Slough (/slaʊ/ (listen)) is a large town in Berkshire, England, 20 miles (32 km) west of central London and 17 miles (27 km) north-east of Reading, in the Thames Valley at the intersection of the M4, M40 and M25 motorways. Slough had a population of 164,000 in 2017.
Slough's population is one of the most ethnically diverse in the United Kingdom, attracting people from across the country and the world for labour since the 1920s, which has helped shape it into a major trading centre. In 2017, unemployment stood at 1.4%, one-third the UK average of 4.5%.
Slough has the highest concentration of global corporate HQs outside London. Slough Trading Estate is the largest industrial estate in single private ownership in Europe with over 17,000 jobs in 400 businesses. Blackberry, McAfee, Burger King and Lego have head offices in the town.
Borough of Slough
Shown within Berkshire
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Region||South East England|
(including town centre)
(part of east of town)
|Incorporated||1 April 1974|
|Admin HQ||Bath Road, Slough|
|• Type||Unitary authority|
|• Body||Slough Borough Council|
|• Leadership||Leader & Cabinet (Labour)|
|• MPs||Tanmanjeet Singh Dhesi|
|• Total||12.56 sq mi (32.54 km2)|
|Area rank||297th (of 317)|
|• Rank||138th (of 317)|
|• Density||13,000/sq mi (5,000/km2)|
|• Ethnicity||45.7% White|
39.7% Asian or British Asian
8.6% Black or Black British
3.4% Mixed Race
|Time zone||UTC0 (GMT)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+1 (BST)|
|ONS code||00MD (ONS) E06000039 (GSS)|
|OS grid reference|
The name, which means "soil", was first recorded in 1195 as Slo. It first seems to have applied to a hamlet between Upton to the east and Chalvey to the west, roughly around the "Crown Crossroads" where the road to Windsor (now the A332) met the Great West Road. The Domesday Survey of 1086 refers to Upton, and a wood for 200 pigs, worth £15. During the 13th century, King Henry III had a palace at Cippenham. Parts of Upton Court were built in 1325, while St Mary the Virgin Church in Langley was probably built in the late 11th or early 12th century, though it has been rebuilt and enlarged several times.
From the mid-17th century, stagecoaches began to pass through Slough and Salt Hill, which became locations for the second stage to change horses on the journey out from London. By 1838 and the opening of the Great Western Railway, Upton-cum-Chalvey's parish population had reached 1,502. In 1849, a branch line was completed from Slough to Windsor & Eton Central, opposite Windsor Castle, for Queen Victoria's convenience.
1918 saw a large area of agricultural land to the west of Slough developed as an army motor repair depot, used to store and repair huge numbers of motor vehicles coming back from the battlefields of the First World War in Flanders. In April 1920, the Government sold the site and its contents to the Slough Trading Co. Ltd. Repair of ex-army vehicles continued until 1925, when the Slough Trading Company Act was passed allowing the company (renamed Slough Estates Ltd) to establish an industrial estate. Spectacular growth and employment ensued, with Slough attracting workers from many parts of the UK and abroad.
During the Second World War, Slough experienced a series of air raids, mostly in October 1940 (the largest number of people, five, dying as a result of one on the 13th), and an emergency hospital treating casualties from London was set up in Slough. Local air raid deaths and deaths at the hospital account for the 23 civilian lives recorded lost in the borough area.
After the war, several further large housing developments arose to take large numbers of people migrating from war-damaged London. Between 1955 and 1957 the town was the site of the Slough experiment, a large-scale road safety trial.
In the 21st century, Slough has seen major redevelopment of the town centre. Old buildings are being replaced with new offices and shopping complexes. Tesco has replaced an existing superstore with a larger Tesco Extra. The Heart of Slough Project is a plan for the large-scale redevelopment of the town centre as a focus and cultural quarter for the creative media, information and communications industries. It will create a mixed-use complex, multi-functional buildings, visual landmarks and a public space in the Thames Valley. Recommendations for the £400 million project have been approved, and planning approval was given by Slough Borough Council's planning committee on 9 July 2009. Work began in 2010 for completion in 2018.
In December 2009, two key components of the project were signed: the Homes and Communities Agency (HCA) signed its agreement to provide £11m of funding for infrastructure and Thames Valley University (TVU) courses which are due to remain in the town have found a new home at the Centre in Farnham Road, Slough. In parallel to the town centre redevelopment plan, Segro (owner of the Slough Trading Estate) plans to spend £600 million over the next 20 years on the trading estate. This is intended to create environmentally sustainable buildings, open green spaces, two hotels, a conference centre, cafés, restaurants and better transport facilities to improve links to Slough town centre and the surrounding residential areas. It is claimed that the plan will create more than 4,100 new jobs and contribute around £100m a year to Slough's economy. If both plans go ahead in their current forms, nearly £1 billion will be spent on redeveloping Slough over the next 20 years.
Herschel Park (known as Upton Park until 1949), named for astronomer William Herschel, is currently being relandscaped in a multimillion-pound effort to bring it back to its former Victorian era glory. The park was featured in an episode of the documentary programme Who Do You Think You Are? focusing on the TV presenter Davina McCall.
In 2010, £2 million was set aside to improve disabled access to Slough railway station in preparation for an expected increase in use during the 2012 London Olympics. Preparations were under way for the regeneration of the Britwell suburb of Slough, involving tearing down a dilapidated block of flats and the closing of the public house the Jolly Londoner in Wentworth Avenue and replacing them with new homes, as well as relocating the shopping parade in the street to nearby Kennedy Park. As part of the Heart of Slough project, construction work on a new bus station began in March 2010 following weeks of demolition work to half of the existing bus station and the removal of Compair House near the railway station; it was expected to be completed by January 2011 and was opened in May 2011, 5 months behind schedule.
Redevelopment on this scale has been strongly criticised by conservation groups. The Twentieth Century Society has stated that
"[A] tragically high quantity of good buildings have been demolished in Slough in recent years, including grand Art-Deco-styled factories by the likes of Wallis Gilbert and high-quality post-war offices. More are to come down as the town tries to erase its past and reinvent itself from scratch. Despite famously heckling Slough, John Betjeman's praise for the town hall's architecture as 'a striving for unity out of chaos' in 1948 has never been so relevant as today. C20 believes that the redevelopment of the town hall would be an act of vandalism to the civic centre and is supporting the Campaign to Save Slough's Heritage in their request for a review of the decision."
Slough is 20 miles (32 km) west of Charing Cross, central London, 2 miles (3 km) north of Windsor, 5 miles (8 km) east of Maidenhead, 11 miles (18 km) south-east of High Wycombe and 17 miles (27 km) north-east of the county town of Reading. It is within the Greater London Urban Area. Other nearby towns are Uxbridge to the northeast and Beaconsfield to the north.
Most of the area that now makes up Slough was anciently part of Buckinghamshire. The town developed by the expansion and amalgamation of villages along the Great West Road. Over the years Slough has expanded greatly, incorporating a number of different villages. Original villages that are now suburbs of Slough include Chalvey, Cippenham, Colnbrook, Langley, Poyle, Upton, and Wexham.
Named neighbourhoods include Brands Hill, Britwell, Huntercombe, Manor Park, Salt Hill, Upton Lea and Windsor Meadows. The urban area merges into the neighbouring parishes of Burnham, a small area of Taplow near Cippenham, Farnham Royal and Stoke Poges which remain in the county of Buckinghamshire and Datchet which is also in Berkshire. Eton is narrowly buffered by the Jubilee River and by green space (mainly the college playing fields) from part of Slough, and the two areas formerly formed the Eton birth, marriages and deaths registration district.
The nearest Met Office weather observing station to Slough is Heathrow Airport, about 5 miles (8 km) east of Slough town centre. This part of the Thames Valley is notable for generally having the warmest daytime summer temperatures on average in the British Isles. Typically, according to 1981–2010 normals, the average high temperature in July is 23.5 °C (74.3 °F.)
Rainfall is low compared to most of the British Isles, with under 600 mm (23.62 in) annually, and 105 days reporting over 1 mm of rain.
According to the 2011 census, 45.7% of the population was white (34.5% white British, 1.1% white Irish, 0.2% gypsy or Irish Traveller, 9.9% other white), 3.4% of mixed race (1.2% white and black Caribbean, 0.4% white and black African, 1.0% white and Asian, 0.8% other mixed), 39.7% Asian (17.7% Pakistani, 15.6% Indian, 0.4% Bangladeshi, 0.6% Chinese, 5.4% other Asian), 8.6% black (5.4% African, 2.2% Caribbean, 1.0% other black), 0.7% Arab and 1.9% of other ethnic heritage. In the post-war years, immigrants from the Commonwealth, notably Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, India and Pakistan came to the town.
In the early 1950s, there were a number of Polish refugee camps scattered around the Slough area. As returning to Poland (then in the Soviet Bloc) was not considered an option by many of the wartime refugees, many Polish families decided to settle in Slough. In time, a Polish-speaking Roman Catholic parish was established with its own church building. A new wave of Polish migration to Slough has followed since Poland became part of the European Union.
Slough Council elected the country's first black female mayor, Lydia Simmons, in 1984.
Figures from the 2011 census showed that 41.2% of Slough's population identified as Christian, 23.3% as Muslim, 10.6% as Sikh, 6.2% as Hindu, 0.5% as Buddhist, 0.1% as Jewish, 0.3% as having other religions, 12.1% as having no religion and 5.7% did not answer the question. Slough has the highest percentage of Sikh residents in the country according to the census figures. Slough also has the highest percentage of Muslim and Hindu residents in the South East region.
|Country of birth||Number resident|
In July 2007 Slough was the subject of a documentary by the BBC's Panorama series, entitled "Immigration – how we lost count". The programme highlighted Slough and other affordable towns close to London had a much greater rise in the EU immigrant population than had been nationally predicted and for which resources had been allocated. The programme found certain public services failing to deliver to expected standards and with large groups selecting a small area in which to live, an increase in overcrowding.
In 1863, Slough became a local government area when a Slough Local Board of Health was elected to represent what is now the central part of the modern Borough. This part of Upton-cum-Chalvey Civil Parish became Slough Urban Sanitary District in 1875. The functions of these two bodies were strengthened in 1894, when Slough Urban District was created, Buckinghamshire County Council having been created in the previous decade. In 1930, there was a major extension westward of the Urban District, and the area was divided into electoral wards for the first time (the new areas of Burnham (Beeches), Farnham (Royal) and Stoke (Poges) (commonly used suffixes) as well as the divisions of the old district Central, Chalvey, Langley and Upton). In 1938, the town became a Municipal Borough by Royal Charter.
Slough was transferred to Berkshire in the 1974 local government reorganisation. The old Municipal Borough was abolished and not deemed part of an urban conglomeration, replaced by a non-city type second-tier authority (Non-metropolitan district), which was however made a Borough by the town's second Royal Charter. Britwell and Wexham Court became part of Slough at this time, with their civil parish councils. On 1 April 1995, the Borough of Slough expanded slightly into Buckinghamshire and Surrey, to take in Colnbrook and Poyle and merged their civil parish councils.
Slough became a unitary authority, on 1 April 1998. This coincided with the abolition of Berkshire County Council and the dissolution of its Borough Status received under its second Royal Charter. However, to enable the continued use of the word Borough, as in some other parts of Berkshire, Slough received its third Royal Charter in 1998.
Since 2015, Slough has had a Youth Parliament to represent the views of younger people.
Slough is twinned with:
Before the 19th century, the main businesses of Slough were brickfields and agriculture. The bricks for the building of Eton College were made in Slough. Later, as the Great West Road traffic increased, inns and pubs sprang up along the road to service the passing trade. Until the town developed as an industrial area, nurseries were prominent in the local economy; the Cox's Orange Pippin apple was first raised in Colnbrook (not then within Slough) around 1825, and the dianthus "Mrs Sinkins Pink" was first raised at some point between 1868 and 1883 by John Sinkins, the master of the Eton Union Workhouse, which lay in Slough.
In the mid-19th century, the only major employer apart from the brickfields was James Elliman, who started as a draper in Chandos Street. In 1847, he changed business and manufactured his Elliman's Embrocation and Royal Embrocation horse liniment at factories in Wellington Street and Chandos Street. Elliman became a major benefactor to the town, and is remembered today in the names of local roads and schools.
In September 1851, William Thomas Buckland, an auctioneer and surveyor from nearby Wraysbury, began livestock sales in a field near the Great Western Road Railway Station belonging to the North Star Inn. Originally held on the first Tuesday of every month, the Cattle Market's popularity soon saw this increased to every Tuesday. A move to Wexham Street was necessitated by the postwar redevelopment of the town. The Slough Cattle Market was run by Messrs Buckland and Sons until its final closure in 1988.
In 1906, James Horlick, one of the eponymous founders of the malted milk company, opened a purpose-built red-brick factory near Slough Railway Station to manufacture his malted milk product. In 2015, the business was sold by Glaxo Smith Kline and in 2017, manufacturing at the site ceased altogether. The site is currently proposed to become residential making use of the original buildings as much as possible.
Starting in the 1920s, Slough Estates Ltd, the operator of the original Slough Trading Estate, created and operated many more estates in the UK and abroad. The Slough Trading Estate meant that the town was largely insulated from many of the effects of recession. For many years, Slough's economy was mainly manufacturing-based.
In the last 20 or so years, there has been a major shift from a manufacturing to an information-based economy, with the closure of many factories (some of which had been in Slough for many decades). The factories are rapidly being replaced by office buildings. Hundreds of major companies have sited in Slough Trading Estate over the years, with its proximity to London Heathrow Airport and good motorway connections being attractive. In the 1960s, Gerry Anderson's film company was based in Slough, and his Supermarionation series, including Thunderbirds, were filmed there.
The UK headquarters of Mars, Incorporated is in Slough, the main factory having been established in 1932 by Forrest Mars Sr. and Frank C. Mars. It produced the Mars Bar in Slough over 70 years ago. One of the Mars factories has been demolished and some production has moved to the Czech Republic. The European head offices of major IT companies such as BlackBerry, McAfee, Computer Associates, PictureTel and Compusys (among others) are all in the town. O2 is headquartered in the town across four buildings. The town is also home to the business support organisation Thames Valley Chamber of Commerce Group and National Foundation for Educational Research, which is housed in the Mere.
The motor trade has long been represented in Slough. Until 1966, Citroën assembled cars in a Liverpool Road factory (later used by Mars Confectionery), and it retains its UK headquarters in the town. Ford built D Series and Cargo lorries at its factory in Langley (a former Hawker Aircraft site) from 1936 to the 1950s) until the site was redeveloped for housing in the 1990s. Ferrari, Mercedes, Fiat and Maserati now have offices in the town.
Slough had the second highest property price growth nationally in 2016.
Slough is near London, Heathrow Airport, Uxbridge, Maidenhead and Staines and the town is a travel hub. Many people from Slough work in nearby towns and cities such as Windsor, Reading, London and Bracknell, and there are large passenger movements in the morning and evening rush hours. Road transport in Slough includes:
Slough is served by Great Western Railway stations at Burnham, Slough and Langley. Slough station is a junction between the Great Western Main Line and the Slough to Windsor & Eton Line to allow passengers to connect for Windsor & Eton Central.
Reading: Great Western Railway operate services to Reading every half an hour which take 20 minutes.
London Paddington: Great Western Railway operate express services to London every half an hour which take 17 minutes.
The Western Rail Approach to Heathrow is a £500m rail project announced by the Department for Transport; Network Rail announced the route in 2014. It will directly serve Slough with four trains every hour, reducing travel times to Heathrow to six minutes. It is expected to be operational in the early 2020s.
National Cycle Network route 61 runs through central Slough. A Smoove bike sharing system was launched in October 2013, targeting commuters travelling between the trading estate and nearby railway stations.
Slough is connected by the Slough Arm to the main line of the Grand Union Canal which runs between the Thames at Brentford and Birmingham. It travels from the terminus basin at Stoke Road to the junction with the main line at Cowley Peachey; it was restored to navigability in 1975 having been disused since 1960.
Slough Hockey Club – The Ladies 1XI are currently in the top tier of English Hockey. The Men's 1XI are in MBBO Regional 1 whereas the Men's 2XI are in MBBO Division 3.
Slough Rugby Club are currently in the 5th Tier of the Rugby Union system.
The town has produced many Olympic class athletes as part of the 'Windsor, Slough, Eton and Hounslow Athletics Club' (see List of people from Slough, Berkshire).
There are numerous primary and secondary schools serving Slough. In addition, East Berkshire College has a campus in the area. Slough schools are in the top 10 best performers in the country at GCSE level. In 2011, 68.1% of pupils left school with a minimum of 5 A*-C grades (with English and maths). The national average is 58.9%.
Thames Valley University (Slough Campus) is currently closed due to the Heart of Slough project. The new campus was scheduled to be opened in 2013 as part of the University of West London which is the new name for Thames Valley University; however, as of January 2014, the redevelopment of the site is yet to get underway.
Slough has a relatively high crime rate; figures for all crime categories are annually above the English average and figures for a few categories are at more than double the frequency. According to British Crime Survey statistics, as of September 2013, Slough had the second worst rate of crime among local authority areas in the Thames Valley Police counties (87 recorded crimes per 1,000 population vs Oxford's 104). However the borough's crime rate reduced by 29% in the ten years to 2013. In the year ending September 2017, the crime rate in Slough was the third highest in the Thames Valley force area, behind Reading (96.42 police recorded crimes per 1000 population) and Oxford (100.71 for the same metric).
|url=value (help). Missing or empty
The by-thirds 2015 Slough Borough Council election took place on 7 May 2015 to elect approximately one third of the members of Slough Borough Council in England to coincide with other local elections, an election which was held simultaneously with the 2015 General Election, resulting in higher turnout than the previous election.Bair Island
Bair Island is a marsh area in Redwood City, California covering 3,000 acres (1,200 ha), and includes three islands: Inner, Middle and Outer islands. Bair Island is part of the larger Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge. It is surrounded by the Steinberger slough to the northwest and Redwood Creek to the southeast.
The California Department of Fish and Wildlife's Bair Island Ecological Reserve consists of 1,985 acres (803 ha) on the Middle and Outer islands, although the entire island group is managed by the Refuge. Bair Island is an important ecological wetland, which provides critical habitat for a variety of species, including the endangered California clapper rail and the Salt marsh harvest mouse, and is an important stop for birds on the Pacific Flyway. Bair Island is bisected by Corkscrew Slough, a major haul-out site for harbor seals (Phoca vitulina).Berkshire
Berkshire ( BARK-shər, -sheer; in the 17th century sometimes spelled phonetically as Barkeshire; abbreviated Berks.) is a county in South East England. One of the home counties, Berkshire was recognised by the Queen as the Royal County of Berkshire in 1957 because of the presence of Windsor Castle, and letters patent were issued in 1974. Berkshire is a county of historic origin, a ceremonial county and a non-metropolitan county without a county council. The county town is Reading.
The River Thames formed the historic northern boundary, from Buscot in the west to Old Windsor in the east. The historic county therefore includes territory that is now administered by the Vale of White Horse and parts of South Oxfordshire in Oxfordshire, but excludes Caversham, Slough and five less populous settlements in the east of the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead. All the changes mentioned, apart from the change to Caversham, took place in 1974. The towns of Abingdon, Didcot, Faringdon, Wallingford and Wantage were transferred to Oxfordshire, the six places joining came from Buckinghamshire. Berkshire County Council was the main local government of most areas from 1889 to 1998 and was based in Reading, the county town which had its own County Borough administration (1888-1974).
Since 1998, Berkshire has been governed by the six unitary authorities of Bracknell Forest, Reading, Slough, West Berkshire, Windsor and Maidenhead and Wokingham. The ceremonial county borders Oxfordshire (to the north), Buckinghamshire (to the north-east), Greater London (to the east), Surrey (to the south-east), Wiltshire (to the west) and Hampshire (to the south).
No part of the county is more than 8.5 miles (13.7 km) from the M4 motorway.Brannan Island State Recreation Area
Brannan Island State Recreation Area is a state park unit of California, United States, preserving a maze of waterways in the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta. The recreation area is located in Sacramento County between Rio Vista and Isleton. This park northeast of San Francisco Bay has countless islands and marshes with many wildlife habitats and many opportunities for recreation, including boating, windsurfing and swimming. The 329-acre (133 ha) park was established in 1952.The area offers fishing, including striped bass, sturgeon, catfish, bluegill, perch and bullhead. Southeast, accessed by the San Joaquin River, Frank’s Tract, a protected wetland marsh, is home to beaver, muskrat, river otter, mink and 76 species of birds. Another wetland also managed by Brannan Island's Park Rangers is Delta Meadows River Park near the town of Locke. Canoe tours of 'the meadows' may be reserved on weekends during the spring and fall season through Brannan Island SRA.Brannan Island SRA has a six-lane launch ramp, over 140 campsites and areas for picnicking and swimming.
The visitor center is open weekends and by arrangement. Inside are displays on the cultural and natural history of the Delta, including a large interactive map of the San Francisco Bay Area and Delta.
Day use areas include the Windy Cove windsurfing access, the group picnic area located at the Ramadas, and Seven Mile Slough picnic area. The group picnic facility and Seven Mile Slough day use area close at sunset. Windy Cove closes at the hour posted at the entrance road to Windy Cove.
Seven Mile Slough picnic area includes picnic tables, barbecues and drinking water. New restroom facilities were completed late in 1997 and include flush toilets and outdoor cold showers. Seven Mile Slough's swim beach has lifeguards from Memorial Day through Labor Day. Ample parking is close to the beach.
The Ramadas have shaded picnic structures with large barbecues, picnic tables, water and trash receptacles. A large open grassy area is adjacent to the site for games. The closest restroom to the Ramadas is located north of the swim beach along Seven Mile Slough.
The climate in the Delta is mild, with winter temperatures usually ranging between 45 and 55 degrees and summer temperatures between 75 and 95. An occasional heat wave will push the temperatures in summer to 100 degrees or more but the Delta breeze is never far away.Elkhorn Slough
Elkhorn Slough is a 7-mile-long (11 km) tidal slough and estuary on Monterey Bay in Monterey County, California. The community of Moss Landing and the Moss Landing Power Plant are located at the mouth of the slough on the bay.
Elkhorn Slough harbors the largest tract of tidal salt marsh in California outside the San Francisco Bay and provides much-needed habitat for hundreds of species of plants and animals, including more than 340 species of birds. It has been designated as a protected Ramsar site since 2018.The California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment has issued a safe advisory for any fish caught in Elkhorn Slough due to elevated levels of mercury and PCBs. In addition, there is a notice of "DO NOT EAT" for leopard sharks and bat rays for women 18-45 years old and children 1-17 years old.Elkhorn Slough National Estuarine Research Reserve
The Elkhorn Slough National Estuarine Research Reserve is one of 28 National Estuarine Research Reserves established nationwide as field laboratories for scientific research and estuarine education. Elkhorn Slough is located approximately 100 miles (160 km) south of San Francisco, California on the central shore of Monterey Bay. The Reserve is administered by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. It is managed as Elkhorn Slough Ecological Reserve by the California Department of Fish and Game.Ellicott Slough National Wildlife Refuge
The Ellicott Slough National Wildlife Refuge is a United States National Wildlife Refuge located in the northern part of the Monterey Bay area of California.
Originally established to protect the habitat of the threatened Santa Cruz long-toed salamander subspecies, Ellicott Slough also harbors other species later federally listed as threatened due to habitat loss, including the California red-legged frog, California tiger salamander and robust spineflower.
The refuge was established after the California Department of Fish and Game purchased the property from its original owner. It is made up of four discontinuous units all separated by less than 2.7 miles.
The refuge experiences a mild climate influenced by the Pacific Ocean. Temperatures are generally from 50 to 75 °F (10 to 24 °C). The terrain is both hilly and flat.Kern River Slough, California
Kern River Slough is a former settlement in Kern County, California.It was located on the Kern River Slough, a distributary of the Kern River, in the San Joaquin Valley. The site is 3 miles (4.8 km) west of Lamont.Moro Cojo Slough State Marine Reserve
Moro Cojo Estuary State Marine Reserve (SMR) is a marine protected area established to protect the wildlife and habitats in Moro Cojo Slough. Moro Cojo Slough is located inland from Monterey Bay on the central coast of California, directly south of the more widely known Elkhorn Slough. The area covers 0.46 square miles (1.2 km2). The SMR protects all marine life within its boundaries. Fishing and take of all living marine resources is prohibited.Moss Landing Wildlife Area
Moss Landing Wildlife Area is a California State wildlife preserve on the shore of Elkhorn Slough.Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta
The Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, or California Delta, is an expansive inland river delta and estuary in Northern California. The Delta is formed at the western edge of the Central Valley by the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers and lies just east of where the rivers enter Suisun Bay. The Delta is recognized for protection by the California Bays and Estuaries Policy. Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta was designated a National Heritage Area on March 12, 2019. The city of Stockton is located on the San Joaquin River on the eastern edge of the delta. The total area of the Delta, including both land and water, is about 1,100 square miles (2,800 km2).
The Delta was formed by the raising of sea level following glaciation, leading to the accumulation of Sacramento and San Joaquin River sediments behind the Carquinez Strait, the sole outlet from the Central Valley to San Pablo and San Francisco Bays and the Pacific Ocean. The narrowness of the Carquinez Strait coupled with tidal action has caused the sediment to pile up, forming expansive islands. Geologically, the Delta has existed for about 10,000 years, since the end of the last Ice Age. In its natural state, the Delta was a large freshwater marsh, consisting of many shallow channels and sloughs surrounding low islands of peat and tule.
Since the mid-19th century, most of the region has been gradually claimed for agriculture. Wind erosion and oxidation have led to widespread subsidence on the Central Delta islands; much of the Delta region today sits below sea level, behind levees earning it the nickname "California's Holland". Much of the water supply for central and southern California is also derived from here via pumps located at the southern end of the Delta, which deliver water for irrigation in the San Joaquin Valley and municipal water supply for southern California.Segro
SEGRO plc (formerly known as Slough Estates) is a property investment and development company. It develops and invests in property located in the UK and Continental Europe focusing on edge of town flexible business space. The firm switched to Real Estate Investment Trust status when REITs were introduced in the United Kingdom in January 2007. The Company is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. It is the largest industrial property company in Europe and is the owner of the Slough Trading Estate - the largest trading estate under single ownership in Europe.Slough (hydrology)
A slough ( (listen) or (listen)) is a wetland, usually a swamp or shallow lake, often a backwater to a larger body of water. Water tends to be stagnant or may flow slowly on a seasonal basis.In North America, "slough" may refer to a side-channel from or feeding a river, or an inlet or natural channel only sporadically filled with water. An example of this is Finn Slough on the Fraser River, whose lower reaches have dozens of notable sloughs. Some sloughs, like Elkhorn Slough, used to be mouths of rivers, but have become stagnant because tectonic activity cut off the river's source.
In the Sacramento River, Steamboat Slough was an alternate branch of the river, a preferred shortcut route for steamboats passing between Sacramento and San Francisco. Georgiana Slough was a steamboat route through the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, from the Sacramento River to the San Joaquin River and Stockton.Slough Jets
Slough Jets are an ice hockey team from Slough, Berkshire, England playing in the NIHL South Division 1. The team was founded in 1986 after the construction of the Slough Ice Arena in Montem Lane in Slough. With the help of Gary Stefan who had previously been with Streatham Redskins, the Slough Jets were formed.
The Slough Jets are one of the few clubs in the UK who from their foundation have continued to play to the present day without interruption or a change of name. They currently play in the English National Ice Hockey League (NIHL) South 2 Wilkinson Division, which is the fourth tier of UK hockey.The Slough Jets' home rink is the Slough Ice Arena, which is also known as the "Hangar", 2018 saw the arena undergo a complete renovation.
The Slough Jets also have a junior programme with under-13's (Promoted to South 1), under-15s (South 1) and under-18s (South Two).
Future Oscar winner Gareth Unwin, who produced The King's Speech, once played for the team.Slough Stadium
Slough Stadium originally known as the Dolphin Stadium was a greyhound racing stadium in Uxbridge Road, Slough, Berkshire.Slough Town F.C.
Slough Town Football Club is an English semi-professional football club based in Slough, Berkshire. Nicknamed "The Rebels", the team competes in the National League South, the sixth tier of English football, following promotion from the Southern League at the end of the 2017-18 season.Slough railway station
Slough railway station, in Slough, Berkshire, England, is served by local services operated by Great Western Railway from London Paddington to Reading, Didcot Parkway, Oxford and main line services to Reading, Oxford and stations to Worcester Shrub Hill, Great Malvern and Hereford on the Cotswold Line. It is also the junction for the Windsor branch. It is 18 miles 36 chains (29.7 km) down the line from Paddington and is situated between Langley to the east and Burnham to the west.
The station is just to the north of the town centre, on the north side of the A4.The Office (British TV series)
The Office is a British television mockumentary sitcom first broadcast in the UK on BBC Two on 9 July 2001. Created, written, and directed by Ricky Gervais and Stephen Merchant, the programme follows the day-to-day lives of office employees in the Slough branch of the fictional Wernham Hogg paper company. Gervais also stars in the series, playing the central character David Brent.
Two six-episode series were made, along with a pair of 58-minute Christmas specials. When it was first shown on BBC Two, ratings were relatively low, but it has since become one of the most successful of all British comedy exports. As well as being shown internationally on BBC Worldwide, channels such as BBC Prime, BBC America, and BBC Canada, the series has been sold to broadcasters in over 80 countries, including ABC1 in Australia, The Comedy Network in Canada, TVNZ in New Zealand, and the pan-Asian satellite channel STAR World, based in Hong Kong. The show was first shown in the United States on BBC America in 2003, and later on Cartoon Network's late night programming block Adult Swim from 2009 to 2012.The show centres on themes of social clumsiness, the trivialities of human behaviour, self-importance and conceit, frustration, desperation and fame. The protagonist David Brent was influenced by Basil Fawlty (played by John Cleese) from the acclaimed BBC sitcom Fawlty Towers. The success of The Office led to a number of localised adaptations (based upon its basic story and themes) being produced for the television markets of other nations, resulting in an international Office franchise.Tijuana Slough National Wildlife Refuge
Tijuana Slough National Wildlife Refuge is located in the most southwestern corner of the contiguous United States. It is part of the San Diego National Wildlife Refuge Complex. It was established in 1980.The slough is one of southern California's largest remaining salt marshes without a road or railroad trestle running through it. This important salt marsh is surrounded by San Diego County and Tijuana, Mexico, with a population of 4.3 million people. Within this international bioregion, the refuge maintains essential habitats for many migrating shorebirds and waterfowl along the Pacific Flyway.Tijuana Slough provides critical habitat for the federally listed endangered California least tern (Sterna antillarum browni), light-footed rail (Rallus obsoletus levipes) and least Bell's vireo (Vireo bellii pusillus), as well as the salt marsh bird's-beak (Cordylanthus maritimus maritimus), an endangered plant species. Designated as a Globally Important Bird Area by the American Bird Conservancy, over 370 species of birds have been sighted on the refuge.The refuge's habitat and wildlife management programs focus on the recovery of endangered species through research, habitat restoration, and environmental education.
The refuge is part of a larger unit called the Tijuana River National Estuarine Research Reserve, which is administered by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration. The Tijuana Reserve is one of 22 National Estuarine Research Reserves created nationwide to enhance scientific and public understanding of estuaries, and thereby contribute to improved estuarine management.
|Climate data for Heathrow Airport, elevation 25 m, 1981–2010|
|Average high °C (°F)||8.1
|Average low °C (°F)||2.3
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||55.2
|Average rainy days||11.1||8.5||9.3||9.1||8.8||8.2||7.7||7.5||8.1||10.8||10.3||10.2||109.6|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||61.5||77.9||114.6||168.7||198.5||204.3||212.0||204.7||149.3||116.5||72.6||52.0||1,632.6|
|Source: Met Office|
|Isle of Wight|
|Cities and towns|