSk
 halierh
Banknotes20 Sk, 50 Sk, 100 Sk, 200 Sk, 500 Sk, 1000 Sk, 5000 Sk
Coins50 h, 1 Sk, 2 Sk, 5 Sk, 10 Sk
Demographics
User(s)None, previously:
 Slovakia
Issuance
Central bankNational Bank of Slovakia
 Websitewww.nbs.sk
Valuation
Inflation3.5%, December 2008
ERM
 Since28 November 2005
 Replaced by €, cash1 January 2009 (cash payments possible until 16 January 2009)
=30.1260 Sk1
 Band15%
This infobox shows the latest status before this currency was rendered obsolete.
1 The rate has changed twice. See article for details.

Koruna of 1939–1945

The koruna (Slovak: koruna slovenská, note the different word ordering from the modern koruna) was the currency of the Slovak Republic from 1939 to 1945. The Slovak koruna replaced the Czechoslovak koruna at par and was replaced by the reconstituted Czechoslovak koruna, again at par. Its abbreviation was Kčs.

Initially, the Slovak koruna was at par with the Bohemian and Moravian koruna, with 10 korunas = 1 Reichsmark. It was devalued, on 1 October 1940, to a rate of 11.62 Slovak korunas to one Reichsmark, while the value of the Bohemian and Moravian currency remained unchanged against the Reichsmark.

Coins

In 1939, coins were introduced in denominations of 10 halierov, 5 and 20 korunas, with 20 and 50 haliers and 1 koruna added in 1940. The 10 and 20 haliers were bronze, the 50 haliers and 1 koruna cupronickel, the 5 korunas nickel and the 20 korunas were silver. In 1942, zinc 5 haliers were introduced and aluminium replaced bronze in the 20 haliers. Aluminium 50 haliers followed in 1943. Silver 10 and 50 korunas were introduced in 1944.

Compared to the pre-war Czechoslovak koruna, the Slovak koruna coins had an additional 50 Ks, the silver content of the 10 and 20 Ks coins was reduced from 700 to 500 ‰ and all but 5 Ks shrank in physical sizes. The designers were Anton Hám, Andrej Peter, Gejza Angyal, Ladislav Majerský and František Štefunko. Coins were minted in the Kremnica mint.

Banknotes

In 1939, Czechoslovak notes for 100, 500 and 1000 korún were issued with SLOVENSKÝ ŠTÁT overprinted on them for use in Slovakia. That year also saw the introduction of 10 and 20 koruna notes by the government.

Modern koruna

In 1993, the newly independent Slovakia introduced its own koruna, replacing the Czechoslovak koruna at par.

Coins

Svk-10 hal-01
Svk-20 hal-01
SK 50h93 a
SK 50h96 a
SK 1k93 a
SK 2k93 a
SK 5k93 a
SK 10k93 a

In 1993, coins were introduced in denominations of 10, 20 and 50 haliers, 1, 2, 5 and 10 korunas. The 10- and 20-halier coins were taken out of circulation on 31 December 2003.In 1996 the 50-halier coin was made smaller and instead of aluminium it was made with copper plated steel.

The obverse of the coins feature the coat of arms of Slovakia, with motifs from Slovak history on the reverses.

  • 10 halierov (silver-coloured) – Octagonal wooden belfry from Zemplín (early 19th century) = €0.0033
  • 20 halierov (silver-coloured) – the Kriváň peak in the High Tatras = €0.0066
  • 50 halierov (copper-coloured) – Renaissance polygonal tower of Devín Castle = €0.0166
  • 1 koruna (copper-coloured) – Gothic wooden sculpture of the Madonna with child (c. 1500) = €0.0332
  • 2 koruny (silver-coloured) – Earthen sculpture of the sitting Venus of Hradok (4th millennium BC) = €0.0664
  • 5 korún (silver-coloured) – Reverse of a Celtic coin of Biatec (1st century BC) = €0.166
  • 10 korún (copper-coloured) – Bronze cross (11th century A.D.) = €0.332


Coins were exchangeable for euros at the National Bank of Slovakia until January 2, 2014.

Banknotes

At midnight on 31 December 1992, the Czechoslovak Republic bifurcated into the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic. In 1993, the newly independent Slovakia introduced its own koruna, replacing the Czechoslovak koruna at par. Provisional banknotes were issued in denominations of 20, 50, 100, 500, and 1,000 korún by affixing stamps bearing the coat of arms of Slovakia and the denomination to Czechoslovak banknotes.[2] The main motifs on the obverses of the banknotes represent important people living in the territory of the present Slovakia in various historical eras. On the reverses, these motifs are completed by depicting places where these people lived and were active.

Denomination Dimensions
(millimetres)
Value in euros (€) Image Main colour Obverse Reverse Remark
20 korún 128 x 65 €0.66
SKK20 obverse
SKK20 reverse
Green Prince Pribina Nitra/Neutra Castle
50 korún 134 x 68 €1.66
50 korunova bankovka Slovenskej republiky
Rubova strana 50 korunovej bankovky Slovenskej republiky
Blue Saints Cyril and Methodius Dražovce church and the first seven letters of the Glagolitic alphabet
100 korún 140 x 71 €3.32
SKK100 obverse
SKK100 reverse
Red Madonna at Levoča church St. Jacob's church in Levoča/Leutschau and city hall
200 korún 146 x 74 €6.64
200 korunova bankovka Slovenska republika
Rubova strana 200 korunovej bankovky Slovenska republika
Turquoise Anton Bernolák (1762 – 1813), linguist and Catholic priest Trnava in the 18th century Introduced in 1995
500 korún 152 x 77 €16.60
500sk hlava
500sk spod
Brown Ľudovít Štúr (1815 – 1856), leader of the Slovak national revival Bratislava Castle and St. Michaels church
1000 korún 158 x 80 €33.19
1000 KS lic
1000 KS rub
Purple Andrej Hlinka (1864 – 1938), politician and Catholic priest Madonna of Liptovké Sliace/Liptau church; St. Andrew's church in Ružomberok
5000 korún 164 x 82 €165.97
5000sk hlava
5000sk spod
Orange Milan Rastislav Štefánik (1880 – 1919), politician and diplomat Stefanik's grave on Bradlo Hill: Ursa Major constellation Introduced in 1994
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Slovak banknotes denominated in koruny can be exchanged for euros indefinitely.

Historical exchange rates

Euro exchange rate to SKK
Historical exchange rates from 1999

The graph shows the value of the euro in korunas from 1999 to December 2008. As may be seen, the currency strengthened as Slovakia's economy did. The koruna joined the ERM II on 28 November 2005 at the rate of € = 38.4550 Sk with a 15% band.[3][4] On 17 March 2007, this rate was readjusted to 35.4424 Sk with the same band, an 8.5% increase in the value of the koruna.[5] On the same day, 1 euro traded at 33.959 Sk. The central rate of koruna was then adjusted once more on 28 May 2008 to 23.8545 with no change in the band.[6]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ CIA - The World Factbook -- Slovakia. 15 May 2007; accessed 19 May 2007.
  2. ^ Linzmayer, Owen (2012). "Slovakia". The Banknote Book. San Francisco, CA: www.BanknoteNews.com.
  3. ^ "Slovak Koruna Included in the ERM II". National Bank of Slovakia. 2005-11-28. Archived from the original on 2006-10-02. Retrieved 2007-03-17.
  4. ^ European Commission. "Exchange Rate Mechanism II (ERM II)". Retrieved 2007-03-17.
  5. ^ Radoslav Tomek & Meera Louis (2007-03-17). "Slovakia, EU Raise Koruna's Central Rate After Appreciation". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2007-03-17.
  6. ^ Radoslav Tomek & Meera Louis (2008-05-28). "Slovakia Wins EU Approval to Let Koruna Strengthen". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2008-05-29.

References

  • Krause, Chester L.; Clifford Mishler (1991). Standard Catalog of World Coins: 1801–1991 (18th ed.). Krause Publications. ISBN 0873411501.
  • Pick, Albert (1994). Standard Catalog of World Paper Money: General Issues. Colin R. Bruce II and Neil Shafer (editors) (7th ed.). Krause Publications. ISBN 0-87341-207-9.
  • Biľak, M. - Jízdný, M. (1988). Zberatelský katalóg mincí Československa. Československá Numizmatická Spoločnosť, Pobočka Košice.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)

External links

Preceded by:
Czechoslovak koruna
Reason: independence
Ratio: at par
Currency of Slovakia
1939 – 1945
Succeeded by:
Czechoslovak koruna
Reason: restoration of Czechoslovakia
Ratio: ?
Preceded by:
Czechoslovak koruna
Reason: independence
Ratio: at par
Currency of Slovakia
1993 – 2009
Succeeded by:
Euro
Reason: entry into Eurozone
Ratio: 1 EUR = 30.1260 SKK
Austro-Hungarian krone

The Krone or korona (German: Krone, Hungarian and Polish korona, Slovene: krona, Serbo-Croatian: kruna, Czech and Slovak: koruna) was the official currency of the Austro-Hungarian Empire from 1892 (when it replaced the gulden, forint, florén or zlatka as part of the adoption of the gold standard) until the dissolution of the empire in 1918. The subunit was one hundredth of the main unit, and was called a Heller in the Austrian and a fillér (or halier in Slovak and haléř in Czech) in the Hungarian part of the Empire.

Banknotes of the Slovak koruna (1939-45)

In 1939, Czechoslovak notes for 100, 500 and 1000 korún of Czechoslovak koruna were issued with SLOVENSKÝ ŠTÁT overprinting stambs for use in the Slovak Republic. That year also were introduced first banknotes of Slovak koruna, 10 and 20 koruna notes by the government.

Bohemian and Moravian koruna

The Bohemian and Moravian koruna, known as the Protectorate crown (in Czech: Protektorátní koruna), was the currency of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia between 1939 and 1945. It was subdivided into 100 haléřů.

Coins of the Slovak koruna (1939–45)

The coins of the World War II Slovak koruna (slovak: koruna slovenská) were the first coins ever minted by a Slovak state. These coins were minted in the Kremnica mint, once the common state mint of the whole Czechoslovak state. Coins carried not only monetary but also propaganda function: they showed the symbols of the Slovak nation and the just born independent Slovak state. Lower denominations were made of base metals, while those above 5 Ks contained silver.

Crown (currency)

The crown is a currency used in the countries of Czech Republic, Denmark (including the territories of Faroe Islands and Greenland), Iceland, Norway and Sweden.

Currencies of the European Union

There are eleven currencies of the European Union as of 2018 used officially by member states. The euro accounts for the majority of the member states with the remainder operating independent monetary policies. Those European Union states that have adopted it are known as the eurozone and share the European Central Bank (ECB). The ECB and the national central banks of all EU countries, including those who operate an independent currency, are part of the European System of Central Banks.

Czech koruna

The koruna (sign: Kč; code: CZK) is the currency of the Czech Republic since 1993, and in English it is sometimes referred to as Czech crown or Czech krone. The koruna is one of European Union's 11 currencies, and the Czech Republic is legally bound to adopt the euro currency in the future.

The official name in Czech is koruna česká (plural koruny české, though the zero-grade genitive plural form korun českých is used on banknotes and coins of value 5 Kč or higher). The ISO 4217 code is CZK and the local acronym is Kč, which is placed after the numeric value (e.g., "50 Kč") or sometimes before it (as is seen on the 10-koruna coin). One koruna equals 100 haléřů (abbreviated as "h", singular: haléř, nominative plural: haléře, genitive plural: haléřů – used with numbers higher or equal to 5 – e.g. 3 haléře, 8 haléřů), but haléře have been withdrawn, and the smallest unit of physical currency is 1 Kč.

Czechoslovak koruna

The Czechoslovak koruna (in Czech and Slovak: Koruna československá, at times Koruna česko-slovenská; koruna means crown) was the currency of Czechoslovakia from April 10, 1919, to March 14, 1939, and from November 1, 1945, to February 7, 1993. For a brief time in 1939 and again in 1993, it was also the currency in separate Czech and Slovak republics.

On February 8, 1993, it was replaced by the Czech koruna and the Slovak koruna, both at par.

The (last) ISO 4217 code and the local abbreviations for the koruna were CSK and Kčs. One koruna equalled 100 haléřů (Czech, singular: haléř) or halierov (Slovak, singular: halier). In both languages, the abbreviation h was used. The abbreviation was placed behind the numeric value.

Euro calculator

A euro calculator is a very popular type of calculator in European countries (see eurozone) that adopted the euro as their official monetary unit. It functions like any other normal calculator, but it also includes a special function which allows one to convert a value expressed in the previously official unit (the peseta in Spain, for example) to the new value in euros, or vice versa. Its use became very popular within the population and commerce of these countries especially during the first few months after adopting the euro.

As so many were produced, they are also found outside the eurozone to help staff with conversions at airports or railway stations where the euro has a strong presence.

Europa coin programme

The Europa Coin Programme, also known as the European Silver Programme, or the Eurostar Programme, is an initiative dedicated to the issuance of collector-oriented legal tender coins in precious metals to celebrate European identity. The issuing authorities of EU member countries voluntarily contribute coins to the Europa Coin Programme. Multiple countries have participated in the programme, beginning in 2004. Some coins are denominated in euro, others are denominated in other currencies. Europa coins are legal tender.

European Exchange Rate Mechanism

The European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) was a system introduced by the European Economic Community on 13 March 1979, as part of the European Monetary System (EMS), to reduce exchange rate variability and achieve monetary stability in Europe, in preparation for Economic and Monetary Union and the introduction of a single currency, the euro, which took place on 1 January 1999.

After the adoption of the euro, policy changed to linking currencies of EU countries outside the eurozone to the euro (having the common currency as a central point). The goal was to improve the stability of those currencies, as well as to gain an evaluation mechanism for potential eurozone members. This mechanism is known as ERM II and has superseded ERM. Currently there is just one currency in the ERM II, the Danish krone.

Heller (money)

The Heller or Häller , originally a German coin valued at half a pfennig, took its name from the city of Hall am Kocher (today Schwäbisch Hall).

Mints produced the coin from the beginning of the 13th century, based on a previously produced silver pfennig (Häller Pfennig, sometimes called Händelheller for its depiction of a hand on the front face), but its composition deteriorated with the mixing in copper little by little so that it was no longer considered to be a silver coin. There were red, white and black Hellers. Beginning in the Middle Ages it became a symbol of low worth, and a common German byword is "keinen (roten) Heller wert", lit.: not worth a (red) Heller, or "not worth a red cent".

The term Heller came into wide use as a name for coins of small value throughout many of the German states up to 1873 when, after German unification, Bismarck's administration introduced the Mark and the pfennig as coinage throughout the German Empire.

The German Heller saw a resurrection in 1904 when the government took over responsibility for the currency of German East Africa from the German East Africa Company. The Heller was introduced as 1/100 of a rupie instead of the pesa which had so far been a 1/64 of a rupie.

In Austria-Hungary, Heller was also the term used in the Austrian half of the empire for 1/100 of the Austro-Hungarian krone (the other being fillér in the Hungarian half), the currency from 1892 until after the demise (1918) of the Empire.

The term heller (Czech: haléř, Slovak: halier) was also used for a coin valued at 1/100 of a koruna (crown) in the Czech Republic (Czech koruna) and Slovakia (Slovak koruna), as well as in former Czechoslovakia (Czechoslovak koruna).

Only the currency of the Czech Republic continues to use Hellers (haléře), although they survive only as a means of calculation — the Czech National Bank removed the coins themselves from circulation in 2008 and notionally replaced them with rounding to the next koruna.

In the 1920s the "Heller" currency was expanded to greater denominations in the German territories and printed bills were produced to represent their value for trade.

Kotleba – People's Party Our Slovakia

The People's Party – Our Slovakia (Slovak: Ľudová strana – Naše Slovensko, ĽSNS), since November 2015 officially known as Kotleba – People's Party Our Slovakia (Slovak: Kotleba – Ľudová strana Naše Slovensko), is a far-right national populist neo-Nazi political party in Slovakia. The party declares that it builds on the legacy of Ľudovít Štúr, Andrej Hlinka and Jozef Tiso.The party's platform includes anti-Roma rhetoric, immigration control, Christian morality, paternalism on economic issues, interest-free national loans, replacement of the euro currency with the Slovak koruna, law and order, rejection of the idea of same-sex civil unions, and criticism of the country's current leadership and foreign policy. The party proposes to reduce the number of parliamentarians from 150 to 100 members, to widen freedom of speech, to establish a home guard, and to withdraw the Slovak military from missions abroad. Moreover, it wants Slovakia to leave the European Union, European Monetary Union and NATO.

Krona

Krona may refer to:

In monetary units, where krona and its variants mean crown:

Austro-Hungarian krone

Czech koruna

Czechoslovak koruna

Danish krone

Estonian kroon

Faroese króna

Icelandic króna

Norwegian krone

Slovak koruna

Swedish krona

Yugoslav kroneOther:

Krona (comics), alien villain in DC Comics

Charlotte Krona (born 1978), Swedish model and violinist

Krona, or Crona, character in Soul Eater (manga)

Krona space object recognition station, Russian military satellite detection station in Zelenchukskaya

Krona-N the second Krona satellite detection station, in Nakhodka

SKK

SKK can refer to:

Slovak koruna, former Slovak currency

Shaktoolik Airport SKK

Shaolin Kempo Karate, a martial art

SKK Kotwica Kołobrzeg, Polish basketball team

SKK Lighting company by Shiu-Kay Kan

ja:SKK,Simple Kana to Kanji conversion program

Slovak euro coins

The Slovak euro coins are the European monetary union euro coins issued by Slovakia since 2009. They feature three separate designs for the three series of coins.

Slovakia has been a member of the European Union since May 2004, and is a member of the European Economic and Monetary Union. Slovakia adopted the euro on 1 January 2009, replacing its previous currency, the Slovak koruna.

Twin City (Bratislava)

Twin City, the biggest regeneration project in Central Europe started in Bratislava in 2011. Its goal is to build a multifunctional complex (culture, entertainment, commercial, business, residence, accommodation and transport). Twin City is located at the border of the Old Town and Ružinov districts. The cost of the investment is approximately 17 billion Slovak koruna (about € 500 million).

A 22-floor high-rise building will be the dominant object of the complex (92 metres in height). The original study assumed 42 floors and 170 metres in height but the change was incorporated after public negotiations. A new central bus station will be a part of the complex.

The investment is expected to be completed by 2019.

{{{flag_image_alt}}} Historical currencies of the Czech Republic and Slovakia Flag of Slovakia.svg
Currency units named crown or similar
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Obsolete
Proposed
As a denomination
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General
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Fiscal provisions
History
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Potential adoption by
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